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ÎOO 


-co 


7^ 


COLLECTION 


DE 


DOCUMENTS  INEDITS 

SLR   L'HISTOIRE  DE  FRANCE 


PIBI.IES  PAR   I.BS  SOINS 


DU  MINISTRE  DR  L'INSTRUCTION  PUBLIQUE. 


DEUXIEME    SERIE. 
HISTOIRE  DES  LETTRES  ET  DES  SCIENCES. 


Ç'«^;r. 


L'ECLAIRCISSEMENT 


DE 


LA  LANGUE  FRANCALSE 

^    -  PAR  JEAN   PALSGRAVE, 

SUIVI   DE  LA   GRAMMAIRE  DE  GILES  DU  GUEZ. 

PUBLIÉS  POLK  LA  PKEMIÈKL  FOIS  EN   FKANCL 

PAR  F.  GÉNIN. 


PARIS. 

IMPRIMERIE   NATIONALE. 


MDCCCLir. 


PC 
3il02 


INTRODUCTION. 


Les  origines  de  notre  langue,  depuis  neuf  siècles  quelle 
existe,  sinon  davantage,  attendent  encore  leur  historien.  De 
tous  ceux  qui  ont  touché  cette  matière,  le  plus  célèbre  est 
Henri  Estienne,  qui  passe  pour  un  grand  philologue  en  fran- 
çais; cependant  Henri  Estienne  ne  possède  sur  les  sources  de 
la  langue  française  que  des  notions  incomplètes  et  trop  souvent 
erronées.  Il  est,  comme  son  siècle,  infatué  de  l'amour  du  grec 
et  du  latin,  et  ne  s'avise  pas  de  remonter  pour  les  langues 
modernes  plus  haut  que  cette  merveilleuse  renaissance,  qui 
prétend  se  rattacher  sans  intermédiaire  à  la  divine  antiquité. 
Car  entre  la  renaissance  et  l'antiquité  il  n'y  a  rien  eu;  l'intel- 
ligence humaine  a  cessé  de  fonctionner;  tout  ce  qui  s'est  produit 
dans  cet  intervalle  ne  mérite  que  le  mépris  et  l'oubli. 

Et  c'est  justement  dans  les  ténèbres  de  cet  intervalle  que  se 
cachent  les  origines  de  notre  langue.  Henri  Estienne  et  tout 
ce  qui  l'a  suivi  n'a  connu  qu'une  langue  de  seconde  formation, 
sous  laquelle  personne  ne  soupçonnait  une  langue  native  et 
fortement  imprégnée  de  génie  national.  Personne  par  con- 
séquent ne  songeait  à  creuser  pour  la  découvrir,  et  si  par 
hasard  quelque  vestige  mal  effacé  du  français  originel  se  lais- 
sait apercevoir  à  travers  la  couche  d'alluvion,  les  gens  de  grec 


2  INTRODUCTION. 

enfarinés,  au  lieu  de  creuser  à  la  racine,  s'efforçaient  de  le  faire 

disparaître,  en  criant  :  faute  de  français!  faute  de  français! 

C'est  surtout  à  l'italianisme  que  Henri  Estienne  fait  la  guerre  ; 
en  principe  il  a  raison;  mais  il  a  le  tort  de  voir  des  italianismes 
partout,  et,  faute  de  savoir  l'histoire  de  la  langue,  de  s'appuyer 
dans  ses  corrections  et  dans  ses  étymologies  sur  un  empirisme 
sans  logique,  ou  bien  sur  de  véritables  erreurs.  Je  doute  qu'on 
le  surprenne  jamais  à  se  faire  un  argument  de  quelque  texte 
du  xn*  ou  du  xiif  siècle;  toutes  ses  autorités,  s'il  ne  les  fait 
venir  de  l'Athènes  ou  de  la  Rome  classiques,  il  les  demande  à 
ses  contemporains  français  ou  étrangers;  quant  au  moyen  âge, 
il  ne  soupçonne  pas  qu'on  puisse  lui  emprunter  rien.  Et  nous 
voyons  tous  les  jours  Henri  Estienne  cité  comme  la  lumière 
de  la  philologie  française. 

On  commence  pourtant  à  sentir  la  nécessité  de  remonter 
flans  l'étude  du  français  plus  haut  que  le  xvi"  siècle.  La 
grammaire  de  Palsgrave  que  nous  publions  est  un  monu- 
ment placé  sur  la  limite  de  deux  âges.  Composé  dans  les 
premières  années  du  xvi°  siècle  avec  l'érudition  de  la  lin  du 
XV*,  ce  livre  présente  de  la  langue  française  à  cette  époque 
l'inventaire  complet  et  authentique,  scellé,  pour  ainsi  dire, 
sous  l'autorité  d'écrivains  illustres,  qui  tous  florissaient  avant 
le  règne  de  François  I";  ainsi,  parmi  ces  auteurs  cités  à  l'appui 
des  règles,  il  ne  faut  pas  chercher  le  nom  de  Marot,  qui  est 
trop  jeune;  mais  vous  rencontrerez  invoqués  à  chaque  pas  ses 
aînés,  Lemaire  de  Belges,  Alain  Chartier  et  l'évêque  d'Angou- 
lême,  Ociavien  de  Saint-Gelais.  La  grammaire  de  Palsgrave 
a  l'avantage  de  renfermer  un  dictionnaire  et,  de  plus,  d'insti- 
tuer une  comparaison  perpétuelle  entre  deux  idiomes  voisins, 
l'anglais  et  le  français.  Ce  n'est  point  une  grammaire  de  l'an- 
cien langage,  mais  c'est  un  excellent  point  de  départ  et  le 


INTRODUCTION.  3 

plus  avancé  possible,  pour  se  diriger  des  frontières  de  la  langue 
moderne  vers  notre  langue  primitive. 

Au  surplus,  les  circonstances  qui  déterminèrent  la  compo- 
sition de  ce  livre  donneront  une  idée  du  soin  que  l'auteur  y 
doit  avoir  apporté,  en  même  temps  qu'elles  seront  la  garantie 
du  talent  de  cet  auteur  et  de  la  confiance  qu'il  mérite. 

Le  peu  qu'on  sait  de  la  vie  de  Palsgrave  se  trouve  rassemblé 
dans  la  Biographie  dramaticjue,  de  David  Erskine  Baker'.  Voici 
la  traduction  de  cette  notice  : 

Palsgrave  (Jean).  Ce  savant  écrivain  florissait  sous  Henry  VII  et 
Henry  VIII  ;  il  reçut  son  éducation  grammaticale  à  Londres ,  sa  ville 
natale.  Il  étudia  la  logique  et  la  philosophie  à  Cambridge,  où  il  prit  le 
grade  de  bachelier  ès-arts,  après  quoi  il  se  rendit  à  Paris.  Il  y  consacra 
quelques  années  à  l'étude  de  la  philosophie  et  des  sciences  en  général,  se 
lit  recevoir  maître  ès-arts,  et  acquit  du  français  une  connaissance  telle- 
ment approfondie ,  qu'en  1 5 1  Zi ,  lors  de  la  négociation  d'un  mariage  entre 
Louis  XII  de  France  et  la  princesse  Marie,  sœur  d'Henry  VIII  d'Angle- 
teiTe ,  Palsgrave  fut  choisi  pour  enseigner  le  français  à  la  future  reine  de 
France;  mais  la  mort  de  Louis  XII  ayant  suivi  de  près  son  second  mariage  , 
Palsgrave  rentra  en  Angleterre  avec  sa  belle  élève.  Il  devint  le  maître  de 
français  à  la  mode  parmi  la  jeune  noblesse,  obtint  un  bon  bénéfice  ecclé- 
siastique et  fut  porté  sur  la  liste  des  chapelains  ordinaires  du  roi. 

En  i53i,  il  séjourna  quelque  temps  à  Oxford;  l'année  suivante,  f uni- 
versité de  cette  ville  le  reçut  maître  ès-arts,  comme  avait  fait  l'université 
de  Paris,  et  de  plus  lui  conféra  quelques  jours  après  le  titre  de  bachelier 
en  théologie. 

A  cette  époque  il  était  tenu  en  haute  estime  pour  son  savoir.  Un  fait 
très-remarquable,  c'est  que  Palsgrave,  un  Anglais,  fut  le  premier  qui  ré- 
duisit la  langue  française  sous  des  règles  grammaticales  et  tenta  de  la  lixer 
par  l'autorité  des  exemples.  Il  exécuta  celte  entreprise  avec  autant  d'habi- 

L'article  consacré  à  Palsgrave  dan»  la  Granarnaire  et  une  description  du 
iei  Anecdotes  of  lilerature  and  scarce  books ,  volume.  Pour  les  détails  biographiques, 
de  Beloe ,  n'esl  qu'une  suite  d'exirails  de        Beloe  renvoie  à  Baker. 


M 


4  INTRODUCTION. 

leté  que  de  succès  dans  le  grand  ouvrage  en  cette  langue  '  qu'il  fit  paraître 
à  Londres  sous  ce  titre  :  L'Esclarcissement  de  la  langue  française,  i53o;  un 
épais  in-folio  divisé  en  trois  livres ,  précédés  d'une  grande  introduction  en 
anglais  :  si  bien  que  la  nation  française ,  aujourd'hui  si  orgueilleuse  de 
l'universalité  de  sa  langue ,  paraît  en  avoir  l'obligation  à  notre  pays. 

Toutefois,  ce  livre  n'eût  pas  justifié  la  présence  de  cet  article  dans  le 
nôtre,  si  Paisgrave  n'eût  traduit  en  anglais  une  comédie  latine  d'Acolastus, 
œuvre  d'un  certain  Guillaume  Fullcnius,  son  contemporain,  et  qui  demeu- 
rait alors  à  la  Haye  en  Hollande. 

Les  dates  de  la  naissance  et  de  la  mort  de  Paisgrave  sont  des  détails  sur 
lesquels  je  n'ai  pu  me  procurer  aucun  indice.  Toutefois,  par  le  rapproche- 
ment de  plusieurs  circonstances,  je  ne  puis  le  supposer  âgé  de  moins  de 
soixante  ans  lorsqu'il  donna  cette  traduction  de  la  comédie  d'Acolastus  .  ce 
fut  en  1  54o.  {Biographia  dramatica,  by  David  Erskine  Baker,  t.  I,  p.  348.) 

Pits,  qui,  pour  la  partie  litléraire,  a  copié  la  courte  notice 
de  Jean  Baie,  ajoute  sur  les  mœurs  et  la  capacité  de  Paisgrave 
quelques  renseignements  dont  il  n'indique  pas  la  source  et 
dont  je  lui  laisse  la  responsabilité  : 

Jean  Paisgrave,  Anglais,  natif  de  Londres.  La  nature  lui  avait  libérale- 
ment départi  ses  dons  :  heureux  génie,  mémoire  imperturbable,  élocution 
facile,  une  modestie  et  une  modération  d'âme  dignes  d'éloges.  Parvenu  à 
l'âge  mûr,  il  se  distinguait  du  commun  des  hommes  par  la  gravité,  la  pru- 
dence et  une  dignité  de  maintien  qu'il  savait  allier  avec  le  charme  des 
manières  et  une  merveilleuse  affabilité. 

Après  avoir  approfondi  dans  son  pays  les  humanités  et  abordé  les  élé- 
ments de  la  philosophie ,  Paisgrave  voyagea  en  France  et  s'alla  perfectionner 
à  l'université  de  Paris.  En  même  temps  qu'il  y  cultivait  la  philosophie ,  il  s'ap- 
pliquait à  l'étude  de  la  langue  française,  et  avec  un  tel  succès,  que,  de  re- 
tour en  Angleterre ,  il  se  vit  apprécié  par  tous  les  personnages  de  distinction; 
son  habileté  le  fit  nommer  maître  de  français  de  la  princesse  Marie,  fille 

J'ai  conservé  l'espèce  d'amphibologie  erreur  malérielle  qui  prouve  que  Baker 

du  texte,  m  that  language  ;  maiis  il  n'est  n'avait  jamais  vu  un  exemplaire  de  ce  livre 

pas  douteux  que,  dans  la  pensée  de  l'au-  rarissime.  Il  a  été  induit  en  erreur  par  le 

leur,  ces  mois  ne  signifient  en  français  :  titre. 


INTRODUCTION.  5 

d'Henry  VII ,  alors  promise  au  roi  de  France  Louis  XII.  Cette  position  lui 
fit  négliger  les  autres  parties  de  ses  connaissances.  Il  composa  ,  soit  pour  la 
princesse  Marie ,  soit  pour  ses  Mécènes  de  la  haute  noblesse  : 

Les  Illastrations  de  la  langue  française ,  commençant  :  «The  difficulté  of 
«the  frenche  tongue.  »  Un  livre'.  —  Annotations  aux  verbes.  «When  they 
«  shewe  or  déclare  a  dede  to  be  done.  »  Un  livre  '.  —  Annotations  aux  par- 
ticipes. «The  same  worde  in  our  tongue.»  Un  livre'.  — ■  Épîtres  à  divers. 
Un  livre  *.  —  Il  traduisit  en  anglais  la  comédie  d'Acolastus. 

Je  ne  trouve  point  indiqués  d'autres  ouvrages  de  lui^.  Il  florissait  en 
I  53o  ,  sous  le  règne  d'Henry  VIII. 

Kennet  dit  que  Palsgrave  fut  nommé  par  l'archevêque 
Cranmer  à  la  cure  de  Saint-Dunstan ,  à  Londres,  en  i553. 
On  ne  sait  pas  la  date  précise  de  sa  mort,  mais  il  est  certain 
qu'il  avait  obtenu,  en  i5i/l,  la  prébende  de  Portpoole,  dans 
l'église  de  Saint-Paul^;  or  nous  voyons  cette  même  prébende 
transférée,  le  12  septembre  i554,  à  Edmund  Beygotte,  per 
morlem  Joh.  Palsgrave  (Wood,  Athenœ  Oxonienses) .  On  est  donc 
fondé  à  croire  que  Palsgrave  mourut  en  1  554-  * 

A  ces  renseignements  sur  la  personne  de  l'auteur  on  peut 
ajouter  quelques  particularités  relatives  à  l'ouvrage  que  nous 
fournit  l'épître  dédicatoire  à  Henry  VIII. 

Palsgrave,  lorsqu'il  songea  à  composer  son  livre,  prit  pour 
modèle  le  plan  de  la  Grammaire  grecque  de  Théodore  de 
Gaza,  qui  jouissait  alors  dans  les  écoles  de  la  plus  haute 


'  P.  XV  de  la  présente  édition. 

'  P.  378. 

'  P-  787. 

*  Ce  sont  les  lettres  qui  sont  au  com- 
mencement de  la  Grammaire. 

'  Cependant  Palsgrave  dit,  à  la  fin  de 
son  troisième  livre  :  «Vous  remarquerez 
que,  de  toutes  les  langues  du  monde,  le 
français  est  la  plus  riche  en  proverbes,  en 
adages  dont  le  sens  obscur  renferme  une 


grande  sagesse;  mais  je  remets  à  en  parler 
lorsque,  avec  la  grâce  de  Dieu,  je  réali- 
serai le  projet  de  faire  sur  cette  madère 
un  traité  spécial.  » 

Palsgrave  a-t-il  réalisé  ce  projet  ?  Je 
n'en  trouve  aucun  indice.  Beloe  {Anecd. 
of  lit.  etc.  VI,  35o)  ne  croit  pas  que  le 
Traité  des  proverbes  français  de  Palsgrave 
ait  jamais  paru. 

*  Newcoarl's  liepertoriam. 


0  INTRODUCTION. 

réputation  '.  Quoique  son  biographe  lui  donne,  et  que  lui- 
même  s'attribue  la  gloire  d'avoir  le  premier  réduit  la  langue 
française  à  des  règles  fixes,  il  reconnaît  cependant  qu'il  avait 
eu  des  devanciers,  et  des  devanciers  habiles;  il  leur  rend 
hommage  et  profitera,  dit-il,  de  leurs  travaux  en  s'efforçant 
de  les  compléter.  A  cet  effet,  il  n'a  négligé  aucun  soin  :  il  a 
recherché  tous  les  livres  où  la  grammaire  française  a  été  traitée, 
soit  par  des  auteurs  morts  depuis  longtemps  (  longe  afore  my 
dayes),  soit  par  des  contemporains.  Ces  circonstances  ajoutent 
un  nouveau  prix  au  travail  de  Palsgrave. 

Il  ne  consistait  d'abord  qu'en  deux  livres,  l'un  pour  la  pro- 
nonciation, l'autre  pour  la  grammaire  proprement  dite.  En 
cet  état,  l'auteur  l'offrit  à  ses  bienfaiteurs  le  duc  et  la  duchesse 
de  Suffolk,  qui  lui  persuadèrent  que  le  roi  en  accepterait  la 
dédicace.  La  duchesse  de  Suffolk  était  cette  sœur  d'Henry  VIIJ, 
cette  princesse  Marie,  ancienne  élève  de  Palsgrave,  veuve  de 
notre  Louis  Xll  après  trois  mois  de  mariage,  et  remariée  à 
Charles  Brandon,  ami  d'enfance  de  son  frère,  créé  duc  de 
Suffolk  en  i5i3.  Par  leur  conseil  et  pour  se  rendre  plus 
digne  de  la  faveur  qu'il  ambitionnait,  Palsgrave,  non-seule- 
ment ajoute  à  son  ouvrage  un  lexique  comparatif  des  deux 
langues  qui  n'entrait  pas  dans  son  premier  plan,  mais  il  l'aug- 
mente aussi  d'un  troisième  livre  servant  de  commentaire  au 
second,  à  l'exemple  de  Théodore  de  Gaza. 

Il  imprima  son  ouvrage  à  ses  frais,  et  Henry  VIII,  à  qui  il 
en  offrit  la  dédicace,  lui  accorda  un  privilège  pour  sept  ans. 

Cette  gloire  revendiquée  par  les  Anglais,  d'avoir  les  pre- 
miers écrit  sur  la  grammaire  française,  ne  serait,  à  tout  prendre, 
qu'un  hommage  rendu  à  la  France;  car  si  nos  voisins  avaient 

'  Voy.  Baillet,  Jiigem.  des  savants,  t.  Il,  p.  6o3. — Théodore  Gaza  était  mort  en  lijS, 
cinquante-deux,  ans  avant  l'apparition  de  la  Grammaire  de  Palsgrave. 


INTRODUCTION.  7 

attendu  d'un  peuple  étranger  la  première  grammaire  anglaise, 
peut-être  l'attendraient-ils  encore.  Mais  enfin,  il  ne  faut  pas 
laisser  croire  que  la  France  ait  poussé  l'indifférence  pour  sa 
propre  langue  au  point  qu'elle  n'eût  jamais  songé  à  se  faire  une 
grammaire  lorsque  Palsgrave  s'en  avisa  pour  elle.  Avant  Pals- 
grave,  Geoffroy  Tory  de  Bourges  s'en  était  occupé  et  avait 
tracé  le  plan  d'un  vaste  travail  d'ensemble,  dont  son  Champ 
Jleury,  publié  en  1629,  un  an  avant  le  livre  de  Palsgrave,  n'est 
que  l'introduction.  Dans  son  Epistre  aux  lecteurs  de  ce  présent 
livre,  Geoffroy  Tory  s'écrie: 

0  devotz  amateurs  de  bonnes  lettres,  pieust  à  Dieu  que  quelque  noble 
cueur  s'employast  à  mettre  et  ordonner  par  reigie  nostre  langaige  François! 
Ce  seroit  moyen  que  maints  milliers  d'hommes  se  esvertueroient  à  souvent 
user  de  belles  et  bonnes  paroles.  S'il  n'y  est  mis  et  ordonné,  on  trouvera 
que  de  cinquante  en  cinquante  ans  la  langue  Françoise,  pour  la  plus  grande 
part ,  sera  changée  et  pervertie. 

Et  dans  le  début  de  son  premier  livre  : 

Je  suis  content  estre  le  premier  petit  indice  à  exciter  quelque  noble 
esperit  qui  se  esvertuera  davantage ,  comme  firent  les  Grecs  jadis  et  les 
Romains ,  mettre  et  ordonner  la  langue  Françoise  à  certaine  reigie  de  pro- 
nuncer  et  bien  parler.  Pieust  à  Dieu  que  quelque  noble  seigneur  voulust 
proposer  gages  et  beaux  dons  à  ceulx  qui  ce  porroient  bien  Faire  !  (Fol.  1  °  v°.) 

Voilà  sans  doute  un  appel  assez  chaleureux  aux  bons  esprits 
capables  de  l'entendre  et  d'y  répondre.  Geoffroy  Tory  ne  se 
lasse  pas  d'insister;  il  montre  le  mal  et  combien  le  remède  est 
urgent.  Il  signale  avec  indignation  comme  corrupteurs  de  la 
langue  française  «les  inventeurs  et  forgeurs  de  mots  :  Si  tels 
forgeurs  ne  sont  ruffiens,  je  ne  les  estime  guères  meilleurs!  » 
Et  tout  de  suite,  pour  justifier  sa  colère  et  fépithète  dont  il 
vient  de  les  gratifier,  il  cite  des  échantillons  de  leur  style  (dont, 


8  INTRODUCTION. 

par  parenthèse,  Rabelais  s'est  emparé  pour  les  mettre  dans  la 

bouche  de  son  Escholier  limousin),  puis  il  conclut  : 

Pai-  quoy,  je  vous  prie,  donnons  nous  tous  courage  les  uns  aux  aultres 
et  nous  esveillons  à  la  piuifier  (la  langue).  Toutes  choses  ont  eu  commen- 
cement; quand  l'un  ti-aitera  des  lettres  et  l'autre  des  vocales  ^  ung  tiers 
viendra  qui  desclarera  les  dictions,  et  puis  encore  ung  aultre  surviendra  qui 
ordonnera  la  belle  oraison.  Par  ainsi  on  trouvera  que  peu  à  peu  on  passera 
chemin;  si  bien  qu'on  viendra  aux  grans  champs  poétiques  et  rhétoriques 
plains  de  belles,  bonnes  et  odoriférentes  fleurs  de  parler  et  dire  honneste- 
ment  et  facilement  tout  ce  qu'on  voudra. 

Geoffroy  Tory,  prêchant  d'exemple ,  prend  pour  sa  part  de 
travail  les  lettres  de  l'alphabet;  c'est  l'objet  de  son  livre  inti- 
tulé Champ  jleury.  Mais  avant  de  quitter  les  idées  générales  pour 
aborder  son  sujet  particulier,  il  dessine  rapidement  le  travail 
de  chacune  des  parties  de  ce  bel  ensemble  dont  il  conçoit  l'idée. 
Il  veut  mettre  dans  le  bon  chemin  ses  futurs  collaborateurs. 
Ainsi,  parlant  d'une  grammaire  à  faire,  il  indique  un  canon 
d'auteurs.  Le  xix*  siècle  ne  sera  sans  doute  pas  fâche  de  con- 
naître les  auteurs  qu'on  proposait  comme  classiques  à  la  fin 
du  XV*,  et  dont  les  œuvres  devaient  servir  d'autorité  et  de  textes 
de  langue  : 

Qui  se  voidroit  en  ce  bien  fonder,  à  mon  avis ,  porroit  user  des  œuvres 
de  Pierre  de  S'  Cloct  et  des  œuvres  de  Jehan  li  Nevelois^,  qui  ont  descrit 
la  vie  d'Alexandre  le  Grand  en  longue  ligne  que  l'autheur  qui  a  composé 
en  prose  le  Jea  des  eschets,  dit  estre  de  douze  syllabes  et  appelée  rithme 
Alexandrine ,  pourceque,  comme  dit  est,  la  vie  d'Alexandre  en  est  descrite. 

Iceulx  deux  susdits  autheurs  ont  en  leur  stile  une  grande  majesté  de 
langage  ancien,  et  croy  que  s'ils  eussent  eu  le  temps  en  fleur  de  bonnes 
lectres  comme  il  est  aujourd'huy,  qu'ils  eussent  excédé  tous  autheurs  grecs 

'  Il  faut  sans  doute  lire  syllabes ,  ou  teur  du  Roman  de  Renard,  a  fait,  en  colla- 
vocables  ?  boration  avec  Jean  le  Nivelois,  une  branche 

'  Pierre  ou  Perrot  de  Sain t-Cloud,  au-        du.  romain  d'Alexandre. 


INTRODUCTION.  9 

et  latins.  Ils  ont,  dis-je,  en  leurs  compositions  don  accomply  de  toute 
grâce  en  fleurs  de  rhétorique  et  poésie  ancienne;  jaçoit  que  Jehan  Le  Maire 
ne  face  aucune  mention  d'iceulx,  toutesfois  si  a  il  pris  et  emprunté  d'eidx 
la  plus  grande  part  de  son  bon  langage,  comme  on  porroit  bien  voir  en 
la  lecture  que  on  feroit  attentivement  es  œuvres  des  ungs  et  des  aultres. 

On  porroit  aussi  user  des  œuvres  de  Chrestien  de  Troyes ,  et  ce  en 
son  Chevalier  à  l'cspée  et  en  son  Parceval,  qu'il  dédia  au  comte  Phelippe 
de  Flandres.  —  On  porroit  user  pareillement  de  Hugon  de  Mery,  en  son 
Tornoy  de  l'Antéchrist^.  —  Tout  pareillement  aussi  de  Raoul ^,  en  son  Ro- 
ulant des  Elles.  —  Paysant  de  Mesieres  n'est  pas  à  déprécier,  qui  faict  maintz 
beaux  et  bons  petits  coupletz,  et  entre  les  aultres  en  sa  Maie  sansfrein^. 
—  J'ai  nagueres  veu  et  tenu  tous  ces  susditz  révérentz  et  anciens  autheurs 
escritz  en  parchemin,  que  mon  seigneiu-  et  bon  amy  frère  René  Massé, 
de  Vendosme ,  chroniqueur  du  roy  *,  m'a  liberallement  et  de  bon  cueur 
monstre.  Il  en  use  si  bien  à  parfaire  les  chroniques  de  France ,  que  je  puis 
honnestement  dire  de  luy  : 

Cedite,  Romani  scriptores,  cedite,  Graii  : 
Nescio  quid  majus  nascitur  Iliade. 

«Arrière,  arrière,  autheurs  grecs  et  latins!  De  René  Massé  naisl  chose  plus  belle 
et  grande  que  le  Iliade  ! 

On  porroit  en  oultre  user  des  œuvres  de  Arnoul  Graban  et  de  Simon 
Graban  son  frère.  Dantes  Aligerius,  Florentin,  comme  dict  mon  susdict 
bon  amy  frère  René  Massé ,  faict  honorable  mention  dudict  Arnoul  Gra- 


'  Le  Tournoiement  de  l'Antéchrist,  par 
Hugues  de  Méry-sur-Seine ,  a  été  publié 
par  M.  P.  Tarbé,  dans  sa  Collection  de 
poêles  champenois. 

Ce  passage  est  visiblement  inspiré  par 
les  vers  suivants  : 

Molt  mis  grant  peine  à  eschiver 
Les  dis  Raoul  et  Crcstien , 
Qu'onques  bouche  de  crestien 
Ne  dist  si  bien  com  il  disoient , 
Mais  quanqu'il  distrcnt  il  prenoient 
Le  bel  françois  trestout  à  plain  , 

Si  com  il  lor  venoit  à  main 

Se  j'ai  trové  aucun  espi 


Apres  ia  main  as  mestiviers , 
Je  l'ai  glané  molt  volentier». 

Hugues  de  Méry ,  le   Toaraotement 
de  l'Antecritt y  p.  io4. 

'  Raoul  de  Houdan. 

^  Celle  pièce  est  imprimée  dans  le  Nou- 
veau recueil  de  Fabliaux  et  Contes  publié 
par  Méon,  t.  I,  p.  i.  L'auteur  s'y  nomme 
Paient  de  Maisieres,  Legrand  d'Aussy  écrit 
Paysans  de  Maisieres.  (Voyez  Fabliaux  ou 
Contes,  t.  I,  p.  79,  éd.  de  iSag.) 

'  Sur  frère  Macé,  bénédictin  de  Ven- 
dôme, voy.  la  Biogr.  univ.  t.  XXVI,  p.  34 


10  INTRODUCTION. 

ban,  et  d  iceluy  Arnoul  ay  veu,  en  lYglise  des  Bernardins  de   Paris,  ung 

tableau  auquel  y  a  une  oraison  de  la  vierge  Marie  qui  se  commance  :  «  En 

protestant »;  et  les  premières  lettres  des  versetz  du  dernier  couplect 

contiennent  son  nom  et  surnom,  qui  sont  Arnoîdas  Grabans  me  (sic). 

Qui  porroit  finer  des  œuvres  de  Nesson',  ce  seroit  ung  grand  plaisir 
pour  user  du  douv  langage  qui  y  est  contenu.  Je  n'en  ay  veu  que  une 
oraison  à  la  Vierge  Marie,  qui  se  treuve  imprimée  dedans  le  Calendrier 
des  bergiers  de  première  impression  ^  ;  la  dernière  impression  ne  le  con- 
tient pas ,  ne  scay  pourquoy. 

Alain  Chartier  et  Georges  Chastelain,  chevalier,  sont  autheurs  dignes 
desquels  on  face  fréquente  lecture,  car  ilz  sont  très  plains  de  langage  moult 
seignorial  et  héroïque. 

Les  Lunettes  des  princes  pareillement  sont  bonnes  pour  le  doulx  langage 
qui  y  est  contenu'. 

On  porroit  semblablement  bien  user  des  belles  chroniques  de  France 
que  mon  seigneur  Crétin*,  nagueres  chroniqueur  du  roy,  a  si  bien  faictes, 


'  Nesson  (Pierre),  officier  de  Jean  de 
Bourbon,  lequel  ayant  été  fait  prisonnier 
à  la  bataille  d'AzincourI ,  Nesson  lui  en- 
voya, en  Angleterre,  le  Lay  de  la  guerre, 
dont  Duchesne  cite  un  fragment  dans  ses 
notes  sur  Alain  Chartier.  Sa  fille  poétisait 
aussi,  au  témoignage  de  J.  Bouchel  : 

Je  n'oubiieray  la  subtille  Jeanette 
Fille  à  Nesson ,  qui  de  rime  tant  nette 
Sut  bien  user. 

'  Le  Calendrier  des  bergers,  ouvrage  ano- 
nyme, est  un  poème  didactique  distribué 
par  couplets.  Chacune  des  bergères  arri- 
vant de  l'empire  du  prêtre  Jean  des  Indes 
en  chante  un,  sur  l'Arithmétique,  sur 
l'Hôtel-Dieu,  les  Planètes,  etc. 

'  Les  Lunettes  des  princes,  par  Jean  Mes- 
chinot,  de  Nantes,  successivement  maître 
d'hôtel  de  plusieurs  ducs  de  Bretagne,  mort 
en  1 509.  Il  a  été  loué  par  Marot.  Ces  Lunettes 
.sont  des  poésies  morales,  par  exemple  : 

Se  tu  vas  à  Saint  innocent 
Où  y  a  d'ossemens  grant  tas , 


Ja  ne  connoistras  entre  cent 
Les  os  des  gens  de  grans  estas 
D'avec  ceulx  qu'au  monde  notas 
En  leur  vivant  pauvres  et  nus  : 
Tous  s'en  vont  d'ond  ilz  sont  venus  ! 

'  «Le  bon  Crétin  au  vers  équivoque,» 
comme  l'appelle  Marot ,  qui  le  qualifie 
souverain  poète  fran<;ais,  et  lui  a  bâti  une 
magnifique  épitaphe  : 

Seigneurs  passans ,  comment  pourrez  vous  croire 
De  ce  tombeau  la  grand  pompe  et  la  gloire  .■'  etc. 

Crétin  était  un  surnom;  le  nom  vtrilable 
était  Guillaume  Dubois  *.  J'en  demande 
pardon  à  ses  panégyristes,  Marot,  G.  Tory 
et  Jean  Lemaire;  mais  rien  ne  me  paraît 
égaler  la  platitude  laborieuse  des  vers  de 
ce  grand  homme ,  raillé  par  Rabelais  sous 
le  nom  de  Raminagrobis.  Après  avoir  été 
trésorier  de  la  Sainte  Chapelle  de  Vin- 
cennts,  puis  chanire  à  la  Sainte  Chapelle 
de  Paris ,  Crelin  ou  Dubois  mourut  en 
i5a5,  à  ce  qu'on  croit. 

'  il  dit  lui-même  : 

Le  G  (^eat]  du  Bois,  aliaa  dit  Crktin. 


INTRODUCTION.  11 

que  Homère,  ne  Virgile,  ne  Dantes  n'eurent  oncqiies  plus  d'excellence  en 
leur  stile. 

(Ici  une  digression  et  un  rondeau  cité,  dont  une  dame 
est  l'auteur.) 

S'il  est  vray  que  toutes  choses  ont  eu  commencement,  il  est  certain 
que  la  langue  grecque,  semblablement  la  latine,  ont  été  quelque  temps 
incultes  et  sans  reigle  de  grammaire,  comme  est  de  présent  la  nostre;  mais 
les  bons  anciens  vertueux  et  studieux  ont  prins  peine  et  diligence  à  les 
réduire  et  mettre  à  certaine  reigle,  pour  en  user  honnestement  à  escripre 
et  rédiger  les  bonnes  sciences  en  mémoire,  au  prouflit  et  honneur  du  bien 
public.  [Champ  Jlenry,  foi.  iv,  v°.) 

Celte  ardeur  de  Geoffroy  Tory  dut  se  communiquer,  et 
même  au  delà  des  limites  de  France,  car  Geoffroy  Tory,  si  peu 
connu  de  notre  temps,  était  dans  le  sien  célèbre  en  son  pays 
et  à  l'étranger.  Ce  qu'il  y  a  de  siir,  c'est  qu'à  l'apparition  de 
la  grammaire  de  Palsgrave,  un  certain  Léonard  Coxe,  qui  s'in- 
titule principal  du  collège  de  Reading,  Radingiensis  ludi  mode- 
rator,  après  quatre  distiques  adressés  à  son  compatriote,  se 
retourne  vers  Geoffroy  Tory,  et  lui  débite  quinze  phaleuques, 
dont  voici  la  traduction  : 

Docte  Geoffroy,  il  est  comblé  le  vœu  si  souvent  exprimé  dans  ton 
Champ  Jleuri  ;  car  voilà  ,  moyennant  des  règles  dûment  autorisées ,  le 
français  enseigné  à  fond.  —  Ni  Palémoa  avec  ses  successeurs,  ni  Gaza 
dans  son  travail  achevé,  ni  aucun  de  leurs  illustres  prédécesseurs,  n'avaient 
mieux  traité  de  la  grammaire  grecque  ou  latine  que  Palsgrave  ne  traite 
ici  de  la  française.  Il  a  l'érudition,  la  clarté  et  toute  la  concision  compa- 
tible avec  sa  matière;  aussi  triomphons-nous,  docte  Geoffroy,  de  voir  enfin 
comblé  le  vœu  si  souvent  exprimé  dans  ton  Champ  Jîeari. 

Léonard  Coxe  triomphi*  plus  modestement  et  plus  conve- 
nablement que  David  Baker,  car  il  semble  reporter  sur  Geof- 


12  INTRODUCTION. 

froy  Tory  l'honneur  d'avoir  évoqué  la  grammaire  de  Palsgrave. 
La  comparaison  des  dates  semble,  il  est  vrai,  ne  laisser  pas 
beaucoup  de  vraisemblance  à  cette  supposition,  puisque  l'ou- 
vrage du  Français  et  celui  de  l'Anglais  ne  sont  qu'à  une  année 
d'intervalle;  mais  ici  je  dois  signaler  une  singularité  qui  n'a 
point  été  remarquée  des  bibliographes.  On  lit  au  frontispice 
la  date  de  i53o,  et  au  dernier  feuillet  :  «achevé  d'imprimer 
le  18  juillet  i53o  »;  mais  le  privilège  du  roi  placé  en  tête  du 
volume  est  daté  «  de  notre  château  d'Amphtyll,  le  2  septembre, 
l'an  de  notre  règne  xxii.  »  Or,  Henry  VIII  étant  parvenu  au 
trône  en  1609,  après  Pâques,  la  vingt-deuxième  année  de 
son  règne  est  l'année  i53i,  et  le  Champ  jlenry  avait  paru  au 
commencement  de  lôag  '.  Gela  fait  donc  de  bon  compte  un 
intervalle  de  trois  ans;  dès  lors,  le  mot  de  Léonard  Coxe  a 
une  véritable  portée ,  et  les  coïncidences  que  Palsgrave  s'ap- 
plaudit de  rencontrer  dans  le  Champ  jleury  et  V Esclaircissement 
pourraient  bien  n'être  pas  aussi  fortuites  qu'il  lui  plaît  de  le 
dire. 

li  me  paraît  certain  que  l'ouvrage  de  Palsgrave  est  antidaté 
sur  le  frontispice.  Pourquoi.^  dans  quel  intérêt.^  C'est  ce  qu'il 
est  difficile  d'expliquer  précisément.  On  peut  supposer  que  les 
diverses  parties  du  livre  ont  paru  l'une  après  l'autre ,  que  les 
éditeurs  ont  mis  à  l'ensemble  de  l'œuvre  la  date  la  plus  re- 
culée, tandis  que,  au  contraire,  Henry  VIII  n'a  donné  le  pri- 
vilège qu'à  la  forme  dernière  et  complète.  Cette  hypothèse 
pourrait  aussi  rendre  raison  de  l'absence  des  feuillets  3o  à  35, 
encore  qu'il  ne  paraisse  pas  y  avoir  de  lacune  dans  le  texte. 
L'impression  d'ailleurs  a  été  faite  par  deux  imprimeurs  diffé- 
rents, Hawkins  et  Pynson.   Tout  cela  semble  indiquer  une 

Le  28  avril  lôsg.  Le  privilège  est  de  1626,  et  G.  Tory  dit  lui-même  avoir  com- 
mencé son  livre  en  1622  (fol.  1°). 


INTRODUCTION.  13 

exécution  partielle,  intervertie  peut-être,  et  reprise  sur  des 
mesures  mal  calculées. 


Lorsque  David  Baker  écrit  que  la  nation  française,  aujour- 
d'hui si  orgueilleuse  de  l'universalité  de  sa  langue,  paraît  en 
avoir  l'obligation  à  l'Angleterre,  il  raisonne  à  rebours;  la  langue 
française  n'est  pas  devenue  universelle,  parce  qu'il  a  plu  à 
l'Anglais  Palsgrave  d'en  composer  une  grammaire;  mais,  au 
contraire,  Palsgrave  a  rédigé  cette  grammaire,  parce  que  la 
langue  française  était  universelle.  Cette  universalité  était  un 
fait  constaté  avant  la  naissance  de  Palsgrave,  de  même  que, 
avant  lui,  d'autres  avaient  tenté  de  formuler  des  règles  pour 
faciliter  aux  étrangers  l'étude  du  français:  Vixerc fortes  ante 
Agamemnona  muUi. 

Palsgrave  en  désigne  nominalement  trois,  auxquels  il  recon- 
naît que  son  travail  a  de  grandes  obligations. 

Le  premier  est  Alexandre  Barclay,  mort  en  1 552 ,  moine  de 
l'ordre  de  saint  François,  hagiographe  et  polygraphe,  dont 
Pits  indique  un  Traité  de  la  prononciation  française ,  en  un  seul 
livre,  commençant  par  ces  mots  :  iMuIti  ac  varii  homines  litte- 
rati\»  Le  catalogue  de  Watt  est  plus  explicite;  il  donne  le 
titre  exact  d'après  lequel  l'ouvrage  paraît  rédigé  en  anglais: 
«  Introductorie  ta  write  and  pronounce  the  frenche;  Londres,  i  52  i, 
fol.,  imprimé  par  Coppland.  »  Tous  mes  efforts  pour  découvrir 
un  exemplaire  de  ce  curieux  ouvrage  ont  été  inutiles. 

Je  n'ai  pas  même  réussi  à  en  découvrir  autant  sur  le  second 
de  ses  contemporains,  que  Palsgrave  appelle  Jacobus  Vallensis 
et  qu'il  qualifie  instituteur  du  jeune  comte  de  Lincoln,  fils 

'  Pits,  p.  745.  Il  ne  s'ensuit  pas  que        de  traduire;  il  ne  prétend  donner  que  le 
l'ouvrage  soit  en  latin;  Pits  a  l'habitude        sens. 


I 


14  INTRODUCTION. 

du  duc  de  INorfolk.  Baie  ni  Pits  ne  font  mention  d'aucun  nom 
qui  ressemble  à  celui-là;  mais  de  leur  silence  même  je  tire 
une  induction  :  tous  deux  n'ayant  admis  dans  leur  recueil  que 
des  écrivains  nés  dans  la  Grande-Bretagne,  je  suis  tenté  de 
voir  dans  Jacobas  Vallensis  un  Français  nommé  Jacques  Duval, 
de  Laval,  Vallée  ou  Devallée. 

Le  cas  est  absolument  le  même  pour  «  le  savant  clerc  maistre 
Giles  Dewes,  autrefois  instituteur  de  votre  noble  grâce  (le  roi 
Henry  VIII)  pour  cette  même  langue,  lequel,  à  la  requête  et 
sur  les  instances  de  divers  grands  personnages,  a  également 
écrit  sur  cette  matière^».  Dans  un  autre  passage,  Palsgravè 
mentionne  un  très-ancien  texte  du  Roman  de  la  Rose  qui  lui 
fut  montré  «  dans  la  bibliothèque  de  Guildhall  par  maistre 
Gyles,  jadis  maître  de  français  du  roi  régnant».  Baie  ni  Pits 
ne  connaissent  Gilles  Dewes;  parmi  les  biographes  ou  bibho- 
graphes  français,  M.  Brunet  est  le  seul  qui  ait  recueilli  son 
nom  et  le  titre  de  son  livre  ^  : 

Voici,  dit  M.  Brunet,  un  autre  ouvrage  moins  connu  en  France  que  le 
précédent  (que  la  Grammaire  de  Palsgravè,  dont  on  ne  connaît  sur  le 
continent  d'autre  exemplaire  que  celui  de  la  Mazarine)  : 

»An  Introdactorie  for  to  lerne,  to  rede,  to  pronounce  and  to  speake  frenche, 
trewly,  compiled  for  the  ryghte  hygh,  excellent  and  most  vertuous  lady, 
the  lady  Mary  of  England  doughter  to  our  moste  gracious  soveraine  lorde 
kyng  Henry  the  eyghte.  » 

Grammaire  fort  rare  dont  l'auteur ,  Giles  Dewes ,  est  nommé  dans  un 
acrostiche,  au  folio  Aii.  La  seconde  partie  donne  des  exemples  très-curieux; 
on  suppose  que  ce  livre  a  paru  en  i532.  [Manuel  du  libraire,  III,  62  1 .) 

M.  Brunet  a  reproduit  le  nom  de  fauteur  de  cette  gram- 
maire tel  que  le  donnent  les  Anglais.  Palsgravè  fécrit  Dewes; 
Dibdin  et  la  Bibliotheca  Grenvilliana,  pareillement,  et  aussi  John 

'   To  the  Kynges  grâces,  p.  vu.  —  '  P.  35. 


INTRODUCTION.  15 

Stow,  dans  son  livre  intitulé  A  survay  oj  the  cities  oj  London; 
bien  plus,  il  est  ainsi  figuré  dans  le  relevé  des  nrionuments 
funéraires  de  la  paroisse  de  Saint-Olave,  de  Londres;  voici 
textuellement  cette  épitaphe  : 

Herelieth  GilesDewes,  who  sometirnes  was  servant  to  king  Henry  the  VII 
and  king  Henry  ihe  VIII.  Cierke  of  their  librairies ,  and  schoole  master  for  the 
frenche  tongue  to  prince  Arthur  and  to  the  iady  Mary ,  who  died  1 535  ^ 

«  Cy  gît  Gilles  Dewes,  jadis  serviteur  des  rois  Henry  VII  et  Henry  VIII, 
clerc  de  leurs  bibliothèques  et  instituteur,  pour  la  langue  française,  du 
prince  Arthur  et  de  madame  Marie;  mort  en  1535.» 

Malgré  ces  témoignages,  il  est  certain  que  Dewes  est  une 
forme  altérée,  accommodée  à  l'usage  anglais,  et  que  la  forme 
véritable  est  dv  Wés.  Ainsi  l'écrit  le  prétendu  Dewes  lui-même, 
non  pas  dans  un,  mais  dans  deux  acrostiches,  dont  je  me 
contenterai  de  rapporter  le  second,  parce  qu'il  fournit  la  tra- 
duction latine  et  par  conséquent  le  sens  vulgaire  de  ce  nom 
propre  : 

APOLOGIE    AUX    CORRECTEURS    DE   TOUTTES  ŒUVRES  "^ 

G  rosses  gens  de  rudes  affections , 

I    vrongnes  bannis  de  vray  sentement, 

L  ourdauhz,  cocardz,  privés  d'entendement, 

E  n  leur  gueulée  prenant  réfections  , 

S  aouls  d'oprobres  et  de  detractions , 

D  iront  de  moy  comme  ilz  font  d'aultre  gent  : 
U  oyés  icy ,  quel  facteur  bel  et  gent  ! 

V  ray  et  pour  certain  que  suis  ignorant  ; 

V  ouloir  je  ne  doy  pas  laisser  pour  tant 
E  mprendre  chose  qui  fait  à  priser 

S  ans  garde  prendre  à  leur  despriser. 

'  Ancient  fanerai  monuments,  etc.,  by  Cette  difficulté  vaincue  peut  servir  à  ex- 
John Wewer.  London,  1637.  pliquer  la  gêne  et  le  peu  de  sens  qu'on 

'  Cet  acrostiche  est  double,  c'est-à-dire  remarque  dans  cette  pièce, 
en   anglais   et   en   français   interlinéaire. 


16  INTRODUCTION. 

A  ulcuiis  diront  :  cecy  est  mal  escript. 
L  es  aultres  après  bendant  lez  sourcilz 
I    trouveront  très  grant  faulte  d'esprit; 
A  ultres  pèseront  tout  come  gens  subtilz , 
S  ur  ce  donnant  leur  sentence  et  advis. 

D  ie  ung  cbescun  ce  que  dire  vouldra; 
E  n  despit  du  diable  et  de  mal  vouUoir, 

V  eoir  ilz  pourront  que  m'a  mis  en  debvoir 

A  bien  faire;  face  mieulx  qui  sçara  : 

D  e  moy  certes  ja  reprins  n'en  sera. 

I    bésus  doncques  nous  ottroy  bien  faire , 

S  ans  voulloir  à  luy  n'a  aultre  desplaire. 

La  réunion  de  toutes  les  initiales  donne  : 

GILES  DU  WÉS,  ALIAS  DE  VADIS. 

Ni  Duwes,  ni  du  Wés  ne  peut  être  un  nom  anglais;  celui 
qui  le  portait  déclare  d'ailleurs  dans  son  prologue  que  le  fran- 
çais était  «  sa  langue  maternelle  et  naturelle.  »  D'après  cela,  il 
ne  faut  pas  de  longues  réflexions  pour  restituer  au  maître  de 
français  d'Henry  VIII  la  vraie  forme  de  son  nom,  dans  l'or- 
thographe de  notre  langue:  il  s'appelait  du  Guez,  de  Vadis. 

Nous  trouvons  dans  son  dialogue  Sur  la  paix  un  témoignage 
précis  du  temps  où  il  composait  son  livre.  Il  introduit  son 
élève,  la  princesse  Marie,  lui  reprochant  son  absence  de  la 
veille  au  soir.  Le  maître  s'excuse  sur  ce  qu'il  s'est  oublié  dans 
une  agréable  compagnie  : 

Et  sur  quoi  donc  rouloit  votre  conversation?  —  Certes,  Madame,  elle 
estoit  de  la  paix ,  laquelle  (comme  on  disoit)  est  criée  tant  en  ce  royaume 
d'Engleterre  comme  de  France,  et  durera  tant  que  ie  noble  roy  Henry, 
vostre  père,  vivra  et  le  roy  Francoys  pareillement,  avec  l'addicion  d'ung 
jour. 

La  paix  jurée  dans  ces  conditions  ne  peut  être  que  celle 


INTRODUCTION.  17 

de  1627  ^  La  princesse  Marie  avait  alors  douze  ans,  et  cela 
s'accorde  avec  ce  qu'elle-même  dit  ailleurs  de  son  jeune  âge. 

Ainsi  du  Guez  composait  ces  dialogues  en  1627,  et  avant 
1 53o  Palsgrave  avait  communication  de  ses  travaux.  Ce  n'était 
pas  encore  la  grammaire  dédiée  à  la  princesse  Marie,  mais  il 
est  vraisemblable  que  du  Guez  avait  commencé  par  publier 
à  l'usage  de  ses  élèves  quelques  petits  traités  épars,  aujourd'hui 
disparus. 

La  Grammaire  de  du  Guez,  dans  sa  rédaction  complète  et 
définitive,  n'a  paru  qu'après  celle  de  Palsgrave,  puisque  le 
travail  de  l'Anglais  est  l'objet  de  l'ironie  et  des  sarcasmes,  à 
peine  voilés,  du  vieux  grammairien  français.  L'impression  de 
ce  volume  sans  date  doit  être  de  1 53 2  ou  1 533. 

On  conçoit  aisément  que  la  Grammaire  de  Palsgrave,  im- 
posante par  l'appareil  scientifique  de  la  méthode  et  par  la 
masse  du  volume,  dût  effrayer  la  jeunesse  anglaise  à  qui  s'a- 
dressait ce  présent.  Et  il  faut  bien  qu'il  en  ait  été  quelque 
chose,  puisque  la  lettre  d'André  Baynton  qui  suit  le  privilège 
du  roi,  a  pour  unique  objet  de  combattre  cette  frayeur.  Ne 
vous  laissez  pas  intimider  ni  décourager  par  l'extérieur  du 
livre,  dit  André  Baynton  aux  fils  de  lord  Montjoye,  ses  amis 
de  collège,  et  vous  reconnaîtrez  qu'un  médiocre  travail  suffit 
pour  retirer  toute  la  substance  de  cet  épais  in-folio. 

En  attendant,  il  leur  en  adresse  un  abrégé.  La  précaution 
devait  ne  pas  sembler  inutile. 

Cette  lettre  d'André  Baynton  est-rclle  une  apologie  préven- 
tive suggérée  par  la  conscience  de  l'auteur,  ou  bien  serait-ce 
une  réponse  à  des  attaques  répandues  dans  le  public.^  Mais 
ces  attaques  n'avaient  pas  dû  se  produire  avant  l'apparition 
de  l'ouvrage.  Nouvelle  circonstance  à  l'appui  de  l'hypothèse 

'  Cf.  Lorenz,  Summa  historiée  Gallo-Francicœ ,  p.  67/1. 

3 


18  INTRODUCTION. 

énoncée  plus  haut,  que  le  livre  a  été  d'abord  publié  successi- 
vement par  parties  détachées,  lesquelles  ensuite  ont  été  réu- 
nies sous  un  titre  général. 

C'est  alors  que  Gilles  du  Guez,  mécontent  de  voir  exploiter 
par  un  rival  et  l'autorité  de  son  nom  et  le  résultat  de  ses  tra- 
vaux, rassemble  à  son  tour  ses  traités  partiels,  en  fait  une 
œuvre  d'ensemble,  courte,  claire,  bien  digérée,  amusante 
même  par  les  dialogues  dont  il  fait  suivre  son  exposé  théorique. 
Dans  ces  dialogues,  au  nombre  de  dix,  la  princesse  Marie  est 
constamment  en  scène  :  tantôt  on  la  suppose  recevant  un  en- 
voyé du  roi  de  France,  de  l'empereur  ou  d'un  souverain  quel- 
conque; tantôt  son  aumônier  lui  expose  les  cérémonies  de  la 
messe,  ou  les  diverses  propriétés  des  mets,  pour  conclure  au 
choix  d'un  régime  alimentaire.  Une  autre  fois,  c'est  du  Guez 
lui-même  qui  traite  avec  elle  les  points  de  la  métaphysique  les 
plus  élevés  et  les  plus  délicats,  par  exemple:  qu'est-ce  que 
l'âme .^  Cette  question,  examinée  sous  l'autorité  de  saint  Isidore, 
ne  remplit  pas  moins  de  onze  pages  in-quarto.  Un  entretien 
roule  sur  la  paix;  un  autre,  sur  l'amour.  Nous  voyons  dans 
celui-ci  que  du  Guez  avait  chez  la  princesse  le  titre  de  tréso- 
rier, et  de  plus  que  sa  royale  élève  avait  coutume  de  l'appeler 
en  badinant  son  mari  d'adoption.  Ce  petit  détail  fait  connaître 
la  situation  de  notre  compatriote  à  la  cour  d'Henry  VIII  :  le 
degré  de  familiarité  indique  le  degré  d'estime  où  il  était  tenu. 
Au  surplus,  toute  idée  d'inconvenance  est  exclue  par  l'âge  du 
professeur,  trop  souvent  cloué  dans  son  fauteuil  par  la  goutte 
et  obligé  de  manquer  sa  leçon;  il  y  supplée  alors  par  une 
lettre  d'excuse,  soit  en  vers,  soit  en  prose,  tirant  de  sa  maladie 
même  une  occasion  d'étude  et  une  nouvelle  forme  de  devoir 
pour  son  écolière.  Morgan,  écuyer  tranchant  de  Marie,  se 
trouve-t-il  dans  la  gêne  avec  sa  famille?  Du  Guez  fera  lire  à 


INTRODUCTION.  J9 

leur  commune  maîtresse  la  requête  de  Morgan  rédigée  en  ma- 
nière de  leçon  de  français.  Il  ne  manque  aucune  occasion  de 
jeter  dans  cette  jeune  âme  les  semences  de  pitié,  de  généro- 
sité, d'honneur,  de  tous  les  bons  sentiments. 

Il  s'attache  plus  qu'un  simple  intérêt  grammatical  à  ces  exer- 
cices intellectuels  d'une  enfant  de  douze  ans,  fdle  d'Henry  VIII, 
sœur  aînée  d'Elisabeth,  qui  devait  être  un  jour  l'épouse  de  Phi- 
lippe II,  et  s'appeler,  selon  la  passion  des  historiens,  Marie  la 
Catholique  ou  la  sanglante  Marie. 

Tel  est  l'ouvrage  que  du  Guez  lance  dans  le  monde,  ayant 
bien  soin  d'inscrire  sur  le  frontispice,  non  pas  son  nom,  mais 
celui  de  son  auguste  élève;  le  tout  accompagné  d'une  préface 
humble  et  modeste  dans  la  forme,  railleuse  et  dédaigneuse  par 
le  fond,  et  dirigée  contre  «  ces  compilateurs  qui,  comme  dit  saint 
Jérôme,  ont  commencé  par  enseigner  avant  que  d'être  savants,  » 
ou  qui,  s'étant  rendus  savants  à  force  d'étude,  se  sont  ensuite 
ingérés  d'inventer  des  règles  infaillibles  pour  une  langue  qui 
n'est  pas  la  leur.  Poser  des  règles  est  un  droit  qui  appartient 
à  fort  peu  de  gens  :•  quant  à  moi,  ajoute-t-il,  dont  le  français 
est  la  langue  maternelle  et  naturelle,  et  qui  pendant  trente  ans 
ai  fait  profession  d'instruire  dans  cette  langue  des  princes,  des 
marquis,  deux  reines  et  le  roi  régnant,  je  n'ai  pas  encore  dé- 
couvert de  règles  infaillibles;  et  cependant  le  roi  vient  de  me 
confier  l'éducation  française  de  sa  fdle.  Palsgrave  n'est  point 
nommé,  mais  il  est  si  clairement  désigné,  qu'il  n'est  pas  pos- 
sible de  s'y  méprendre  : 

Combien  que  je  n'ignore  point  que  plusieurs  tant  qualifiez  es  bonnes 
lectres  comme  aussy  élégant  en  la  langue  Françoise  (au  moins  pour  non 
estre  naturel  et  natif  du  territoire  et  pais  )  ont  composés  et  escripz  règles 
et  principes  pour  introduction  en  ladite  langue ,  lesquelz  peult  estre ,  coine 
tiesmoigne  saint  Hicrosme  à  Paulin ,  ont  ensegnés  avant  que  avoir  esté 

3. 


20  "  INTRODUCTION. 

sçavanU;  car  ja  soit  que  art  soit  imitatrice  de  nature,  i'ensuivant  de  bien 
près,  sy  ne  la  peult  elle  toutefois  aconsuivir.  Pourquoy  iesdictz  compila- 
teurs du  tout  adhérans  à  icelle  ,  sont  par  nature  en  divers  lieux  cancelléz , 
repris  et  corrigez.  Ne  sembleroit  ce  point  chose  rare  et  estrange  veoir  ung 
François  se  ingérer  et  efforcer  d'apprendre  aux  Allemans  la  langue  tyoise , 

voire  et  qui  plus  est  sur  icelle  composer  règles  et  principes? 

C'est  aultre  chose  d'ensegnér  et  d'apprendre  par  les  principes  et  règles  faictz 
par  divers  expertz  aucteurs ,  par  intervalle  et  diuturnité  de  long  temps  bien 
approuvéez,  que  de  première  abordée;  et  n'ayant  un  langage  que  moiene- 
ment  et  comme  par  en)prant,  en  voulloir  cy  pris  cy  mis  non  seulement 
ensegnér  les  aultres,  mais  aussy  composer  sur  ce  règles  infallibles,  ce  que 
sçavoir  faire  n'est  ottroié  à  bien  peu  de  ceulx  qui  sont  mesme  natif  dudict 
langage.  Car  touchant  moy  mesmes  à  qui  ladicte  langue  est  maternelle  et 
naturelle,  et  qui  par  l'espase  de  trente  ans  et  plus  me  suis  entremis  (com- 
bien que  soie  très  ignorant)  d'ensegnér  et  apprendre  plusieurs  grandz  princes 
et  princesses,  corne  à  feu  de  noble  et  recommandée  mémoire  le  prince 
Arthur,  le  noble  roy  Henry  pour  le  présent  prospereusement  régnant,  à 
qui  Dieu  doint  vie  perpétuelle,  les  roynes  de  France  et  d'Ecosse,  avec  le 
noble  marquis  d'Excestre ,  etc.  ;  pour  laquelle  chose  accomplir  j'ay  fait 
mon  pouvoir  et  debvoir  de  perscruter  et  cercher  tout  ce  que  m'a  semblé 
à  ce  propos  servir-,  sy  n'ai  je  toutesfois  peu  trouver  règles  infallibles  (pour 
ce  qu'il  n'est  possible  de  telles  les  trouver),  c'est  à  dire  telles  que  puissent 
servir  infalliblement  come  font  les  règles  composées  pour  apprendre  Latin, 
Grec  et  Hebrieu,  et  aidtres  telz  langages-,  ce  que  neantmoins  Iesdictz  com- 
pilateurs ont  entrepris  (affm  que  ne  die  présumé)  de  faire,  ja  soit  qu'ilz 
n'aient  esté  que  petit  de  temps  à  l'apprendre ,  etc. 

A  la  suite  de  cette  préface  cruelle  par  ses  réticences  mêmes, 
l'auteur  expose  son  plan  : 

Ce  petit  œuvre  sera  divisé  en  deux  livres  dont  le  premier  aura  deux 
parties  : 

La  première  partie  traitera  des  règles  du  langage  parlé,  des  lettres  qui 
doivent  s'effacer  dans  la  prononciation  et  pour  quel  motif. 

La  seconde  partie  traitera  des  noms,  pronoms,  adverbes,  participes, 
verbes,  prépositions  et  conjonctions,  avec  des  règles  fixes  pour  conjuguer. 


INTRODUCTION.  21 

Cette  même  partie  contiendra  cinq  ou  six  formes  de  conjugaisons  d'un 
même  verbe. 

Item  la  conjugaison  avec  deiix  pronoms,  avec  trois,  et  enfin  la  conju- 
gaison de  deux  verbes  accouplés. 

Le  second  livre  traitera  des  lettres  missives  en  prose  et  en  vers. 

Ensemble  plusieurs  conversations  en  forme  de  dialogue  pour  recevoir 
un  messager  de  l'empereur,  du  roi  de  France  ou  de  tout  autre  prince. 

Ensemble  d'autres  conversations  des  propriétés  de  divers  mets,  de 
l'amour,  de  la  paix ,  de  la  guerre ,  de  l'exposition  de  la  messe ,  de  la  na- 
ture de  l'âme  humaine,  de  la  division  du  temps,  avec  d'autres  objets. 

Ce  plan  est  (sauf  le  lexique)  plus  étendu  que  celui  de 
Palsgrave,  mais  il  est  exécuté  sur  une  échelle  très-réduite. 

Un  traité  de  prononciation  était  le  début  obligé  d'un  livre  sur 
la  grammaire.  Gilles  du  Guez  paraît  être  le  premier  qui  se  soit 
avisé  de  noter  le  son  d'une  voyelle  par  un  signe  extérieur  au 
mot^  Il  marque  l'accent  avec  beaucoup  de  soin  et  d'exactitude, 
même  sur  des  voyelles  où  nous  ne  le  mettons  pas,  et  où  il  serait 
logique  de  le  mettre.  Il  y  avait  à  son  insu  dans  son  procédé  le 
germe  de  toute  une  réforme.  Auparavant,  l'accent  était  noté, 
pour  ainsi  dire,  à  l'intérieur  du  mot,  par  des  consonnes  doubles, 
dont  le  rôle  était  d'influencer  la  voyelle  précédente  en  même 
temps  qu'elles  maintenaient  le  souvenir  de  l'étyniologie;  ces 
consonnes  d'ailleurs  étaient  muettes  dans  la  prononciation. 
Du  moment  que  l'accent  vient  en  se  posant  sur  une  voyelle  en 
préciser  le  son  et  la  quantité,  de  quoi  sert  pour  le  langage  la 
double  consonne.^  Quand  l'usage  a  prévalu  d'écrire  avec  un  ac- 
cent circonflexe  même  et  noces,  que  signifient  Y  s  dans  mesme  et 
le  p  dans  nopces?  C'est  alors  que  l'hôtel  de  Rambouillet  se  met 
à  la  besogne,  et  que  les  précieuses,  attentives  uniquement  au 


M 


'  Palsgrave  ne  l'emploie  que  pour  in- 
diquer la  syllabe  qui  porte  l'accent  tonique, 
par  exemple,  il  accentue  homme,  femme. 


dottloreûse ,  contre,  entre,  etc.  Vid.  fol.  xix 
de  l'édition  originale. 


22  INTRODUCTION. 

beau  parler  et  très-insoucieuses  de  l'étymologie,  entreprennent 
d'arracher  des  mots  les  lettres  inutiles,  persuadées  qu'elles  ac- 
complissent l'œuvre   du  monde  la  plus   raisonnable,  et  ne 
suppriment  que  les  traces  de  l'ancienne  barbarie.  Il  y  aurait 
pourtant  bien  des  arguments  en  faveur  du  système  déchu  : 
l'accent  ne  remplit  que  la  moitié  des  fonctions  de  la  double 
consonne,   puisqu'il  ne  marque  pas  l'étymologie;  ensuite  il 
n'adhère  pas  assez  solidement  au  mot;  il  disparaît  ou  s'intro- 
duit sans  motif,  et  l'écriture,   témoin  infidèle,  corrompt  le 
langage.  De  nos  jours,  faccent  circonflexe  ne  se  met  plus  sur 
noces;  cet  o  qui  était  fermé  s'est  ouvert,  et  la  première  syllabe 
de  ce  congénère  de  nuptial  est  devenue  brève.  Sans  compter 
que  les  précieuses  ont  opéré  au  hasard,  capricieusement,  ap- 
pliquant leur  réforme  aux  mots  usuels,  et  laissant  leur  an- 
cienne orthographe  aux  mots  analogues  auxquels,  pour  s'en 
,     servir  plus  rarement,  elles  ne  songeaient  pas.  Pourquoi,  par 
exemple,  ont-elles  supprimé  le  p  de  ptisane  et  non  celui  de 
psaume?  Celui  de  nepveu  et  non  celui  de  baptême?  C'est  qu'elles 
ont  agi  sans  discernement.  Au  lieu  d'un  système  nouveau  et 
incomplet,  dont  l'illusion  a  rempli  notre  langue  d'inconsé- 
quences et  d'incertitudes,  il  eût  bien  mieux  valu  rechercher,  et 
remettre  sous  les  yeux  du  public,  fesprit  des  lois  qui  régissaient 
notre  premier  système  d'orthographe  :  decipimur  specie  recti. 

Au  reste,  Gilles  du  Guez  n'avait  imaginé  la  notation  exté- 
rieure de  l'accent  que  comme  artifice  mécanique  destiné  à 
faciliter  aux  Anglais  l'étude  de  notre  prononciation.  Son  iilven- 
tion  a  eu  plus  de  succès  et  de  portée  qu'il  ne  s'y  était  attendu  : 
elle  s'est  développée  *  et  définitivement  installée  dans  l'ortho- 
graphe française.  Si  c'est  un  abus,  il  est  consacré. 

'  Du  Guez  n'a  pas  inventé  l'accent  cir-        qu'il  avait  pris  la  précaution  de  formuler 
conflexe;  il  n'en  avait  pas  besoin,  puis-        la  règle  de  la  double  consonne,  surtout  en 


INTRODUCTION.  23 

Tout  dans  ce  petit  ouvrage  est  en  harmonie  avec  cette  in- 
vention commode  de  l'accent;  tout  y  révèle  l'homme  pratique, 
le  maître  expérimenté  qui  tend  au  but  par  le  plus  court  chemin  : 
mettre  l'élève  en  état  de  parler  dans  le  moins  de  temps  et  avec 
le  moins  de  travail  possible.  La  fortune  aussi  des  deux  ouvrages 
fut  bien  différente  :  Gilles  du  Guez  on  peu  d'années  fit  trois 
éditions'  ;  Palsgrave  ne  paraît  pas  être  jamais  arrivé  à  l'honneur 
de  la  seconde.  Du  Guez  avait,  d'une  main  leste  et  sûre,  esquissé 
la  petite  grammaire  de  Lhomond;  Palsgrave  avait  laborieuse- 
ment compilé  la  Grammaire  des  grammaires;  l'in-folio  fut 
étouffé  parl'in-iS.  Cela  se  voit  souvent  dans  la  littérature,  où  le 
quatrain  de  Saint-Aulaire  triomphe  de  la  Pucelle  de  Chapelain. 
Mais  la  circonstance  qui  dans  son  temps  décida  la  défaite 
de  Palsgrave,  est  précisément  ce  qui  nous  le  rend  aujourd'hui 
précieux.  Son  défaut  avec  le  temps  s'est  changé  en  une  qualité. 
Où  chercherait-on  ailleurs  cette  quantité  d'observations  par- 
fois minutieuses,  je  l'accorde,  mais  toujours  intéressantes 
comme  la  vérité.?  cette  multitude  de  faits  grammaticaux  re- 
cueillis dans  toutes  les  parties  de  la  langue  et  appuyés  d'exem- 
ples tirés  des  écrivains  illustres?  Du  Guez  fut  habile,  mais 
Palsgrave  est  savant.  Notre  compatiiote  a  sans  doute  fait  da- 
vantage pour  les  Anglais  contemporains  de  Palsgrave;  mais 
Palsgrave  à  son  tour  rendra  plus  de  services  aux  Français 
du  XIX*  siècle  qui  se  proposent,  non  pas  d'apprendre  à  parler 

ce  qui  touche  \'s,  qui  est  le  cas  d'application  coliationnées.  La  meilleure  est  encore  celle 

le  plus  fréquent.  de  Godfray  :  c'est  le  texte  que  nous  repro- 

'  Toutes  les  trois  sans  date  ;  elles  sont  duisons. 
décrites  dans  la  Bibliolheca  GrenvilUana  L'édition  de  Waley ,«  newely  corrected 

(I,  p.  200).  L'édition  princeps  est  de  God-  .  and  amended,  »  supprime  dans  la  dédi- 

fray,  la  seconde  est  de  Bourman ,  la  troi-  cace  les  noms  de  la  reine  Anne  et  de  sa 

sième  de  Waley.  Toutes  trois  se  trouvent  fille  Elisabeth.  Henry  VIII  était  sans  doute 

dans  la  Bodléienne,  où  M.  Lorain  les  a  remarié. 


24  INTRODUCTION. 

français,  mais  d'étudier  l'histoire  de  la  langue  française;  car, 
et  c'est  une  observation  essentielle,  du  Guez  n'écrit  que  pour 
les  élèves ,  et  Palsgrave  s'est  donné  la  tâche  de  former  non- 
seulement  des  élèves,  mais  aussi  des  maîtres  ^ 

Toutefois,  cette  histoire  de  notre  langue,  il  ne  faut  pas  s'at- 
tendre à  la  trouver  entière  dans  le  livre  de  Palsgrave.  On  se 
tromperait  fort  de  prendre  sa  grammaire  pour  une  grammaire 
du  vieux  français,  du  français  primitif.  Disons-le  tout  de  suite 
et  nettement  :  Palsgrave  ne  sait  pas  le  vieux  français.  Lorsqu'il 
écrivait,  la  renaissance  était  commencée;  comme  un  océan 
dont  la  prise  de  Constantinople  aurait  rompu  les  digues,  elle 
avait  subitement  fait  invasion  sur  TEurope  et  recouvert  de  ses 
flots  notre  ancienne  littérature  nationale.  Quelques  points 
émergeaient  encore;  mais  on  ne  savait  plus  les  rattacher  aux 
terres  ensevelies.  Aujourd'hui  qu'ils  ont  achevé  de  disparaître, 
c'est  déjà  beaucoup  de  nous  les  signaler  et  nous  les  décrire. 
C'est  le  mérite  de  Palsgrave  de  nous  dire  tout  ce  qui  de  son 
temps  pouvait  encore  s'apercevoir;  c'est  notre  tâche  de  re- 
cueillir ses  indications  et  de  redresser  ses  erreurs,  à  l'aide 
d'autres  renseignements  épars,  éclairés  d'une  prudente  saga- 
cité. Un  ou  deux  exemples  rendront  la  chose  plus  sensible. 

Palsgrave  rencontre  ces  vers  d'Alain  Chartier  : 

Luy  présentant  un  aidant  cierge 
Afin  que  je  sa  grâce  accjuierge. 

Il  remarque  là-dessus  que  le  poëte  s'est  permis  d'altérer  le 
mot  pour  rimer.  Il  n'en  est  rien.  Palsgrave  ignore  qu'autrefois 
le  g  était  la  caractéristique  du  subjonctif,  et  que  pas  un  écri- 
vain du  XII*  siècle  ne  manque  à  l'employer  dans  cette  finale. 

'  «  .  .  .  .ïhat  by  the  mean  of  my  poore  «  also  be  attayned  unto  by  sache  as  for 
«  labours  ihe  french  tonge  may  hère  afler  «  their  lymes  iherof  shalbe  desvrous.  • 
«  by  olhers  the  more  easily  he  toaght,  and         (  To  the  kynges  grâce,  p.  m.  ) 


INTRODUCTION.  25 

Palsgrave  ressemble  ici  à  ces  commentateurs  de  La  Fontaine, 
qui  prennent  les  archaïsmes  de  leur  auteur  pour  des  altéra- 
tions arbitraires  suggérées  par  les  besoins  de  la  versification. 
Son  erreur  du  moins  nous  enseigne  que  dès  la  fin  du  xv'  siècle, 
cette  forme  de  subjonctif  avait  disparu  de  fusage  commun ,  au 
point  que  la  tradition  même  en  était  perdue. 

Une  autre  fois  Palsgrave  note  dans  ses  textes  de  langue  ces 
formes  gentil  damoyselle,  cruel  défense,  de  quel  part,  et  autres 
semblables.  Il  en  tire  cette  conclusion ,  que  certains  adjectifs 
peuvent  se  mettre  au  masculin  avec  un  substantif  féminin  :  ce 
sont  les  adjectifs  terminés  par  une  /.  Puis  en  observant  encore, 
il  trouve  la  même  bizarrerie  en  usage  pour  l'adjectif  grand, 
puisqu'on  dit  très-bien  ma  grand  mère  et  c'est  grand  pitié  ;  enfin , 
un  examen  attentif  lui  découvre  l'adjectif  vert,  qui  se  met  au 
singulier  masculin  avec  le  substantif  féminin  herbe,  témoin 
cette  phrase  de  Jean  Lemaire  :  «  Paris  se  mettoit  à  luicter  tout  ^ 

nu  avecques  les  plus  fors  sur  l'herbe  vert.  » 

Palsgrave  est  ici  la  dupe  d'une  illusion  :  la  discordance  des 
genres  dont  il  s'étonne  n'existe  point.  Tout  adjectif  qui  en 
latin  ne  possède  que  deux  terminaisons  poulies  trois  genres, 
c'est-à-dire  qui  dessert  deux  genres  au  moyen  d'une  seule  ter- 
minaison, n'en  avait  qu'une  dans  le  français  primitif  ^  A  cette 
catégorie  appartiennent  ^en<j7fs,  crudelis,  (jualis ,  grandis ,  viridis, 
et  une  multitude  d'autres.  Cette  règle  générale  donne  en  trois 
lignes  l'explication  des  prétendues  anomalies  dont  Palsgrave 
a  pris  la  peine  de  faire  un  long  chapitre,  incomplet  encore  à 
son  point  de  vue,  puisqu'il  n'y  donne  pas  la  liste  de  ces  ad- 
jectifs prétendus  privilégiés. 

Mais  en  compensation  de  ces  fautes  qui  accusent  l'igno- 

'  A  plus  forte  raison  les  terminaisons  latines  en  ens  pour  les  trois  genres,  qui  forment 
le  français  en  ant  :  vaillant,  avenant,  etc. 


26  INTRODUCTION, 

rance  du  siècle  plutôt  que  celle  de  l'écrivain,  combien  de 
renseignements  d'un  prix  inestimable  sur  toutes  les  parties 
de  la  grammaire  !  Les  erreurs  de  tbéorie  de  Palsgrave  peuvent 
même  nous  devenir  une  source  d'instruction  par  la  comparai- 
son avec  les  écrivains  d'un  âge  plus  reculé.  Les  faits  dont  il 
dépose  étaient  la  vérité  de  son  temps.  Voulez- vous  en  savoir 
davantage?  Interrogez  des  témoins  d'un  temps  antérieur.  Son 
abondance,  dont  un  contemporain  pouvait  avoir  le  droit  de 
se  moquer,  n'est  pas  stérile  pour  nous  : 

Cum  flueret  lutulentus,  erat  quod  toHere  velles. 
S'il  lui  arrive  parfois  de  se  tromper,  ce  n'est  pas  faute  d'avoir 
consulté  tous  les  guides  supposés  capables  de  lui  enseigner  la 
véritable  route. 

Palsgrave  avec  son  style  lourd  et  sa  phrase  embrouillée,  in- 
terminable, ne  pouvaitavoir  l'espriltourné  à  la  malice  etprompt 
à  l'épigramme  comme  Gilles  du  Guez;  mais  c'est  un  honnête 
homme,  plein  de  candeur,  qui  vous  déclare  les  auxiliaires 
de  son  travail.  Il  n'a  pas  fait  difficulté  de  rendre  hommage  à 
ceux  qui  vivaient  encore;  malheureusement  il  n'a  pas  cru  néces- 
saire de  désigner  avec  la  même  précision  les  anciens  auteurs 
dont  il  s'est  aidé,  gens  fort  obscurs,  sans  doute,  et  dont  peut- 
être  lui-même  ignorait  les  noms.  N'eût-il  fait  que  nous  indiquer 
ces  sources  tellement  quellement,  nous  lui  aurions  encore  une 
grande  obligation ,  car  il  a  existé,  il  existe  perdus  dans  la  poudre 
des  bibliothèques  des  traités  sur  la  langue  française  qui  re- 
montent au  XIII*  siècle,  et  peut-être  au  delà.  Ce  sont  des  maté- 
riaux bien  indigestes,  bien  informes,  mais  dont  une  critique 
judicieuse  parviendrait  certainement  à  tirer  parti.  En  passant 
au  creuset  tant  de  prétendues  règles,  accumulées  par  l'esprit 
d'analyse  qui  seul  régnait  alors,  l'esprit  de  synthèse  des  temps 
modernes  finirait  par  en  dégager  quelques  principes  généraux 


INTRODUCTION.  27 

propres  à  répandre  la  lumière  sur  cette  longue  route  obscure  que 
notre  langue  a  suivie,  et  qui  sort  des  profondeurs  du  ix*  siècle. 
M.  Fr.  Michel,  page  i3  de  ses  Rapports  à  M.  le  Ministre  de 
l'instraction  publique,  cite  «la  Grammaire  française  et  anglaise 
de  Walter  de  Bibelesworth  » ,  manuscrit  sur  vélin ,  de  la  fin  du 
XII*  siècle,  qui  se  trouve  au  Musée  britannique.  L'ouvrage  de 
Bibleswortli ,  qui  devait  être  imprimé  à  la  suite  de  ces  Rap- 
ports, ne  s'y  trouve  pas.  Je  dois  à  l'obligeance  de  M.  Cha- 
baille  la  communication  d'une  copie  de  ce  traité,  qui  n'est 
point  une  grammaire,  mais  une  simple  nomenclature,  une 
espèce  de  vocabulaire  versifié,  divisé  selon  la  mode  du  temps 
par  catégories  d'idées  ou  d'objets.  Walter  de  Biblesworth 
prend  l'homme  à  sa  naissance  et  le  suit  jusqu'à  son  mariage, 
en  indiquant  les  termes  qui  servent  à  nommer  les  membres 
du  corps  humain,  puis  les  termes  relatifs  à  la  prière,  puis  les 
termes  du  ménage  et  des  métiers,  les  noms  des  bêtes  et  des 
oiseaux,  etc.,  etc.  Au  surplus,  voici  textuellement  le  titre  du 
livre  qui  en  présente  en  même  temps  l'analyse  : 

ARUNDEL,  MS.   N°   2  20,   FOL.   2 9 7  R°'. 

Le  treytiz  ke  moun  sire  Gauter  de  Bibelesworthe  fist  a  madame  Dyonisie 
de  Mounchensy  pur  aprise  de  ianguage ,  co  est  a  saver  : 

Du  premer  temps  ke  homme  nestra ,  ouweke  trestut  le  langage  pur  saver 
nurture  en  sa  juvente  ; 

Pus,  trestut  le  fraunceys  de  sa  neyssaunce  et  de  membres  du  cors, 
ouweke  kaunt  ke  il  apent  de  Deus  et  de  orer; 

Pus,  tôt  le  frauncoys  com  il  encourt  en  âge  de  husbanderie,  cum  pur 
arer,  rebiner,  waretier,  semer,  sarcher,  syer,  faucher,  carier,  batre,  moudre, 
pestrer,  breser,  bracer,  hatuefeste  arayer; 

'  Cf.  les  Rapports  de  M.  Fr.  Michel,  autres  manuscrits  Harléiens  ^90  el  7^0. 

p.   i4,  où  l'auteur  cite  le  manuscrit  Har-  Ainsi  il  y  aurait  au  moins  quatre  leçons 

léien  4334  (vél.  fin  du  xii'  siècle).  La  note  à  comparer,  car  M.  Michel  cite  aussi  un 

indique  le  manuscrit  Ârundel  aao,  et  deux  fragment  mutilé  d'un  cinquième  manuscr. 

4. 


28  INTRODUCTION. 

Pus,  tôt  le  fraunsoys  kaunt  a  espleyt  de  chas,  ciim  de  vénerie,  pescherie 
en  viver  ou  en  estans,  checune  en  sa  nature; 

Pus,  tôt  le  frauncoys  des  bestes  et  des  oyseus,  checune  assembe  [sic) 
pur  sa  naturele  aprise; 

Pus,  tôt  le  fraunsoys  de  boys,  pree,  pasture,  vergeyer,  gardyn ,  curti- 
lage,  ouweke  tôt  le  fraunsoys  de  flures  et  des  frus  ke  il  i  sount; 

E  tut  issi  troveret  vus  le  ordre  en  parler  et  reppoundre  ke  checun  gentys 
homme  covent  saver,  dount  touzdis  troverez  vus  primes  le  fraunsoys  , 
tropus  le  engleys  suaunt; 

E  ke  les  enfauns  pus  sunt  saver  les  propertez  des  choses  ke  veynt, 
et  kaunt  dewunt  dire  moun  et  ma;  soun  et  sa;  le  et  la;  may  etjo. 

La  copie  de  M.  Chabaille  contient  huit  cent  quarante-cinq 
vers  de  huit  syllabes;  mais  elle  paraît  incomplète  :  elle  s'arrête 
brusquement  après  la  nomenclature  des  mets  d'un  repas. 

Un  court  extrait  suffira  pour  échantillon  : 

Quant  le  emfes  ad  tel  âge 
ke  il  seet  entendre  langage , 
primes  en  fraunceys  ly  devez  dire 
coment  soun  cors  deyt  descrivere , 
pur  le  ordre  aver  de  moun  et  ma, 
toun  et  ta,  soun  et  sa, 
ke  en  parole  seyt  meynt  a  pris 
et  de  nul  aultre  escharnys  : 
mxi  teste ,  ou  m,oun  cheef ; 
la  grève  de  moun  cheef; 
fêtes  '  la  qreve  au  lever 

et  mangez  h.  grive  au  diner 

meuz  vaut  ruhye  par  h 

ke  ne  feet  rupie  par  p; 

se  bourse  eust  taunt  de  ruhies 

cum  le  nées  ad  de  rapies , 

riche  sereyt  !  etc. 

'  Peut-être  affetez,  c'est-à-dire,  arrangez  en  vous  levant  la  raie  qui  partage  vos 
cheveux  {la  grève). 


INTRODUCTION.  29 

On  peut  à  la  rigueur  voir  dans  ce  livre ,  à  côté  des  nomen- 
clatures qui  en  sont  l'objet  principal ,  un  traité  de  l'orthographe    . 
et  des  homonymes;  mais  cela  ne  peut  s'appeler  une  grammaire. 

Les  Angio-Normands,  dit  l'abbé  de  la  Rue,  avaient,  dès  le  xui'  siècle, 
des  livres  élémentaires  pour  l'étude  de  la  langue  française. 

On  trouve  dans  la  bibliothèque  Harléienne,  n°  4971,  une  grammaire 
française  et  épistolaire  pour  tous  les  états-,  elle  a  été  écrite  sous  Edouard  I*'. 

Grammaire  française  en  vers  français ,  bibliothèque  Harléienne,  n°  ^go*. 

Cette  dernière  indication  se  rapporte  à  l'ouvrage  de  Walter 
de  Biblesworth,  dont  nous  venons  de  parler.         '  * 

L'autre,  dont  j'ai  sous  les  yeux  quatre  copies  exécutées  sur 
trois  manuscrits  différents,  paraît  avoir  joui  dans  le  moyen 
âge  d'une  certaine  célébrité.  J'en  parlerai  d'après  le  manus- 
crit 188  du  collège  de  la  Madeleine  d'Oxford,  qui  me  semble 
donner  le  meilleur  texte,  bien  que  ce  manuscrit,  au  jugement 
du  bibliothécaire  M.  Coxe,  ne  soit  que  du  xv*  siècle^. 

L'ouvrage  se  compose  de  quatre-vingt-dix-huit  règles  fort 
courtes,  rédigées  en  latin,  et  souvent  accompagnées  de  quel- 
ques mots  français  pour  montrer  l'application  de  la  règle. 

Ces  règles  ne  sont  pas  toujours  suffisamment  claires,  de 
l'avis  même  du  moyen  âge  qui  s'en  servait,  puisqu'on  trouve 
des  exemplaires  manuscrits  de  cette  espèce  de  code  où  des 
gloses  ont  été  introduites  en  français;  tel  est  le  manuscrit 
harléien  4971»  cité  par  fabbé  de  la  Rue,  qui  l'estime  rédigé 
sous  Edouard  I",  c'est-à-dire  entre  1272  et  i3o7. 

La  distinction  des  règles  par  numéros  n'y  est  plus  observée 

'  De  ia  Rue,  Essais,  etc.  I,  284.  vient  les  menaces  et  commencent  les  mes- 

"  «  Codex  membran.  in-fol. ,  ff.  loa,  saec.  lées  et  les  guerres.  »  Exempla  comprehen- 

x\yia  ùaeukuiiius.  InstituiionesUnguœgal-  dunt  commentaria   in  x  prsecepta  et  in 

licaneBcumonomasticoexempUsquelatinaUn-  symbolum,  necnon  tractalus  de  vu  pec- 

gua  anglicanaque  edilis.  —  Tilulus  :  Ort/io-  catis   mortalibus.  •    {Catal    Bibl.   S.    M. 

graphia modernoram.  Incipit  :  «  Diccio  Magd.  p.  86.  ) 

gallica ,  elc •  Déficit  verbis  :  «  Après  ce 


30  INTRODUCTION, 

comme  dans  le  manuscrit  188  du  collège  de  la  Madeleine; 
l'ancien  texte  latin,  les  traductions  partielles,  les  gloses,  tout 
y  est  confondu.  On  croira  sans  peine  que  de  cet  ensemble, 
probablement  encore  altéré  par  les  copistes,  ne  jaillit  pas  une 
lumière  bien  vive. 

Au  surplus,  quelques  extraits  feront  mieux  juger  de  la  na- 
ture et  de  l'importance  de  ces  recueils.  Je  choisis  les  règles 
du  manuscrit  188  les  plus  intéressantes  et  sur  lesquelles  règne 
le  moins  d'obscurité. 

EXTRAITS 

TRADUITS  DU  MANUSCRIT   1  88   DU   COLLÈGE  DE  LA  MADELEINE  D'OXFORD. 

Orthographe  française  et  congrue  conforme  à  l'usage  moderne  '  : 

Règle  i .  Un  mot  français  mis  en  écrit ,  si  la  première  syllabe  est  en  e 
prononcé  bouche  fermée ,  demande  un  i  avant  cet  e.  Exemples  :  lien , 
chien,  rien,  Pierre,  miere ,  etc. 

R.  2.  L'c  aigu  ne  veut  pas  être  précédé  de  l'i.  Ex.  :  bavez,  tenez,  lessez. 

R.  g.  Les  verbes  terminant  leur  singulier  par  t,  au  pluriel  correspondant 
changent  ce  t  en  z.  Ex.  :  singulier,  il  amet,  list;  pluriel,  vous  amez,  lisez. 

R.  2  1.  La  lettre  s,  mise  après  une  voyelle  et  suivie  immédiatement  de 
la  lettre  m,  disparaît  de  la  prononciation.  Ex.  :  mandasmes ,  Jismes ,  daresmes. 

R.  23.  La  lettre  /,  mise  après  a,  e,  o,  et  suivie  d'une  consonne,  se  pro- 
nonce comme  si  c'était  un  u.  Ex.  :  m'aime,  loialment,  bel  compaigneoan. 

'   «  Orthographia  gallica  et  congrua  in  «  R.   9.   Item   verba  singularis  nunieri 

literis  gallicis ,  dictata  secundum  usum  habencia  in  singulari ,  in  fine,  hanc  lite- 

modernorum  :  ram  (,  requirunt  in  piurali  hanc  literaoi 

«  Régula   1 .  Diccio  gallica  dictata  ha-  z ,  ut  in  singulari  amet,   list,  in  piurali 

bens  primam  sillabam  vel  mediam  in  e  amez,  lisez. 

stricto  ore  pronunciatam ,  requirit  hanc  «R.  21.  Item,  quandocumque  hec  li- 

Htteramianle  e,  verbi  gratia:  bien,  chien,  tera  s  scribitur  post  vocalem ,  si  m  imme- 

rien,  Piere,  miere,  et  simiiia.  diate  subsequitur,  s  non  débet  sonari,  ut 

«  R.  2.  Quandocumque  hec  vocalis  e  pro-  mandasmes ,  Jismes ,  daresmes. 
nunciatur  acute,  per  se  stare  débet  sine  «  R.  23.  Item,  quandocumque  liée  li- 

hujus  I  precessione ,  v.  g.  :  bevez,  tenez,  tera  /  ponitur  post  a,  e  et  0,  si  aliquod 

lessez.  consonans  post  l  sequitur,  l  quasi  a  débet 


INTRODUCTION.  31 

R.  2  5.  /  entre  m  et  n  se  change  en  y ,  pour  obtenir  une  écriture  plus 
lisible,  par  exemple  ;  Comyngtoun. 

R.  27.  Un  mot  qui  commence  par  une  consonne,  venant  après  un  mot 
qui  finit  par  une  consonne  (dans  le  courant  d'une  phrase),  la  consonne 
finale  du  premier  mot  peut  s'écrire,  mais  elle  disparaît  de  la  prononciation. 
Ex.  :  après  manger  se  prononce  aprè  manger. 

R.  33.  Quand  l'article  le  est  suivi  d'un  mot  qui  ouvre  par  une  consonne 
et  précédé  du  mot  en ,  on  peut  fondre  en  et  le  dans  une  syncope  :  el  coantee 
pour  en  le  coantee. 

R.  36.  Quant,  grant,  demandant,  sachant,  et  autres  semblables,  s'écrivent 
par  n  sans  a ,  mais  il  faut  faire  sentir  Vu  dans  la  prononciation. 

R.  5o.  Une  modification  d'orthographe  est  souvent  la  seule  différence 
entre  des  mots  identiques  à  l'oreille.  Ex.  :  ciel,  seel,  seul,  celée;  —  coy, 
qaoy;  —  moal,  moel;  —  cerf,  serf;  —  teindre,  tendre,  tenir,  attendre;  — 
esteani,  esteyant;  —  aymer,  amer;  — foail,  fel,  féal;  —  veele,  viel,  veile, 
ville,  vill;  —  Brahel,  Breele;  —  erde,  herde,  everde;  —  essil,  haissel, 
essel;  —  neif,  nief;  —  suef,  soef;  —  boaile,  baile,  baie,  balee;  —  litter, 
litre;  —  former,  forer,  forrer;  —  rastel,  rastuer;  —  mesure,  meseire;  — 
piel,  peel;  —  Berziz,  Berzy;  —  grisil,  greel,  grêle;  —  tonne,  towne;  —  neym, 
neyn,  etc. 


pronuDciari,  v.  g.  :  malme,  loialment,  bel 
compaigneoun. 

■  B.  25.  Item,  quandocutnque  lilera  i 
ponitur  inler  m  et  n,  potest  mulari  in  y 
ut  iitera  sit  legibilior,  ut  Comyngtoan. 

«  R.  27. Item ,  quandocumque  aliqua  dic- 
cioiiicipiensaconsonantesequituraliquam 
diccionem  terminantem  in  consonante ,  in 
rationibus  pendentibus,  consonans  inte- 
rioris  diccionis  polesl  scribi,  sed  in  pro- 
nunciatione  non  proferri ,  ut  après  manger 
débet  sonari  aprè  manger. 

«R.  33.  Item,  quandocumque  hoc  »i- 
gnum  le  scribitiir  et  consonans  immédiate 
subsequitur  et  en  précédât,  n  potest  prae- 
termitli  et  l  adjungi  cum  e,  v.  g.  :  en  le 
countee  potest  scribi  el  coantee. 

•  R.  36.  Item  iste  sillabe  seu  dicciones 


quant,  grant,  demandant,  sachant,  et  hu- 
jusmodi  debent  scribi  cum  simplici  n  sine 
u,  sed  pronuncialione  u  débet  proferri. 

«R.  5o.  Item  diversilas  scriplurae  facit 
diiîerentiam  aliquam  quamvis  in  voce 
sint  consimiles,  v.  g.  :  ciel,  seel,  seal , 
celée;  —  coy,  quoy;  —  moal,  moel;  — 
cetf,  serf;  —  teindre,  tendre,  tenir,  at- 
tendre; —  esteant,  esteyant;  —  aymer, 
amer;  — foail,  fel ,  féal;  —  veele,  viel, 
veile,  ville,  vill;  —  brahel,  breele; — erde, 
herde,  everde;  —  essil,  huissel,  essel;  — 
neif,  nief;  —  suef,  soef;  —  boaile,  baile, 
baie,  balee;  —  litter,  litre;  — fomier,  fo- 
rer, forrer;  —  rastel,  rastuer;  —  mesure, 
meseire;  —  piel,  peel; —  berziz,   berzy; 

—  grisil,  greel,  grêle;  —  tonne,    towne; 

—  neym,  neyn,  etc. 


32  INTRODUCTION. 

R.  58.  A  l'accusatif  singulier  écrivez  me,  aux  autres  cas,  moy. 

R.  63.  Quand  vous  demandez  quelque  chose  à  quelqu'un,  vous  pouvez 
dire  vous  pri,  sans  je. 

R.  65.  Le  verbe  n'étant  pas  accompagné  de  son  pronom  personnel, 
par  exemple ,  vous  prj  ou  bien  m'affy,  il  faut  terminer  par  y. 

R.  66.  Mais  ce  pronom  étant  exprimé,  l'j  grec  se  change  en  i  simple 
suivi  d'un  e.  Ex.  -.je  m'aj[Jie,je  vous  prie. 

R.  6-j.  Quelquefois  ïs  prend  la  valeur  de  l'u  dans  la  prononciation; 
ascun,  prononcez  aucun. 

R.  8i.  Vous  écrivez  quelquefois  de  en  place  de  od  le.  Ex.  :  vous  dirra 
de  bouche,  pour  od  le  bouche. 

R.  82.  Écrivez  pour  traduire  le  latin  cam  en  français,  od  ou  bien  ou. 

R.  83.  Ou  traduit  aussi  vel  et  ubi. 
.    R.  85.  Réglez  le  plus  possible  l'orthographe  du  français  sur  celle  du 
latin;  ainsi  de  compotum ,  compte;  de  septem ,  sept;  de  prœbenda,  prebendre 
(sic);  de  opus ,  œps,  etc. 

R.  87.  Le  français  a  plusieurs  expressions  pour  rendre  l'anglais  rééd. 
Ex.  :  cheval  roux,  hareng  saur,  escu  de  goules ,  une  rose  vermaile. 

R.  9a.  iV  et  i  se  rencontrant  au  milieu  d'un  mot,  mais  appartenant  chacun 
à  une  syllabe  différente,  le  g  s'interpose  dans  l'écriture ,  sans  toutefois  se  faire 
sentir  dans  la  prononciation.  Ex.  :  benignement,  certaignement,  etc. 

R.   g3.  Quand,   au  milieu  d'un  mot,   une  m  suit  un  e  ou  un  i  (ces 


"  R.  58.  Item  in  accusativo  singulari 
scribetur  me,  in  reliquis  casibus  moy. 

I  R.  63.  Item,  quando  petitis  aliquid  ab 
aliquo,  potestis  dicere  woiw  pri,  sanzje. 

«  R.  65.  Item,  quando  non  expresse  po- 
nitur  signum  ante  verbum,  ut  vous  pry, 
item  pry  vei  maffy,  débet  lerminari  in  y. 

'  R.  66.  Item,  si  signum  expresse  poni- 
tur,  tune  y  mutabitur  in  i  et  addelur  e, 
com  je  m'ajfie,  je  vous  prie. 

«  R.  67.  Item  aliquando  s  .scribitur  et  u 
sonabitur,  ut  ascun  sonabitur  aucun. 

«  R.  81.  Item  aliquando  scribetis  de  in 
loco  od  le,  sicut  vous  dirra  de  bouche,  pro 
od  le  bouche. 


»  R.  83.  Item  scribetis o</ vel  ou  pro  cum. 

«  R.  83.  Item  scribetis  ou  pro  vel  et  ubi. 

«  R.  85.  Item  pro  majori  parle  scribetis 
gallicnm  secundum  quod  scribitur  in  lati- 
nis,  ut  compotum,  compte;  —  septem,  sept; 
—  prœbenda,  prebendre;  —  opus,  œps,  etc. 

«  R.  87.  Item  habentur  diversa  verba 
gallica  pro  isto  verbo  anglico  reed;  vide- 
licet  rous  chival  et  harang  soor;  escut  de 
goules  ;  une  rose  vermaile. 

«  R.  92.  Item  quandocumque  n  sequitur 
i  in  média  diccione ,  in  diversis  sillabis  g 
débet  inlerponi,  ut  certaignement ,  benigne- 
ment; sedg  non  débet  sonari 

•  R  93.  Item ,  quandocumque  m  sequi- 


■f^M 


INTRODUCTION.  33 

voyelles  appartenant  à  deux  syllabes  différentes) ,  il  faut  écrire  une  s  entre 
les  deux.  Ex.  :  duresmes.fismes. 

R.  94.  Quand,  au  milieu  d'un  mot,  une  m  suit  un  a,  il  faut  les  séparer 
par  une  s;  mais  cette  s  n'est  point  prononcée.  Ex.  :  mandasmes. 

La  règle  98''  et  dernière  n'a  rien  en  soi  d'important;  elle 
prescrit  la  manière  d'écrire  que,  soit  en  abrégé  par  une  seule 
lettre  surmontée  d'un  signe,  soit  en  deux  lettres  qe;  mais  im- 
médiatement après  on  lit  ce  mot  isolé  :  Colyngburne. 

C'est  un  nom  propre  évidemment;  mais  est-ce  le  nom  de 
l'auteur  des  règles  ou  celui  du  scribe?  Je  suis  de  la  première 
opinion,  parce  que  là  finit  le  manuel  grammatical,  mais  non 
l'œuvre  du  copiste,  qui  se  poursuit  de  la  même  main.  Or  si 
ce  copiste  a  voulu  signer  son  travail,  il  a  dû  le  faire,  selon 
l'usage,  à  la  fin,  et  non  pas  au  milieu  du  manuscrit.  Je  crois 
donc  qu'on  peut  désigner  ce  traité  sous  le  nom  de  Colyng- 
hurne,  quitte  à  fournir  un  nouvel  argument  à  la  thèse  de  David 
Baker. 

Le  but  principal  de  Colyngburne  paraît  avoir  été  de  venir 
en  aide  aux  copistes  et  aux  secrétaires  écrivant  sous  la  dictée. 
C'est  en  leur  faveur  qu'il  rédige  un  manuel  de  l'orthographe, 
laquelle  dès  lors  n'était  pas  plus  qu'aujourd'hui  d'accord  avec 
la  prononciation.  «Gouvernez,  leur  dit-il,  gouvernez -vous 
tant  que  vous  pouvez  sur  l'étymologie  latine;  ainsi  n'oubliez 
pas  de  mettre  un  /)  à  compte  et  à  sept,  qui  viennent  de 
compotum  et  de  septem.  »  Mais  tout  copiste  ne  sait  pas  le  latin; 
il  faut  donc  venir  au  secours  de  l'ignorance  par  des  formules 
empiriques  :  Y  s  prend  le  son  de  l'a  dans  ascan;  de  même  1'/ 
dans  loyalment,  bel  compagnon.  On  écrit  Y  s  sans  la  prononcer 

lureveiiindiversissillabisetunadiccione,        média  sillaba  diccionis  et  m  immédiate 
5  débet  interponi,  ut  (ittre*mei,^sme5.  subsequitur,  s  débet  interponi ,  ut  man- 

«  R.  gi.  Item,  qnandocumque  a  est  in        dasm.es,  non  sonando  5.  » 

5 


34  INTRODUCTION. 

dans  les  mots  comme  fismes ,  mandasmes;  de  même  le  g  dans 
benignement.  Du  Guez,  lui,  remarque  que  le  p  et  le  b  doivent 
disparaître  de  la  prononciation  des  mots  tels  que  debte,  debvoir; 
qu'une  consonne  finale  n'a  de  valeur  qu'autant  que  le  mot 
suivant  commence  par  une  voyelle,  autrement  elle  est  muette; 
que  dans  le  groupe  st,  la  dernière  consonne,  le  t,  est  la  seule 
qu'on  fasse  entendre;  Y  s  en  pareil  cas  ne  sert  qu'à  doubler 
la  quantité  prosodique  de  la  voyelle  qui  précède.  Cette  con- 
sonne s  les  a  tous  préoccupés,  étant  celle  qui  se  représente 
le  plus  volontiers  suivie  d'une  autre  consonne.  L'auteur  des 
Gloses  françaises  sur  Colyngburne  (n°  4971  du  Brit.  Mus.] 
traduit  et  commente  la  règle  de  son  auteur  en  ces  termes  : 

Et  alefoich   escriveretz  s  en  lieu   de   a ,    comme   ascan   et   sera   soné 

aiican  ; et  alefoich  escriveretz  5  pur  bêle   escripture ,  come   mesme 

pour  même,  trescher  pour  trecher^. 

Ce  qui  manque  à  tous  ces  grammairiens  primitifs,  ce  n'est 
pas  la  patience,  ni  l'esprit  d'observation,  ni  même  l'exacti- 
tude :  c'est  l'habitude  de  rapprocher  les  faits  de  même  ordre , 
l'art  d'y  découvrir  le  principe  commun,  la  loi  fondamentale 
qui  parfois  se  déguise  dans  les  applications  ;  l'art  surtout  de 
ramasser  et  d'enfermer  toute  une  série  de  faits  dans  la  formule 


'  Al'  fois  {à  la  fois,  prononcez  alefoaé) 
pour  quelquefois ,  se  conserve  encore  chez 
les  paysans  picards.  M.  l'abbé  Corblct , 
dans  son  Glossaire  du  patois  picard ,  a 
omis  celle  forme ,  très-usitée  cependant  à 
Amiens;  il  ne  donne  que  alfos,  qui  est 
une  variante  de  prononciation.  Trescher 
n'est  autre  que  le  verbe  tresser.  Us  dou- 
blée avait  souvent  la  valeur  du  ch  mo- 
derne. On  disait  tresser  pour  danser,  par 
allusion  aux  figures  qui  s'entrelaçaient. 
Les  Latins  disaient  de  même  nectere  cho- 
ros,neclere  brachia.  Trescher  ou  <res5er  vient 


du  bas  latin  tricare,  que  Ducange  explique 
implicare,  innectere,  et  qui,  retraduit  sur 
le  français,  a  fait  triscare.  A  l'entrée  de 
Beg-ues  vous  eussiez  vu 

Tresces  et  baus  encontre  !ui  venir. 

(GarÎD  ,  11 ,  p.  196.) 

Contredanses  et  bals  venir  à  sa  rencontre. 

«  Tresces  et  baus,  dit  l'éditeur,  rondes  et 
danses.  La  tresce  répondait  assez  bien  au 
tripudium  antique,  et  qui  voudrait  appro- 
fondir la  matière  y  reconnaîtrait  beaucoup 
d'analogie  avec  notre  walse.  »  Je  ne  saurais 
partager  cette  opinion  de  M.  P.  Paris. 


INTRODUCTION.  35 

d'une  règle  générale.  La  grammaire  est  pour  eux  comme  un 
faisceau  répandu  dont  ils  recueillent  les  éléments  un  à  un , 
selon  que  le  hasard  les  leur  présente,  incapables  d'en  retrouver 
le  lien  égaré,  ni  de  suppléer  à  cette  perte  :  l'esprit  philoso- 
phique leur  fait  complètement  défaut. 

Gardons-nous  pour  cela  de  les  mépriser;  mais,  à  l'aide  des 
matériaux  qu'ils  nous  ont  préparés,  achevons  leur  entreprise. 
Toutes  ces  règles  partielles  sur  la  prononciation,  éparses  dans 
les  traités  compilés  du  xiii"  au  xvi'  siècle,  rapprochez-les, 
comparez-les  entre  elles  et  avec  les  indications  que  fournit 
encore  aujourd'hui  l'usage  traditionnel  ;  vous  trouverez  la 
clef  d'une  foule  d'exceptions  qui  paraissent  au  premier  coup 
d'œil  autant  d'atteintes  à  la  logique  ;  les  inconséquences  re- 
mises sous  leur  vrai  jour  disparaîtront,  et  vous  verrez  se  dé- 
gager d'elle-même  cette  règle  générale,  que  dans  la  vieille 
langue  on  ne  prononçait  pas  deux  consonnes  consécutives. 
Quel  était  donc  le  rôle  de  cette  double  consonne  ?  Je  l'ai  dit 
tout  à  l'heure  :  elle  servait  à  marquer  l'étymologie ,  et  à  noter 
l'accent  et  la  quantité  à  l'intérieur  des  mots. 

Ce  fait  très-important  pour  la  musique  du  langage  et  pour 
l'appréciation  de  la  poésie,  a  été  durement  nié';  mais  les 
inductions  que  je  tirais  il  y  a  six  ans  de  la  pratique  moderne, 
aujourd'hui  se  fortifient  des  témoignages  de  la  théorie  la  plus 
ancienne.  On  écrivait  des  consonnes  consécutives  par  respect 
de  l'étymologie,  et,  comme  dit  naïvement  le  glossateur  du 

'   Siepe  premente  deo,  fertdens  aller  opem.  M.  Génin  avec  beaucoup  de  sagacité;  et 

Je  demande  la  permission  de  citer  l'opi-  les  misérables  critiques  qu'on  lui  a  faites 

nion  d'un  savant  qui  ne  sera  point  suspect  sur  ce  point  n'ôtent  rien  à  la  vérité  de  sa 

de  partialité  en  ma  faveur  :  démonstration.»  (La  Chanson  d'Antioche, 

«  L'éloignement  de  nos  ancêtres  pour  publiée  par  M    Paulin  Paris,  Tecliener, 

la  prononciation  de  deux  consonnes  à  la  i848,  t.  II,  p.  66.) 
suite  l'une  de  l'autre  a  été  constaté  par 


36  INTRODUCTION, 

manuscrit  4971 ,  «pur  bêle  escripture,  «  mais  en  parlant  on 
ne  tenait  compte  que  d'une  seule.  Cette  proposition  était  hier 
un  paradoxe,  ce  sera  demain  une  banalité  ^ 


Je  terminerai  par  un  vœu  dont  la  réalisation  serait  à  coup 
sûr  bien  profitable  à  la  philologie  française  :  ce  serait  que  le 
Gouvernement  fît  rechercher  et  publier  sous  ses  auspices  les 
traités  composés  sur  notre  langue  dans  le  cours  du  moyen 
âge.  On  découvrirait  des  matériaux  inappréciables  dans  les 
bibliothèques  de  France,  et  surtout  dans  celles  d'Angleterre., 
si  riches  en  livres  français  de  toute  nature  dès  avant  la  con- 
quête^. On  a  fait,  au  grand  bénéfice  de  la  langue  et  de  la  lit- 
térature latine,  un  corpus  des  grammairiens  latins;  pourquoi 
ne  rassemblerait-on  pas  de  même  un  corpus  des  grammairiens 
français?  Il  n'apparaîtrait  d'abord  qu'un  chaos  de  débris;  mais 
de  ces  débris  peu  à  peu  coordonnés  par  une  érudition  pa- 
tiente, fouillés  par  des  mains  circonspectes  et  judicieuses, 
sortiraient  des  paillettes  d'un  or  pur,  dont  la  rareté  décuple 
la  valeur.  Attendra-tron  à  faire  ce  recueil  d'être  à  la  même 


'  Cette  prononciation  amollie  pourrait 
bien  être  une  tradition  des  Latins.  Je  ne 
développerai  pas  ici  cette  thèse;  je  me 
contenterai  de  livrer  aux  réflexions  des  es- 
prits sagaces  le  passage  suivant  de  Cicéron  : 

«  Impetratum  est  a  consuetudine  ut  pec- 
«  care  suavitatis  causa  liceret,  et  pomeri- 
«  dianas  quadrigas  dicere  quas  postmeridia- 
«  nos  libentius  dixerim.  »  [Oraior.  U,  7.) 

*  II  ne  faudrait  pas  se  réduire  aux 
ouvrages  littéralement  inédits  ;  certaines 
éditions  sont,  à  force  de  rareté,  équiva- 
lentes à  des  manuscrits.  Telle  est  l'édition 
de  Palsgrave ,  telles  sont  les  trois  éditions 


de  du  Guez,  dont  l'ouvrage  n'a  paru  dans 
les  ventes  qu'une  seule  fois,  dans  la  vente 
de  la  bibliothèque  Brindley,  où  cet  exem- 
plaire fut  payé  dix-sept  guinées  *. 

Ainsi  je  voudrais  voir  reparaître,  dans 
un  corpus  des  grammairiens  français,  le 
livre  d'Alexandre  Barclay,  un  autre  ou- 
vrage de  Geoffroy  le  Grammairien  (  1  igo), 

dont  parle  Pits  (p.  679),  etc.  etc 

Tout  cela  c'est  notre  histoire. 

*  C'était  lYdition  de  Walley.  «This  curions  and 
u  uncommonly  pare  volume  lias  only  occurred  for 
«sale  in  Briudley's  library,  wliere  it  was  purchased 
«for  scventcen  guineas.n  [ liihîiotkeca  Grenvil.  t.  H, 
|>.  s5i.) 


INTRODUCTION.  37 

distance  du  siècle  de  Louis  XIV  que  nous  sommes  du  siècle 
d'Auguste?  Ce  sera  l'aventure  des  livres  sibyllins;  car  tandis 
que  nous  marchandons,  le  temps  impitoyable  consume  tous 
les  jours  quelque  volume.  D'ailleurs,  si  l'histoire  des  institu- 
tions doit  s'écrire  à  leur  déclin,  afin  de  retarder  autant  que 
possible  la  décadence  commencée,  en  les  retrempant  dans 
leurs  sources,  l'heure  paraît  venue  de  s'occuper  des  origines 
de  la  langue  française  :  des  critiques  moroses,  des  esprits  fa- 
ciles à  s'alarmer  pourraient  même  déclarer  l'urgence;  sans 
aller  aussi  loin,  je  me  bornerais  à  constater  l'opportunité.  Ces 
motifs  seront-ils  trouvés  suffisants  pour  être  pris  en  considéra- 
tion et  donner  naissance  au  recueil  des  grammairiens  français.-^ 
Je  l'ignore;  en  tous  cas,  les  deux  grammaires  de  Palsgrave  et 
de  du  Guez  dès  aujourd'hui  servent  de  pierre  d'attente  à  ce 
monument  national. 


L'exemplaire  unique  en  France  de  la  grammaire  de  Pals- 
grave,  appartenant  à  la  bibliothèque  Mazarine,  ne  pouvait 
être  dépecé  et  détruit  pour  servir  à  la  réimpression  de  l'ou- 
vrage; il  fallait  donc  le  traiter  comme  un  manuscrit  des  plus 
rares  et  en  faire  une  transcription  pour  l'usage  de  la  typogra- 
phie. Ce  travail  ingrat,  fastidieux,  qui  demandait  un  temps 
considérable,  sans  compter  la  connaissance  approfondie  de  la 
matière  et  de  la  langue  de  l'auteur,  mes  fonctions  administra- 
tives ne  me  permettaient  pas  d'y  songer;  un  érudit  trop  mo- 
deste, de  qui  l'amitié  m'est  honorable  et  précieuse,  M.  P.  Lo- 
rain,  ancien  recteur  de  Lyon,  a  bien  voulu  s'en  charger,  et 
me  prêter  pour  cette  édition  de  Palsgrave  un  concours  sans 
lequel  il  m'eût  été  à  peu  près  impossible  de  l'exécuter.  Il  fal- 
lait conserver  dans  cette  copie  toutes  les  variations,  les  bizar- 

6 


J«  INTRODUCTION. 

relies  et  même  les  inconséquences  d'une  orthographe  mohile, 
capricieuse,  et  parfois  en  désaccord  avec  les  principes  énoncés 
dans  le  texte.  Essayer  de  rectifier  nous  eût  conduits  trop  loin; 
nous  avons  donc  porté  le  scrupule  jusqu'à  reproduire  ce  qui, 
dans  l'original,  pourrait  être  considéré  comme  faute  d'impres- 
sion, nous  fiant  à  l'intelligence  des  lecteurs  au  moins  autant 
qu'à  la  nôtre,  et  préférant  encourir  le  reproche  de  fidélité  su- 
perstitieuse plutôt  que  le  soupçon  d'altérations  maladioites, 
dans  tous  les  cas  arbitraires. 

Le  public  savant  a  encore  une  autre  obligation  à  M.  P.  Lo- 
rain.  Le  Manuel  du  libraire  de  M.  Brunet  nous  avait  révélé 
l'existence  d'une  grammaire  de  Gilles  Dewes,  dont  il  ne  paraît 
pas  qu'il  existe  en  Fiance  un  seul  exemplaire;  M.  Lorain, 
dans  un  voyage  qu'il  fit  à  Oxford,  ayant  vu  ce  livre  à  la  Bod- 
léienne,  prit  la  peine  de  le  transcrire  aussi  scrupuleusement 
qu'il  avait  fait  le  Palsgrave,  et,  de  retour  à  Paris,  il  fit  au  Mi- 
nistère présent  de  sa  copie,  afin  que  j'en  pusse  enrichir  ma 
publication.  Ce  sont  des  procédés  qu'il  suffit  d'énoncer;  ils 
deviennent  chaque  jour  plus  rares  dans  la  littérature,  et,  pour 
ma  part,  j'v  ai  été  d'autant  plus  sensible  qu'on  m'y  avait  moins 
accoutumé. 

Les  contradictions  d'orthographe  sont  encore  plus  fréquentes 
dans  le  texte  de  Dewes  ou  du  Guez  que  dans  celui  de  Palsgrave. 
Je  fais  cette  remarque  afin  que  ces  fautes,  tantôt  d'omission, 
tantôt  de  commission,  ne  soient  imputées  ni  aux  éditeurs,  ni 
aux  typographes  modernes.  Le  lecteur  doit  se  bien  persuader, 
contrairement  au  témoignage  de  ses  yeux,  qu'il  a  entre  les 
mains  des  éditions  faites  en  Angleterre,  au  commencement 
du  XVI''  siècle. 

F.  GKNIN. 


^ 


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k^  .jfml^j^l 


rt»^«'/'|'U\Çk>' 


^LESCLAR^ 

ICISSEMENT     DE     LA     LAN; 
Çiwfvancopfrj  totnpofepav  maifhc 

natyf  i>e  tlonbice  / 
et  gra6uc  6c 

NEQVE,  LVNA,  PER, 
N  OC  T  E  M. 

M        G 
^  p  <V 

Anno  uerbi*  mcarnad. 
M.D.XXX. 


LBONARDI    COXî    RadingienHi ludt 
tnoderatoris ,  Ad  OallicsIingtNt 
ftudîofos,   Carmen, 

7A  I>  L I C  A  quiTquis  amas,  axade  uerba  Consaù , 
I      Et  paricer  certis  iungere  diâa  modi's , 
NuUa  (it  in  toto  mcnda  ut  (crmone  rcpcrta, 
Pro  uero  Gallo,  qui'n  facile  ip(e  probes , 
Hsc  euolue  meî  Palgrauî  fcripta  diferti ,  ' 

Iriis  linguam  normis  ufque  polire  {lude« 
Sic  u  niîretur  laudet£|  urbs  doda  loquentem 
Lutecia»  indigenam  iur^c  ec  eGfe  fuum  • 

CEIVSDEM  COXI  ad erudi'tum uîrutn  G Ec 
FRIDVM  TROY  de  Burges Gallum , Camp i 
Flori'di  authorem,  que  îlle  fua  lingua  champ  Fleury 
uocatf  nomine  omnium  Anglorum»  Phaleutium. 

AMPO    Q.VOD    totîesGefn'dedoâc 
In  florcnte  tuo  cupîfti,  habemus. 
Nam  iub  legibus  hîcbene  approbatîs 
Sermo  Galiicus  ecce  perdocecur. 
Non  rem  grammacicam  Palsmon  antc 
Tra<flarat  melius  (aU  latînis, 
Quotquoc  floruerant  ue  poderotum , 
Nec  Grsct's  melius  putaco  Ga2am« 
IndruxiiTe  fuos  Itbris  policîs, 
Seu  quocquot  prsetio  prius  fuere, 
Quam  nunc  Gallica  îde  nofter  Tradft. 
Eftdoâus.facilis,  breuisc^  quantum 
Res  pcrmittit,  et  inde  nos  ouamus, 
Campo  quod  totîes  G  E  F  R I D  £  dode 
In  filorente  tuo  cupiftî,  habentcs . 


ÏHE  AUTHOURS  EPISTELL 


TO  THE  KYNGES  GRACE. 


TO  THE  MOST  HYGH  AND  PCYSSANT  PRINCE  KYNG  HENRY  THE  EYGHT 
•  BY  THE  GRACE  OF  GOD, 

KYNG  OF  ENGLANDE  AND  OF  FRANCE , 

DEFENSOR  OF  THE  FAYTH,  AND  LORDE  OF  IRELANDE , 

JOHN  PALSGRAVE, 

HIS  MOST  HUMBLE  AND  MOST  OBEISSAUNT  SUBJECT  AND  DAYLY  ORATOCR  , 

DESYRETH  LONG  DUBANCE  OF  GOOD  LYFE , 

AND  PBOSPERODS  FELICITE. 


Desirous  to  do  some  humble  service  unto  the  nobilite 
of  this  victorîous  reaime,  and  universally  unto  ail  other 
estâtes  of  thismy  nalyfe  countrey,  aftei  I  was  commaunded 
by  your  most  redouted  hyghnesse,  to  instruct  the  right 
excellent  princes ,  your  most  dere  and  most  entirely  belov- 
ed  suster  quene  Mary  douagier  of  France ,  in  the  frenche 
tonge.  As  one  whiche  had  conceyved  some  lytelle  hope  and 
confidence,  that  there  had  chaunsed  me  a  convenient  occa- 


,1  ÏHE  AUTHOURS  EPISTELL 

sion ,  by  i  ayson  of  that  charge ,  to  employé  my  labours 
about  the  thyng  whiche  myght,  in  tyrae  to  come,  be  unto 
your  noble  grâce  an  évident  argument  artd  déclaration  of 
the  towardnesse  of  my  moste  humble  and  most  obeissaunt 
hert,  in  the  accomplysshement  of  any  your  hyghnesses 
most  dradde  commandementes.  I  oftymes  began  thus  to 
consider  and  debate  willi  my  selfe.  This  lyke  charge  hâve 
dyvers  others  had  afore  my  dayes,  and  raany  others 
undouted  shall  also  herafter  bestovve  theyr  tyme  in  suche 
lyke  studious  exercise.  Whiche  thyng  amongest  others  hath 
bene  a  great  occasion,  that  many  sondry  clerkes  bave  for 
theyr  tyme  taken  theyr  penne  in  hande,  and  to  shewe 
theyr  good  willes  and  towarde  diligence,  suffi ciently  to 
acquite  them  on  theyr  behalfes,  wherby  they  myght  of  the 
princes  our  soveraynes  most  renoumed  progenitours,  and 
other  hygh  estâtes  of  this  noble  reaime,  whom  for  theyr 
tymes^ï  this  exercise  they  served,  worthely  attayne  some 
lytel  thanke  aijd  favour,  some  thyng  hâve  they  in  writyng 
lefte  behynde  them,  concernyng  unto  this  mater,  for  the 
ease  and  fortheraunce,  as  v^ell  of  suche  as  shulde  in  lyke 
charge  after  them  succède,  as  of  them  whiche  from  tyme 
to  tyme  in  that  tongwere  to  be  instructed.  Wherfore,  syns 
it  hath  pleased  our  most  redouted  soverayne,  to  commyt 
unto  me  of  others  the  most  unworthy  and  unsufficient  this 
lyke  roume  and  exercise.  I  shall  also  by  theyr  exemple, 
endevour  me  for  my  party,  of  thismy  nécessite,  by  reason  of 
his  highnesses  pleasure  and  most  drad  commandement,  to 
make  some  lytell  towardnesse  unto  vertue,  and  takyng 
light  and  érudition  of  theyr  studious  labours ,  whiche  in 


TO  THE  KYNGES  GRACE.  m 

this  mater  before  me,  hâve  taken  paynes  to  write.  I  shali 
assaye  some  small  thyng  to  adde  by  my  poore  diligence, 
wherby,  nat  onely  I  may  the  more  sufFyciently  acquite  me 
in  my  charge,  but  also,  that  by  mean  of  my  poore  labours 
taken  on  this  occasion,  the  frenche  tonge  may  herafter 
by  others  the  more  easely  be  taught ,  and  also  be  attayned 
unto  by  suche,  as  for  their  tymes  therof  shalbe  desyrous. 
Abidyng  therfore  upon  this  my  intended  purpose,  I  dyd 
my  eiFectuail  devoire  to  ensertche  out  suche  bokes,  as  had 
by  others  of  this  mater  before  my  tyme  ben  compyled , 
6f  whiche  undouted,  after  enquery  and  ensertche  made 
for  them ,  dyvers  came  unto  my  bandes,  as  weli  suche 
whose  authours  be  yet  amongest  us  lyveng,  as  suche 
whiche  were  of  this  mater  by  other  sondrie  persons  longe 
afore  my  dayes  composed.  And  perceyvyng,  that  they  ail 
by  one  accorde  and  agrément ,  chefely  treated  of  two  thynges , 
whiche  they  juged  unto  suche  of  our  nation,  as  were  mynd- 
ed  to  leme  that  langage,  of  ali  others  to  be  most  chefely 
requisyte,  thàt  is  to  saye,  howe  the  Frenche  tong  ought 
to  be  pronounced,  and  to  shewe  wherin  their  trewe  Ana- 
logie dyd  rest,  so  that  after  a  frenche  worde  were  ones 
unto  us  knowen,  we  myght  wotte  for  the  kepynge  of  trewe 
congruite  in  that  thonge  (if  the  worde  of  hym  selfe  were 
varyable)  how  to  welde  hym,  in  bis  cases,  gendre,  nom- 
bres ,  modes ,  tenses ,  and  persons.  I  also  on  my  partie , 
dyde  my  poore  dilygence  in  two  sondrie  bookes,  (usyng 
suche  order,  as  semed  unto  my  poore  jugement,  for  that 
mater  most  convenyent)  to  entreate  and  write  of  the  selfe 
thynges,  Whiche  after  I  had  (so  as  it  wolde  be)  fynisshed: 


IV  THE  AUTHOURS  EPISTELL 

nat  èstemyng  the  symplenesse  of  my  pbore  labours  in  that 
behalfe,  in  any  wise  worthy  lo  come  before  your  highnesses 
presens.  I  offred  them  unto  your  noble  grâces  sayde  most 
dere  and  most  entierly  beloved  Suster,.and  to  the  highly 
renoumed  prince  Charles  Brandon  duke  of  Suffolke,  her 
moost  worthy  espouse,  supposyng  it  unto  me  largely  to  be 
sufFycient,  if  my  poore  labours  myght  unto  iheir  grâces, 
to  whom  for  their  manyfolde  benefytes  I  was  so  highly 
bounden,  in  any  parte  be  acceptable.  But  whan  they  had 
thorowly  visyted  my  said  two  bokes,  of  their  great  good- 
nesse  and  synguler  favour  tovardes  me,  moche  more  ès- 
temyng them  than  they  in  dede  were  worthy,  their  grâces 
dyde  than  put  me  in  a  farther  hope  and  conforte,  that 
your  highnesse,  whiche  of  your  great  bountnousnesse  and 
notable  benignyte,  nat  onely  encorage  well  doers  in  anv 
kynde  of  verlue,  to  encrease  and  to  do  better,  but  also 
gratiously  dissymule  your  most  humble  subjectes  errours, 
to  conforte  them  to  amende ,  and  afterwarde  be  more  dily- 
gent ,  wolde  nat  refuse  benignely  and   in  good  parte  to 
accept  the  thyng,  wherof  your  noble  grâce  was  the  meer 
causer  and  very  chefe  occasion,  so  I,  on  my  partie,  to 
make  my  pore  gyfte  some  lytell  thing  more  acceptable, 
wolde  yet  in  this  mater  take  a  farther  dilygence,  and  wolde 
assay,  if  I  coulde  by  the  order  of  the  letters  fyrst  set  forthe 
in  our  tonge,  and  than  declared  in  Frenche,  sette  out 
worde  for  worde  and  phrasis  for  phrases ,  alFyrmynge  that 
though  my  labours  were  some  thynge  commodius  for  an 
introduction  towardes  the  better  attaynyng  of  thys  lan- 
gage, yet  were  they  nat  fully  sufficient  for  any  of  our 


TO  THE  RYNGES  GRACE.  v 

nation,  by  his  owne  study,  to  attayne  the  Frenche  tonge 
by,  except  after  their  trewe  prononciation  and  arte  Gram- 
maticall  ones  knowen ,  we  niyght  bave  pienty  of  frenche 
wordes  also,  to  expresse  our  myndes  withall.  Whose  good 
advertisementes  and  pleasures,  accordyng  to  my  most 
bounden  duetie  to  obey.  But  most  especiaily,  above  ail 
other  thynges,  desyrous  to  leave  some  lytell  monument 
unto  your  noble  grâces  postérité,  howe  that  some  tyme 
it  stode  with  your  highnesses  pleasure,  that  I  your  most 
humble  and  most  obeissaunt  subjecte  shuîde  employ  my 
tyme  about  this  study  and  exercise.  I  bave  nat  onely  as- 
sayde  so  to  mary  our  tonge  and  the  french  togider,  that  there 
shulde  fewe  wordes  in  comparison  of  bothe  the  tonges  be 
wantyng,  nor  phrases  where  the  tonges  diffre,  and  hâve 
nat  worde  for  worde  be  unsetforthe,  and  by  examples  ex- 
pressed,  but  farthermore,  folowyngthe  orderof  Theodorus 
Gaza,  in  his  grammer  of  the  Greke  tonge,  I  hâve  also 
added  unto  my  former  labours  a  thirde  boke,  whiche  is  a 
very  comment  and  exposytour  unto  my  seconde.  So  that 
the  accidentes ,  unto  the  partes  of  reason  in  the  Frenche 
tong,  and  other  préceptes  grammaticall ,  whiche  I  bave  but 
brefely  and  in  a  generaltee  touched  in  my  seconde  boke, 
and  so,  as  unto  an  Introduction  dothe  suffise,  in  my  said 
thirde  boke  consequently  and  in  due  ordre  be  declared, 
dilated,  and  sette  forthe  at  the  lenght.  Wherin,  most  high 
and  mighty  prince,  howe  soever  veyllable  my  poore  dily- 
gence  hath  ben,  were  it  nat  that  the  great  and  weighty 
affayres,  whiche  continually  without  intermyssion  lye  under 
the  orderyng  of  your  most  puyssaunt  septre  rovall ,  at  ail 


VI  THE  AUTHOURS  EPISTELL 

tymes,  require  the  présence  of  your  most  gratious  eye, 
wherby  my  most  symple  labours  of  small  and  utterly  no 
condigne  importaunce  cou! de  gete  no  leyser  convenyent 
by  your  highnesses  most  profounde  jugement  to  be  loked 
upon ,  by  the  generall  testymony  and  commen  reporte  of 
ail  maner  persons,  whiche  hâve  ben  admylted  unto  your 
most  gratious  speche,  natonely  your  most  humble  subjectes, 
but  also  the  ambassadours  of  ail  outwarde  princes ,  of  ail 
other  persons,  whiche  at  this  présent  tyme  be  lyveng,  with 
in  the  boundes  of  your  right  ample  domynions,  it  shulde 
hâve  ben  to  me  most  highly  requisyte,  to  hâve  raade  my 
most  instaunt  sute ,  for  the  benygne  advyse  of  your  noble 
grâces  moste  expert  opynion  in  this  behalfe,  afore  I  shulde 
hâve  dared  to  take  upon  me,  to  dedycate  this  my  poore 
labours  unto  your  highnesse,  whiche  in  the  Frenche  tonge, 
amongest  your  noble  grâces  other  manyfolde  sortes  of  ex- 
cellent erudytion  and  lytterature,  hâve  also  in  this  tonge 
so  clere  and  parfite  a  sight,  lest  that  myne  audacite  for 
want  of  dewe  circumspection ,  myght  in  any  point  oÊFende 
your  hyghnesse.  But  with  ail  dewe  humylite  and  most 
lowly  obeissaunce,  I  submytte  bothe  me  and  my  poore 
labours  unto  your  noble  grâces  most  bénigne  correction , 
protestyng  no  maner  thynge  in  my  hole  worke,  to  be  eyther 
well  or  sufficiently  done,  but  that  whiche  your  highnesse, 
as  most  worthy  juge  and  clere  discerner  in  this  behalfe, 
shall  vouchsafe  to  alowe  and  approve.  Onely  of  this  thyng 
puttyng  your  highnesse  in  remembra unce,  that  where  as 
besydesthe  great  nombre  of  clerkes,  whiche  before  season 
of  this  mater  hâve  written  nowe  sithe  the  beginnyng  of 


TO  THE  KYNGES  GRACE.  vu 

your  most  fortunate  and  most  prosperous  raigne,  the  right 
vertuous  and  excellent  prince  Thomas  late  duke  of  North- 
folke  hath  commanded  the  studious  clerke  Alexandre  Bar- 
kelay  to  embusy  hym  selfe  about  this  exercyse ,  and  that 
my  sayd  synguler  good  lorde  Charles  duke  of  Sufiblke, 
by  cause  that  my  poore  labours  required  a  longre  tracte 
of  tyme,  hath  also  in  the  meane  season  encouraged  maister 
Petrus  Vallensys,  scole  maister  to  bis  excellent  yong  sonne 
the  Erle  of  Lyncolne ,  to  shewe  bis  lernynge  and  opinion 
in  this  behalfe,  and  that  the  synguler  clerke,  maister  Gyles 
Dewes  somtyme  instructeur  to  your  noble  grâce  in  this 
selfe  tong,  at  the  especiall  instaunce  and  request  of  dy- 
vers  of  your  bighe  estâtes  and  noble  men,  hath  also  for  bis 
partye  written  in  this  matter.  If  any  one  of  us  ail ,  whiche 
syns  the  begynnyng  of  your  said  well  fortuned  raygne,  of 
this  thyng  bave  written,  or  we  ail  amongest  us,  bave  by 
our  diligent  labours  nowe  at  the  last,  brought  the  frenche 
tong  under  any  rules  certayn  and  préceptes  granimaticall , 
lyke  as  the  other  thre  parfite  tonges  be,  we  bave  nat  onely 
done  the  thyng  whiche  by  your  noble  grâces  progenitours , 
of  ail  antiquité  so  moche  hath  ben  desyred,  that  besydes 
ail  other  maner  polycies  by  them  essayd,  whiche  myght 
serve  to  the  advauncement  and  fordrance  of  that  purpose, 
they  never  cessed  to  encorage  suche  clerkes  as  were  in 
theyr  tymes,  to  prove  and  essay  what  they  by  theyr  dy- 
ligence  in  this  matter  myght  do.  But  also  under  the  stu- 
dyous  tyme  of  your  most  prosperous  raigne ,  in  whiche 
ail  ingénions  exercises  thus  hyghly  do  habounde,  we  bave 
hère  within  the  lymites  of  your  most  fortunat  obevssance 


vm  THE  AUTHOURS  EPISTELL 

and  domynionSj  done  the  thynge  whiche  by  ihe  testimojiy 
of  the  excellent  clerke,  maister  Geffray  Troy  de  Bourges  (a 
late  writer  of  the  frenche  nation)  in  his  boke  intituled 
Champ-Fleurj,  was  never  yet  amongest  them  of  that  con- 
trayes  selfe  hetherto  so  moche  as  ones  effectually  attempted. 
In  so  moche  that  the  sayd  clerke,  about  the  beginnyng  of 
his  boke,  spekyng  of  Hercules  Gallicus  or  François,  and 
shewynge  the  naturall  inclination  that  the  frenche  men 
hâve  unto  éloquence  and  facundite ,  and  howe  theyr  tong 
for  the  most  generall  is  corrupted  for  want  of  rules  and 
préceptes  grammaticall,  and  whisshynge  that  some  studious 
clerke  shulde,  by  mean  of  his  exhortation  nowe  take  the 
thyng  in  hande,  and  fardermore  rehersyng  the  names  of 
suche  authours  whiche  he  estemeth  in  the  frenche  tong 
to  be  most  excellent,  and  which  he  wolde  chefely  shulde 
be  over  visyted  and  thorowe  studyed,  to  gather  theyr  gram- 
maticall rules  ont  of,  he  hath  fortuned  to  name  suche  and 
the  very  same  whiche  my  chaunce  hath  ben,  for  the  auc- 
torysyng  and  corroboratyng  of  my  said  thyrde  boke  with 
ail,  chefely  to  alledge,  to  folowe  and  to  ieane  unto.  Wherby, 
most  hyghe  and  puissaunt  prince,  my  most  entyrely  ho- 
noured  and  most  redouled  souveraygne,  amongest  the  other 
manifolde  hyghe  benifites,  whiche  by  yourmost  provident 
cure  and  diligent  circumspection,  you  dayly  mynister  unto 
your   most  humble  and  most  obeissaunt  subjectes,  and 
amongest  the  other  manifolde  sortes  of  érudition  and  litté- 
rature, whiche  by  your  hyghnesses  most  amyable  exhor- 
tation ,  and  especially  by  évident  exemple  in  your  owne 
noble  person,  as  moche  flourishe  nowe  under  your  ryght 


TO  THE  KYNGES  GRACE.  ix 

ample  dominions,  as  thorowe  the  residewe  of  Europa,  y  ou 
hâve  also  procured  and  provided  for  them  the  parfit  know- 
lege  of  the  frenche  tong,  of  ail  antiquité  by  your  noble 
progenitours  so  moche  covited  and  desired,  and,  by  this 
mean  where  as  your  sayd  subjectes  for  your  manifolde 
great  benifites  unto  them  shewed,  be  as  moche  bounden 
unto  yoiu"  noble  grâce,  as  ever  were  subjectes  unto  theyr 
liège  and  soverayne  lorde,  by  reason  of  this  great  commo- 
dité, procured  also  by  your  hyghnesse,  that  they  may  nowe 
in  the  tyme  of  your  most  happy  raigne,  thus  easely  attayne 
unto  the  frenche  tong,  and  for  so  moche  as  it  hath  pleased 
your  hyghnesse  of  your  most  excellent  goodnesse,  thus 
benygnely  and  thankfully  to  accept  my  poore  labours 
employed  in  this  behalfe,  your  noble  grâce  hath  y  et  more 
highlye  and  more  largely  bounden,  both  them,  and  of 
ail  others  lyvyng  most  especially  me,  to  pray  for  your 
prospérons  estate  long  to  endure,  in  ail  félicite  and  worldly 
welth  amongest  us. 


AMEN. 


X        THE  KYNGES  GRACES  PRYVILEGE. 

HERE  FOLOWETH  THE  COPT  OF  THE  KYNGES  GRACES  PRYVILEGE,  GRAUNTED  DNTO  THE  ADTHOUR 

FOR  THE  SPACE  OF  SEVYN  YEHES. 

Henry ,  by  the  grâce  of  God,  kynge  of  Englande  and  of  France,  defensor 
of  the  faythe ,  and  lorde  of  Irelande ,  to  ail  maner  our  officers ,  mynysters 
and  subjectes  gretynge.  Where  as  our  tnisty  and  ryght  welbeloved  subjecte 
maister  John  Palsgrave ,  iipon  occasion  that  we  aforc  this  season  gave  hym 
in  commandement,  to  teche  our  most  dere  and  most  entierly  beloved 
suster  quene  Mary  douagere  of  France  in  the  frenche  tong,  halh  made  a 
boke  entituled  and  called,  Lesclarcissement  de  la  langue  francope ,  whiche 
evidently  appereth  unto  us  and  our  counsaile ,  to  be  made  whith  a  great 
and  long  continued  dyligence,  and  to  be  very  necessarye,  profitable  and 
expédient,  as  well  for  the  bryngyng  up  of  the  youth  of  our  nobylite,  as  for 
ail  other  maner  parsons  our  subjectes  to  attayne  the  parfyte  knowlege  of 
the  frenche  tong  by,  whiche  sayd  boke,  our  sayd  welbeloved  subject, 
besydes  bis  great  labours,  paynes  and  tyme  there  about  employed,  he  hath 
also,  at  his  proper  coste  and  charge  put  in  prynt,  we  greatly  moved  and 
stered  by  dewe  consyderation  of  his  sayd  long  tyme  and  great  dyligence 
about  this  good  and  very  necessarye  purpose  employed,  and  also  of  his  sayd 
great  costes  and  charges  bestowed  about  the  imprintyng  of  the  same,  bave 
liberally  and  benignely  graunted  unto  the  sayd  maister  Palsgrave  our  favo- 
rable letters  of  privilège,  concernyng  his  sayd  boke,  cailed  Lesclarcissement 
de  la  langue  francoyse ,  for  the  space  and  terme  of  sevyn  yeres  next  and  im- 
medyatly  after  the  date  hereof  enswyng ,  straytly  chargyng  and  commandyng , 
ail  maner  our  subjectes,  boke  sellars  or  other,  whiche  medell  with  the  fayte 
of  prynlyng  or  sellyng  of  bokes,  that  they  ne  none  of  them,  nother  print 
nor  cause  to  be  prynted ,  nother  within  this  our  reaime ,  nor  elswhere  out 
of  our  reaime  any  nombre  of  bokes,  after  the  copy  of  the  sayd  Lesclarcisse- 
ment, nor  after  any  maner  tables,  or  other  part  or  portion  of  the  sayd  boke, 
nor  bye  no  maner  hole  bokes ,  nor  part  of  them ,  whiche  shalbe  prynted  any 
where  out  of  oiu"  reaime ,  by  any  other  princes  subjectes ,  upon  payne  of 
our  hygh  displeasure  and  confiscation  and  forfaycture  of  ail  maner  suche 
bokes ,  outher  printed  or  bought ,  contrary  to  this  our  pleasiu-e ,  of  the  va- 
lewe  of  whiche  bokes  accordyngly  and  justly  praysyd,  we  wyll  our  said 
subjectes  in  this  behalfe  offendyng,  shall  paye  the  one  halfe  for  our  use  unto 


-»"' 


THE  KYNGES  GRACES  PRYVILEGE.        xi 

the  next  officer  of  justice  adjoynyng  unto  the  place  where  the  bokes  shall 
fortune  so  to  be  founde,  and  the  other  halfe  to  go  to  the  use  and  profyte 
of  our  sayd  welbeloved  subject  maister  John  Palsgrave,  wyllyng  and  or- 
daynyng  forthermore  that,  in  case  any  maner  alien  or  stranger,  mediyng 
with  the  faite  of  printyng  or  bokesellyng,  or  any  other  parsone,  bring  any 
maner  bokes  printed  after  the  sayd  maister  Palsgraves  copy,  or  any  parte 
thereof,  in  to  this  our  reaime  hère  to  make  sale  and  utterance  of  them, 
duryng  the  sayd  terme  and  space  of  vu  yeres,  that  he  or  they  shall  ron  in 
suche  lyke  losse  and  penalte,  as  we  bave  hère  afore  ordayned  of  our  owne 
subjectes,  for  suche  is  our  utter  wyll  and  pleasure  in  this  behalfe.  Yeven 
under  our  sygnet ,  at  our  maner  of  Amptbyll ,  the  seconde  day  of  septem- 
ber,  the  xxii  yere  of  our  raygne. 

ANDREWE  BAYNTON,  TO  THE  RYGHT  NOBLE  AND  EXCELLENT  YONG  GENTILMEN, 

MY  LORDE  THOMAS  HAWARDE,  MY  LORDE  GERALDE, 

AND  MAISTER  CHARLES  BLONT, 

SONNE  AND  HEYRE  TO  THE  LORDE  MONTJOYE,  HfS  LATE  SCOLE  FELOWES. 

Where  as  I  perceyve  by  y  our  ryght  lovyng  letters  that  divers  parsons, 
whiche  were  moche  desyrous  of  our  maisters  Escîarcàsement  de  la  langue 
francoyse,  afore  he  had  presented  it  to  the  kynges  hyghnesse,  nowe  that 
his  boke  is  publisshed  ,  and  to  be  had  amongest  the  printars,  whan  they 
loke  upon  the  greatnesse  of  the  volume,  they  be  therby  in  party  discou- 
raged ,  and  thynke  that  the  more  the  worke  is  in  bygnesse ,  the  greattar 
labours  must  of  the  lernars  be  therto  required.  But  1  am  sure ,  that  you 
whiche  hère  in  knowe  our  maisters  hole  intente  and  consydcration ,  hâve 
at  the  fuU  satisfied  and  quieted  ail  suche  parsons  whiche  you  bave  herde 
under  that  maner  reason ,  for  as  you  bave  well  by  hym  parceyved ,  he  hath 
willyngly  and  a  purpose,  moved  of  good  and  tendre  zèle,  taken  in  this 
matter  the  greattar  paynes  upon  him,  to  ease  and  forther  ail  maner  par- 
sons of  our  nation,  whiche  be  desyrous  of  that  langayge,  of  theyr  great 
paynes  and  studies ,  whiche  eis  of  nécessite  must  nedes  bave  ben  required 
in  this  behalfe.  And  where  as ,  afore  his  tyme ,  men  of  our  nation  dyd  in 
maner  dispayre  that  the  frenche  tong  coulde  ever  by  any  meanes  be  got- 
ten,  saufe  onely  by  an  importune  and  long  continued  exercise,  and  that 


xir  THE  EPISTELL 

begon  in  young  and  tender  âge,  our  maister  hath  hère  in  done  so  moche 
that  he  that  wyll  seke  may  fynde,  and  in  a  brefe  tyme  attayne  to  his  utterest 
desyre ,  and  that  nat  oneiy  concernyng  the  parfyte  knowlege  and  redy  use 
of  the  tong,  but  also  brefly  and  with  smale  payne  to  gete  theyr  naturall 
pronunciatyon ,  whiche  hère,  afore  season,  hath  ben  supposed  amongest 
us  in  maner  a  thyng  inipossyble,  howe  be  it  hère  in  to  knowlege  the  wery 
truthe,  rather  it  is  to  be  supposed  that  suche  of  our  nation  as  shaii  eiFec- 
tualiy  be  desyrous  of  the  frenche  tong ,  shail  thynke  his  boke  to  ly teli  and 
in  some  thynges  to  moche  abreviate,  than  in  any  one  poynt  superfluously 
to  moche,  whan  after  the  rules  of  ryght  pronunciation ,  and  the  préceptes 
grammatical!  of  this  tong  ones  knowen ,  whiche  two  thynges  in  comparison 
to  the  hole  volume  be  contayned  in  a  ryght  smale  space,  and  than  to 
practyse  thèse  raies  for  to  enjoye  the  frute  of  them,  shall  fortune  by  theyr 
owne  studye  to  translate  any  sentence  or  matter  out  of  our  tong  in  to  frenche, 
and  shall  parchaunce  loke  for  a  worde  amongeste  the  vocabulistes ,  whiche 
shulde  serve  for  theyr  purpose ,  and  shall  nat  strayght  and  ail  redy  at  bande 
fynde  out  the  thyng  they  loke  for.  But  to  ease  and  satisfye  the  lernar  in 
that  behalfe,  our  maister,  as  you  knowe,  hath  often  shewed  us  two  gene- 
rall  rules.  one,  nat  onely  expédient  for  this  purpose,  but  also  brefly  to 
bave  a  greal  plenty  of  substantives  and  adjectives  in  the  frenche  tong, 
for,  if  any  nowne  of  many  syllables  used  in  our  tong  approche  any  thyng 
towarde  latine,  commenly  that  worde  is  also  frenche ,  for  lyke  as  the  frenche 
men  borowe  theyr  wordes  immediatly  of  the  latines,  so  do  we  borowe  a 
great  nomber  of  our  substantives  and  adjectives  immediatly  of  the  frenche 
men,  whiche  thyng  for  substantives,  he  declareth  some  thyng  at  the  length, 
in  his  tbyrde  boke ,  in  the  lv  ,  lvi  and  lvii  chapiters ,  before  the  table  of 
substantives,  and  for  adjectives  in  his  sayd  thyrde  boke,  in  his  annotacions 
upon  the  vi  accident  belongyng  unto  adjectives,  whiche  be  set  next  before 
the  table.  And  yet  hâve  we  fardermore ,  as  he  hath  evidenly  proved  unto 
us,  a  great  nombre  of  olher  substantives  and  adjectives,  whiche  in  dede 
be  very  frenche  wordes,  saufe  that  our  Englyshe  tong  hath  some  thyng 
altred  theyr  later  terminations ,  but  after  theyr  trewe  orthographie  and 
ryght  pronunciatyon  be  ones  knowen,  they  be  by  any  parson  of  our  tong 
parceyved,  and  also  lerned  atones,  and  that  for  ever  after.  So  that,  if  the 
lernar,  whan  he  begynneth  to  practise,  shall  fortune  to  mysse  of  any  worde 


OF  ANDREWE  BAYNTON.  xui 

in  the  tables  of  substantives  or  adjectives,  lette  hym  fyrst  bave  recours 
unto  tbis  gênerai  rule ,  afore  be  judge  tbe  tables  unsufficient.  An  other 
rule  be  batb  also  gyven  us,  tbat,  if  any  parte  of  specbe  fortune  to  be  unset 
out  in  bis  owne  table,  let  tbe  lernar  seke  out  an  otber  of  lyke  sens  and 
sy  ngnify  cation ,  be  it  nowne,  verbe,  adverbe,  or  any  olber  parte  of  specbe 
tbat  is  wantyng ,  and  be  shaJl  by  tbat  meanes  be  compitently  satisfyed ,  and 
so  be  able  to  make  fortb  the  sentence  tbat  be  sball  for  tbe  tyme  fortune  to 
bave  in  bande.  Howe  be  it  as  you  bave  berde  our  maister  dyvers  tymes 
say,  wbere  as  it  is  above  a  tbousande  yeres  sens  clerkes  bave  laboured  to 
set  fortb  tbe  latin  tong,  and  dayly  yet  in  tbat  kynde  of  study  fynde  matter 
ynougb  to  exercyse  tbeyr  wittes  with  ail,  wbere  by  continually,  they  whicbe 
succède  indevour  tbem  some  tbyng  to  adde  unto  tbe  diligence  of  suche  as 
were  before  tbem ,  lyke  as  to  our  maisters  selfe  for  bis  partie  in  tbat  bebalfe 
batb  cbaunsed,  for,  after  he  bad  in  commandement  by  our  most  redouted 
soveraygne,  to  instructe  tbe  duke  of  Ricbemontes  grâce,  in  tbe  latin  tong, 
be  brougbt  ail  the  hole  Analogie  of  tbe  Romane  specbe,  into  ix  letters, 
tbat  is  to  say,  tbeyr  fyve  vowelles,  and  M,  N ,  R,  S,  consonantes,  whicbe 
tbyng  was  never,  as  yet,  of  no  clerke  tbat  be  wotteth  of  afore  his  tyme 
observed:  savyng  tbat  Marcus  Varro  whicbe  was  in  TuUyes  tyme,  in  his 
thyrde  boke  de  Analogia,  in  very  darke  and  brefe  wordes,  sbeweth  tbat 
Aristotles  Parmensius  and  Dionisius  Sidonius ,  supposed  tbat  suche  a  tbyng 
was  possible  to  be  brougbt  to  passe  of  the  Greke  tong.  It  is  than  no  mar- 
veyle,  tbougbe  tbis  volume  of  oure  maysters ,  whiche  leaveth  nothynge 
unattempted  tbat  ought  to  be  desyred,  for  the  grammaticall  perfection  of 
the  frenche  tonge ,  and  therto  dothe  his  dyligence ,  to  déclare  worde  for 
wordc ,  and  phrasys  for  phrasis ,  thorowe  bothe  tbe  tonges ,  do  nat  in  every 
poynt  utterly  suflîse  and  satisfy.  Sens  he  hath  ben  tbe  first  outher  of  our 
nation  or  of  the  french  menues  selfe,  tbat  batb  so  farre  waded  in  ail 
maner  tbinges  necessary  to  reduce  tbat  tong  under  rules  certayne.  And  of 
howe  great  a  difficulty  it  is  amongest  so  many  tbousande  wordes ,  in  bothe 
tbe  tonges  to  foresee ,  tbat  utterly  none  be  wantyng ,  seyng  tbat  be  batb 
also  ben  tbe  first,  which  in  tbat  kynde  of  exercise  hath  begon  to  labour, 
suche  as  bave  studie  in  tbe  tbre  parfyte  tonges,  and  bave  expérience  howe 
tbeyr  vocabulistes ,  whiche  bave  ben  of  so  many  yeres,  and  by  so  sondry 
clerkes  agatheryng,  and  yet  to  tbis  day  fiiHy  do  nat  satisfy,  can  in  this 


ife 


XIV  THE  EPISTELL  OF  ANDREWE  BAYNTON. 

behalfe  suffyciently  décerne.  But  as  touchyng  his  rules,  howe  the  frenche 
tong  ought  to  be  pronounsed ,  and  to  knowe  the  parfyte  Analogie  and  con- 
gruite  of  the  frenche  tong,  that  is  to  saye,  to  décerne  the  changes  whiche 
happen  in  thaï  langage,  by  reason  of  diversité,  in  case,  gender,  nomber, 
mode,  tens,  and  parson,  and  to  knowe  by  some  certayne  examples,  howe 
^o  conjugale  theyr  verbes  parfyte,  and  what  verbes  be  with  them  anomales, 
and  whiche  be  defectives,  by  cause  his  labours  can  in  no  wyse  be  profitable 
to  no  maner  parson,  except  he  bave  in  ail  thèse  thynges,  at  the  leest  some 
général!  knoweledge,  or  ever  he  can  be  hable  by  his  owne  studye,  to  trans- 
late any  sentence  out  of  our  tong  in  to  frenche;  to  do  unto  ail  maner 
parsones  of  our  natyon  desyrous  to  bave  the  frenche  tong,  y  et  a  farther 
and  more  thankefuU  pleasure ,  he  hath  brought   ail  the  pythe  and  effect 
of  his  two  fyrst  bokes  in  to  a  very  smale  roume  and  quantité,  whiche  com- 
pendious  tractyse  if  it  be  but  ones  rede  over,  the  iernar  shall  incontinently 
hâve  so  évident  and  clere  a  lyght  in  the  frenche  tong,  that  he  shall 
for  ever  after  be  paste  ail  maner  mystrust  or  discourayge 
in  this  behalfe ,  and  parcey ve  evydently,  that  a  lytell 
labour  shall  suffyse  hym  to  bave  the  full  frute 
and  commodité  of  this  his  hole  volume, 
of  whiche  brefe  traictise  so  moche 
expédient  and  commodyous 
for  this  purpose , 
I  sende  you 
hère 
a  copy. 


A  BREFE  INTRODUCTION 

OF  THE  AUTHOUR 

FOR  THE  MORE  PARFYTE  DNDERSTANDYNG  OF  HIS  FYRST  AND  SECONDE  BOKES 

HERE  FOLOWYNG. 

The  diffyculte  of  the  frenche  tong,  whiche  maketh  it  so  harde 
to  be  lerned  by  them  of  our  nation,  resteth  chefely  in  thre 
thynges  :  in  the  diversyte  of  pronunciation,  that  is  betwene  us 
and  them  :  in  theyr  analogie  and  maner  of  congruite,  where 
in  they  be  moche  more  parfyte  and  exquisyte  than  we  be,  and 
moche  more  approche  towardes  the  parfection  of  the  latin  tong 
than  we  do  :  and  thyrdly  in  theyr  propertes  of  spekyng,  where 
in  theyr  phrasys  be  dyfFerent  frome  ours,  and  letteth  us  that, 
thoughe  we  shulde  gyve  worde  for  worde,  yet  the  sens  shulde 
moche  differ  betwene  our  tong  and  theyrs.  Of  whiche  thre 
thynges  hère  brefely  and  by  maner  of  an  introduction  to  en- 
treate,  the  frenchemen  in  theyr  pronunciation  do  chefly  regarde 
and  covet  thre  thynges  :  to  be  armonious  in  theyr  speking  : 
to  be  brefe  and  sodayne  in  soundyng  of  theyr  wordes,  avoyd- 
yng  ail  maner  of  harshenesse  in  theyr  pronunciation  :  and 
thirdly  to  gyve  every  worde  that  they  abyde  and  reste  upon , 
theyr  most  audible  sounde.  To  be  armonious  in  theyr  spekyng, 
they  use  one  thyng  which  none  other  nation  dothe,  but  onely 
they,  that  is  to  say,  they  make  a  maner  of  modulation  inwardly, 
for  they  forme  certayne  of  theyr  vowelles  in  theyr  brest,  and 
suiFre  nat  the  sounde  of  them  to  passe  out  by  the  mouthe,  but 
to  assende  from  the  brest  straight  upto  thepalate  ofthe  mouth, 
and  so  by  reflection  yssueth  the  sounde  of  them  by  the  nose. 
To  be  brefe  and  sodayne,  and  to  avoyde  ail  maner  harshenesse, 
whiche  myght  happen  whan  many  consonantes  come  betwene 
the  vowelles,  if  they  ail  shulde  hâve  theyr  distyncte  sounde, 


xvr  THE  INTRODUCTION, 

most  commenly  they  never  use  to  sounde  past  one  onely  con- 
sonant  betwene  two  vowelles,  though  for  kepyng  of  trewe 
orthographie,  they  use  to  write  as  many  cousonantes  as  the  la- 
tine wordes  hâve,  whiche  theyr  frenche  wordes  corne  out  of, 
and,  for  the  same  cause,  they  gyve  somtyme  unto  theyr  cou- 
sonantes but  a  sleight  and  remisshe  sounde,  and  farre  more 
dyversly  pronounce  them  than  the  latines  do.  To  gyve  every 
worde  that  they  abyde  upon  his  most  audible  sounde,  where 
as  in  the  Greke  tong,  the  accent  hath  thre  dyvers  places,  that 
is  to  say,  the  last  syllable,  the  last  save  çne,  and  the  thyrde 
syllable  from  the  ende,  and  in  the  latin  tong,  at  the  leest  hath 
twayne,  thatis  to  say,  the  last  syllable  save  one,  or  the  thyrde 
syllable  from  thende,  the  frenche  men  judgyng  a  worde  to  be 
most  parfaytly  herde,  whan  his  last  end  is  sounded  hyghest, 
use  generally  to  gyve  theyr  accent  upon  the  last  syllable  onely, 
except  whan  they  make  modulation  inwardly,  for  than  gyveng 
theyr  accent  upon  the  last  syllable  save  one,  and  at  the  last 
syllable  of  suche  wordes ,  they  sodaynly  depresse  theyr  voyce 
agayne,  formyng  the  wowell  in  the  brest,  as  I  hâve  afore 
discribed.  But  to  the  intent  that  thèse  thynges  used  of  the 
frenche  men  in  theyr  pronounciation  ,  and  ail  others  concern- 
yng  the  very  grounde  of  theyr  analogie,  may  nat  semé  utterly 
fortuyt  and  done  by  chaunce,  but  rather  by  some  secret 
mystery  gyven  by  maner  of  a  syngular  priviledge  unto  this 
most  christened  nation,  let  us  se  howe  ternarius  numerus, 
that  is  to  say ,  the  nombre  of  thre,  whiche  of  ail  other  is  most 
parfyte,  excellent,  and  also  mystycall,  dothe  secretly  with 
them,  and  thorowly  worke  in  this  behalfe. 

FOR    THE    SOUNDÏNG    OF    THEYR    VOWELLES. 

Where  as  I  hâve  sayd  that,  to  be  the  more  armonious,  they 


;**i- 


THE  INTRODUCTION.  xvn 

makea  maner  of  modulation  inwardly,  that  thyng  happeneth 
in  the  soundyng  of  thre  of  theyr  vowelles  onely ,  A,  E  and  0, 
and  that  nat  universally ,  but  onely  so  often  as  they  come  before 
M  or  N  in  one  syllable,  or  whan  E  is  in  the  îast  syllable,  the 
worde  nat  havyng  his  accent  upon  hym,  remyttyng  the  1er- 
narfor  examples,  by  cause  of  brevite,  unto  the  seconde,  thyrde 
and  fyfth  chapiters  of  my  fyrst  boke,  so  that  thèse  thre  letters 
M,  N  or  E  fynall,  nat  havyng  the  accent  upon  hym,  be  the 
very  and  onely  causes  why  thèse  thre  vowelles  A,  E,  0,  be 
formed  in  the  brest  and  sounded  by  the  nose.  And  for  so  mo- 
che as  of  necessyte,  to  forme  the  différent  sounde  of  those  thre 
vowelles  they  must  nedes,  at  theyr  fyrst  formyng  open  theyr 
mowth  more  or  lesse,  yet  whan  the  vowell  ones  formed  in  the 
brest  ascendeth  upwardes  and  must  hâve  Af  or  N  sounded  with 
hym,  they  bryng  theyr  chawes  togetherwardes  agayne,  and, 
in  so  doyng,  they  semé  to  sound  an  f/,  and  make  in  maner  of 
A  and  0,  diphthonges,  whiche  happeneth  by  rayson  of  closyng 
of  theyr  mowth  agayne,  to  come  to  the  places  where  M  and  N 
be  formed,  but  chefely  by  cause  no  parte  of  the  vowell,  at  his 
expressyng,  shulde  passe  forlh  by  the  mowth,  whereas  els  the 
frenchemen  sounde  the  same  thre  vowelles  in  ail  thynges  lyke 
as  the  Italiens  do,  or  we  of  our  nation,  whiche  sounde  our 
vowelles  aryght,  and,  as  for  in  theyr  vowell  I  is  no  difficulty 
nor  différence  from  the  Italien  sounde,  savyng  that  so  often  as 
thèse  thre  letters  ///  or  Ign  come  before  any  of  the  fyrst  thre 
vowels  A,  E  OT  0,  they  sounde  an  I  brefely  and  confusely 
betwene  the  Iast  consonant  and  the  vowell  folowyng,  where  as 
in  dede  none  is  written,  for  examples  remyttyng  the  lernar  to 
the  sevynth  chapiters  of  my  fyrst  boke,  whiche  soundynge  of 
/,  where  he  is  nat  written,  they  recompence  in  theyr  U ,  for 
thoughe  they  wryte  hym  after  thèse  thre  consonantes  F,  G, 


xvm  THE  INTRODUCTION, 

and  Q,  yet  do  they  onely  sounde  the  vowell  next  folowing  U, 
as  I  déclare  in  the  ix  chapiter  of  the  fyrst  boke.  So  that,  for  the 
raost  generalte,  the  frenche  men  sounde  ail  theyr  fyve  vo\velles 
lyke  as  the  Italiens  do ,  except  onely  theyr  U,  whiche  ever  so 
often  as  they  use  for  a  vowell  alone,  hath  with  them  suche  a 
sounde  as  we  gyve  tins  diphthong  ew  in  our  tong  in  thèse 
wordes,  rewe  an  herbe,  a  mewe  for  a  hawke,  a  clewe  of  threde. 

FOR    THE    SOCNDYNG    OF    THEYR    DIPHTHONGES. 

And  as  touchyng  theyr  diphthonges,  besydes  the  sixe  whi- 
che be  formed  by  addyng  of  the  two  last  vowelles  unto  the 
thre  fyrst,  as  ai,  ei,  oi,  an,  eu,  oa,  they  make  also  a  sevynth  by 
addyng  of  the  two  last  vowelles  together  ui,  unto  whiche  they 
gyve  suche  a  sounde  as  we  do  unto  wy  in  thèse  wordes ,  a  swyne, 
I  Iwyne,  I  dwyne,  soundyng  u  and  y  together,  and  nat  dis- 
tynctly,  and  as  for  the  other  sixe  hâve  suche  sounde  with  them 
as  they  hâve  in  latin,  except  thre,  for  in  stede  of  ai,  they 
sounde  most  commenly  ei,  and  for  oi  they  sounde  oe  and  for 
au  they  sounde  most  commenly  ow,  as  we  do  in  thèse  wordes,  a 
bowe,  a  crowe,  a  snowe,  remyttyng  also  the  lernar  for  the  more 
certaynte  herof  unto  my  sayd  fyrst  boke,  where  I  speke  of  the 
diphthonges.  Ail  whiche  diversyte,  used  by  them  in  soundyng 
of  theyr  vowelles  and  diphthonges,  an  accusturaed  erre  may 
evidently  observe  that  they  thus  do  apurpose,  nat  onely  to  be 
the  more  armonious  and  playsant  in  soundyng  of  theyr  wordes , 
but  also  to  avoyde  ail  maner  difformyte  whiche  myght  happen 
by  reason  of  any  barbarous  sounde.  Whiche  thynge  so  moche 
they  studye  to  observe  that  they  preferre  it  sometyme  before 
theyr  congruite,  as  I  shewe  herafter  in  my  seconde  introduc- 
tion, where  I  speke  of  theyr  grammaticall  concordes.  And  for 
the  same  cause,  to  avoyde  the  concurrence  of  séparât  vowelles 


THE  INTRODUCTION.  xix 

in  distyncte  wordes,they  be  more  curious  in  the  observyng  ol 
the  fygure  called  Apostrophe,  than  the  Grekes  be  thenj  selfe, 
as  I  déclare  from  the  xlix  chapiter  consequently  to  the  lv  in 
my  fiyrst  boke. 

FOR  THE  SOUNDYNG  OF  THEYR  CONSONANTES. 

And  nowe  as  touchyng  the  seconde  poynte  whiche  is  to  be 
brefe  and  sodayne  vithout  any  maner  of  harshenesse  in  theyr 
pronounciation ,  what  consonantes  so  ever  they  write  in  any 
worde  for  the  kepyng  of  trewe  orthographie,  yet  so  moche  covyt 
they  in  redyng  or  spekyng  to  bave  ail  theyr  vowelles  and  di- 
phthonges  clerly  herde,  that  betwene  two  vowelles,  whether 
they  chaunce  in  one  worde  alone,  or  as  one  worde  fortuneth  to 
folowe  after  an  other,  they  never  sounde  but  one  consonant  ato- 
nes, in  so  moche  that,  if  two  différent  consonantes,  that  is  to 
say,  nat  beyng  both  of  one  sorte,  corne  together  betwene  two 
vowelles,  they  levé  the  fyrst  of  them  unsounded,  and  if  thre 
consonantes  come  together,  they  ever  levé  two  of  the  fyrst 
unsounded,  puttyng  hère  in,  as  I  bave  sayd,  no  différence, 
whether  the  consonantes  thus  come  together  in  one  worde  alone, 
or  as  the  wordes  do  folowe  one  anotlier,  for  many  tymes  theyr 
wordes  ende  in  two  consonantes,  by cause  they  take  awaye  the 
last  vowell  of  the  latin  worde,  as  corps  commeth  of  corpus, 
temps  of  tempus,  and  suche  lyke;  whiche  two  consonantes 
shalbe  lefte  unsounded,  if  the  next  worde  folowyng  begyn  with 
a  consonant,  as  well  as  if  thre  consonantes  shuld  fortune  to 
come  together  in  a  worde  by  hym  selfe.  But  yet  in  this  thyng 
to  shewe  also  that  they  forget  nat  theyr  ternarius  numerus  of 
ail  theyr  consonantes,  they  bave  from  this  rule  privyleged 
onely  thre.  M,  JS  and  R,  whiche  never  lèse  theyr  sounde, 
where  so  ever  they  be  founde  written,  except  onely  N,  whan 

c. 


XX  THE  INTRODUCTION, 

he  commelh  in  the  thyrde  parson  plurell  of  verbes  after  E,  for 
the  particuler  certaynte  also  of  this  tliyng  remyttyng  the  lernar 
to  the  XXV,  XXVI,  xxvii  and  xxviii  chapitres  of  the  fyrst  boke. 
So  that  where  as  afore  season  this  seyng  of  consonantes  written 
for  kepyng  of  trewe  orthographie ,  and  levyng  of  them  un- 
sounded  in  pronounciation,  hath  semed  unto  us  of  our  nation 
a  thyng  of  so  great  diffyculte,  by  cause  we  never  hetherto  had 
no  maner  rule  to  staye  us  in  this  behalfe,  that  unneth  an  im- 
portune labour,  and  that  taken  in  youth  by  a  hole  yere  or 
twayne,  was  sufiFycient  by  use  to  attayne  herunto.  In  so  moche 
that  where  as  there  be  hunderdes  in  this  reaime,  whiche  with 
a  ly tell  labour  employ ed  and  by  the  ayde  of  latyn ,  do  so  par- 
fytly  understande  this  tonge  that  they  be  able  to  translate  at 
the  fyrst  syght  any  thyng out  of  the  frenche  tong  in  to  ours, 
yet  hâve  they  thought  the  thing  so  strange  to  levé  the  conso- 
nantes unsounded,  whiche  they  sawe  written  in  suche  bokes 
as  they  studyed,  that  they  hâve  utterly  neglected  the  frenche 
menues  maner  of  pronounciation,  and  so  rede  frenche  as  theyr 
fantasy  or  opinion  dyde  lede  them,  and,  by  that  meanes  par- 
ceyvyng  in  them  selfe  a  want  and  swarvyngfrom  the  trewth, 
whiche  they  wot  nat  howe  to  amende,  utterly  levé  to  speke 
or  exercyse  the  langayge,  as  a  thyng  whiche  they  dispayre  of, 
where  as  nowe  the  very  grounde  and  consyderation  of  the 
frenche  men  in  this  behalfe  ones  knowen,  it  hath  ben  prov- 
ed  by  expérience  that  it  is  but  a  senyghtes  labour,  or,  at  the 
moste,  a  fourtnyghtes  to  lerne  this  poyntconcernyng  to  theyr 
pronounciatyon  an  to  be  sure  herof  for  ever. 


FOR  THE  KEPYNG  OF  TREWE  ACCENT. 


And  nowe  to  speke  of  theyr  thyrde  poynt,  where  I  bave  shewed 
that  the  frenchemen  studye  to  gyve  every  worde,  that  they 


THE  INTRODUCTION.  xxi 

abide  and  reste  upon,  theyr  most  audible  sounde.  The  hole 
reason  of  theyr  accent  is  grounded  chefely  upon  thre  poyntes  : 
fyrst,  there  is  no  worde  of  one  syllable  whiche  with  them  hath 
any  accent ,  or  that  they  use  to  pause  upon ,  and  that  is  one 
great  cause  why  theyr  tong  semeth  to  us  so  brefe  and  sodayn 
and  so  harde  to  be  understanded  whan  it  is  spoken,  especially 
of  theyr  paysantes  or  commen  people;  for,  thoughe  there 
come  never  so  many  wordes  of  one  syllable  together,  they 
pronounce  them  nat  distinctly  a  sonder  as  the  latines  do,  but 
sounde  them  ail  under  one  voyce  and  tenour,  and  never  rest 
nor  pause  upon  any  of  them,  except  the  commyng  next  unto 
a  poynt  be  the  cause  therof;  seconde,  every  worde  of  many 
syllables  hath  bis  accent  upon  the  last  syllable,  but  yet  that 
nat  withstandynge  they  use  upon  no  suche  worde  to  pause, 
except  the  commyng  next  unto  a  poynt  be  the  causer  therof: 
and  this  is  one  great  thyng  whiche  inclineth  the  frenchemen 
so  moche  to  pronounce  the  latin  tong  amysse,  whiche  contrary 
never  gyve  theyr  accent  on  the  last  syllable.  The  thyrde 
poynt  is  but  an  exception  from  the  seconde  :  for,  whan  the 
last  syllable  of  a  frenche  worde  endeth  in  E,  the  syllable  next 
afore  liim  must  hâve  the  accent,  and  yet  is  nat  this  rule  ever 
generall.  For  if  a  frenche  worde  ende  in  TE  or  hâve  Z  after 
E,  or  be  a  prétérit  partyciple  of  the  fyrst  conjugation,  he 
shall  bave  bis  accent  upon  the  last  syllable,  accordyng  to  the 
seconde  rule  :  for  the  more  certayne  knowledge  ^Iso  liere  of 
remyttyng  the  lernar  to  the  lvi  chapiter  and  the  resydewe 
next  folowyng  unto  the  lx  chapiter  of  my  fyrst  boke. 

WHAN    A    VOWELL    SHALBE    PRONOONCED    LONG    OR    SHORT. 

But  as  touchyng  to  wknowe  han  a  vowell  shalbe  with  them 
longe  or  short  in  bis  pronounciation ,  I  suppose  there  be  no  tong 


xxn  THE  INTRODUCTION, 

that  hath  hère  in  a  more  playn  and  symple  consyderation  tlian 
the  frenche  men  hâve.  For,  whan  ihey  levé  any  consonant  or 
consonantes  unsounded,  whiche  folowe  a  vowell  that  shulde 
hâve  the  accent,  if  they  pause  upon  hym  by  reason  of  commyng 
*  next  unto  a  poynt,  he  shalbe  long  in  pronounciation.  So  that 
there  is  no  vowell  with  them,  whiche  of  hymselfe  is  long  in 
theyr  ton  g,  for  the  more  particuler  knoledge  hère  of  remyttyng 
the  lernar  also  to  the  lxii  chapiter  of  my  fyrst  boke,  and  as  for 
Encletica  I  note  no  mo  but  onely  the  primative  pronownes 
of  the  fyrst  and  seconde  parsones  syngular,  whan  they  folowe 
the  verbe  that  they  do  governe.  So  that  albe  it  that  the  fren- 
chemennes  pronounciation  be  never  so  différent  from  others, 
in  so  moche  that  it  hath  gyven  occasion  to  clerkes  of  other 
nations  to  say  theyr  pleasure  of  the  tong,  yet,  if  the  consyde- 
rations  whiche  hath  moved  them  so  to  do  be  indifferently  con- 
sydred,  they  ryse  nat  upon  a  barbarous  rudenesse,  but  rather 
of  a  great  curiosyte  to  make  theyr  speche  more  commendable, 
but  that  ail  other  nations  do  in  dede  so  moche  esteme  it,  and 
that  as  well  christened  as  hethen,  that  impute  I  rather  unto 
the  secret  force  of  this  ternarius  numerus,  whiche  thoughe  it 
hath  hère  some  thyng  appered  concernyng  their  pronouncia- 
tion ,  it  shal  moche  more  evidently  hère  consequently  appere 
in  ail  the  chefe  groundes  of  theyr  analogie,  whiche  they  hâve 
invented  proper  and  peculyer  to  themselfe;  for  thoughe  the 
great  nombre  of  theyr  vocables  be  evidently  deryved  forth  of 
latin,  and  that  in  dede  they  lerned  at  the  fyrst  with  the  latin 
wordes  the  latin  analogie,  and  in  many  thinges  yet  do  folowe 
them ,  as  shall  hère  consequently  appere ,  yet  is  theyr  analogie 
nowe  at  thèse  dayes  farre  différent  from  them,  as  I  shall  hère 
also  next  folowyng  déclare. 


THE  INTRODUCTION  OF  THE  AUTHOUR 

TO   HIS  SECONDE   BOKE. 

The  frenche  men  use  onely  xxiii  letters,  suche  and  the  same 
whiche  the  latines  hâve;  for  /f  with  them  is  nat  onely  a  sygne 
of  aspiration ,  but  also  hath  oftentymes  the  strength  and 
power  of  a  consonant,  as  I  déclare  in  the  xxxiii  chapiter  of 
my  fyrst  boke,  and  howe  they  oftetymes  write  H,  at  the  begyn- 
nyng  of  theyr  wordes,  forkepyng  of  trewe  orthographie,  and 
yet  sounde  hym  nat,  I  hâve  in  the  same  boke  declared  in 
the  XX  chapiter,  where  also  I  shewe  in  what  wordes  of  the 
frenche  tong  H  hath  his  aspiration,  and  howe  seldome  the 
frenche  tong  useth  nowe  this  lelter  K,  I  déclare  in  the  xxxv 
chapiter  of  the  same  boke.  Thèse  xxiii  letters  be  devyded  in 
to  thre  dyvers  sortes,  for  besydes  theyr  vowelles,  theyr  con- 
sonantes  be  devyded  in  to  mutes  and  liquides  or  semivocalles, 
whiche  consonantes  hâve,  in  the  frenche  tong,  dyvers  maners 
of  soundyng,  lyke  as  I  déclare  of  every  of  them  particulerly 
in  my  fyrst  boke  after  theyr  order.  But  in  the  namyng  of  tlie 
sayd  consonantes  the  frenche  men  diffre  from  the  latin  tong, 
for  where  as  the  latines  in  soundynge  of  the  mutes  begyn 
with  the  letters  selfe,  and  ende  in  E,  sayng  BE,  CE,  DE,  etc., 
the  frenche  men ,  in  the  stede  of  E,  sounde  oy  and  name  them 
BOY,  COY,  DOY,  etc.,  and  where  as  the  latines  in  soundyng 
of  theyr  liquides  or  semi  vowelles  begyn  with  E,  and  ende 
with  them,  saynge  EL,  EM,  EN ,  the  frenchemen  double  the 
liquide  or  semi  vocale  and  adde  also  an  other  E  and  name 
them  ELLE,  EMME,  ENNE,  gevyng  the  accent  upon  the 
fyrst  E  and,  at  the  last  E,  depressyng  theyr  voyce;  but  in 


XXIV  THE  INTRODUCTION, 

thèse  thynges  it  is  nat  greatly  materiall  to  be  to  curyous,  and 
therfore  I  passe  over  to  speke  thorowly  there  of.  Of  thèse  let- 
ters,  lyke  as  it  is  in  ail  tonges,  be  made  syllables,  of  syllables 
wordes,  of  wordes  sentences  or  reasons. 

OF  THE  IX  PARTES  OF  REASON  IN  A  6ENERALTE. 

Partes  of  reason ,  if  we  shall  hère  in  tâke  example  of  the 
Romayns,  they  hâve  thryse  m,  for,  besydes  the  viii  partes  of 
speche  commen  betwene  them  and  the  latines,  ihat  is  to  say, 
nowne,  pronowne,  verbe,  participle,  preposytion,  adverbe, 
conjunction  and  interjection,  they  bave  also  a  nynth  part  of 
reason  whiche  I  call  article,  borowyng  the  name  of  the  Grekes. 

OF  THE  ARTICLE. 

Articles  they  bave  but  twayne,  ung  and  le,  and  they  bave 
but  two  accidentes,  as  I  déclare  in  the  begynnyng  of  the 
seconde  boke. 

OF  THE  NOWNE  SDBSTANTIVE. 

Nownes  substantives  hâve  thre  chefe  accidentes,  gender, 
nombre,  and  parson. 

TO  KNOWE  THE  CENDER  OF  SCBSTANTIVES. 

Genders  they  hâve  thre,  the  masculyn,  feminyn,  and  the 
commyn  both  to  the  masculyn  and  femenyn.  Causes  whiche 
move  them  to  use  a  substantive  of  the  masculyne  gender  be 
thre,  signifycation ,  termination,  and  commyng  out  of  a  latin 
nowne  of  the  newter  gender,  endyng  in  um.  Diversytes  of  sy- 
gnifications,  whiche  move  them  to  make  a  substantyve  of  the 
masculyne  gender  be  of  thre  sortes.  For,  if  the  substantyvje 


THE  INTRODUCTION.  xxv 

betoken  any  name  belongyng  onely  to  man,  or  be  the  name 
of  any  he  beest,  or  be  the  name  of  any  tree,  they  use  ail  suche 
substantyves  onely  of  the  masculyne  gender,  as  roy,  cheual, 
chesne.  Terminations,  whiche  move  to  use  a  substantyve  of  the 
masculyne  gender,  be  in  a  generalte  ail,  savyng  onely  E,  so 
that,  if  a  substantive  in  the  frenche  tong  ende  in  any  vowell, 
diphthong  or  consonant,  except onely  E,  he shalbe  of  the  mas- 
culyne gender,  and  the  exceptions  be  butfewe,  as  appereth  in 
the  seconde  boke,  but  chefly  in  the  thyrde,  and  yet,  thoughe 
theyr  substantyve  ende  in  Ë,  if  he  come  out  of  a  latin  substantyve 
endyngin  um,  they  use  hym  also  of  the  masculyne  gender,  as 
consile,  édifice,  domicile,  be  used  with  them  asmasculynes,  for 
they  come  oiedificium,  consilium,  domiciliam,  and  so  of  suche  lyke. 
Sygnifycations ,  whiche  move  them  to  make  a  substantive  of 
the  feminyn  gender,  be  also  of  thre  sortes  :  for,  if  a  substan- 
tyve betoken  any  name  that  belongcth  onely  to  women,  or  be 
the  name  of  any  she  beest,  or  the  name  of  any  frute,  they 
use  ever  ail  suche  substantives  of  the  feminyn  gender,  as  royne, 
jument,  poyre.  Terminations,  whiche  move  them  to  make  a  sub- 
stantyve of  the  feminyn  gender,  is  chefely  E  :  whiche  rule  is 
generall  unto  thèse  thre  sortes  also,  pronownes,  adjectyves  and 
participles,  for  the  féminins  of  ail  thèse  thre  partes  ende  in 
E,  as  I  shall  hère  after  in  theyr  places  more  plainly  déclare; 
but  for  substantives  tliis  rule  halh  many  exceptions,  as  I  dé- 
clare at  the  lenglh  in  my  thyrde  boke,  in  my  annotations 
upon  the  fyrst  accident  belongyng  to  substantives  :  of  the 
commen  gender,  1  bave  noted  onely  but  syx  substantyves  in 
this  tong  as  venjue,  adultère,  esclaue,  guyde,  garde,  anàhoste,  as 
I  déclare  in  my  thyrde  boke. 


XXVI  THE  INTRODUCTION. 


OF    THE    SECONDE    ACCIDENT    NOMBRE. 


Nombres,  if  we  shiilde  herein  be  curyous  as  the  Grekes  be, 
they  hâve  also  thre,  for,  besydes  the  syngular  nombre  and  the 
plureil  commyn  betwene  them  and  the  latines,  they  use  to 
expresse  ail  suche  substantyves  as  we  in  our  tong  circumlocute 
by  payres,  by  one  onely  worde  in  the  plurel  letter,  as  for  a 
payre  of  hosen ,  a  payre  of  tonges,  a  payre  of  spectacles,  they 
say  unes  chances,  unes  tenailles,  unes  lunettes,  as  I  déclare  in  the 
LUI  chapiter  of  the  thyrde  boke,  before  the  table  of  substan- 
tyves. But  now^e  to  speke  of  theyr  two  nombres  most  gene- 
rally  used  with  them,   albeit   that  theyr  synguler  nombre 
hath  a  great  meyny  of  dyvers  terminations,  yet  bave  they  ex- 
cepted  thre  letters  in  whiche  there  is  no  substantyve  endyng 
.in  theyr  tong,  that  is  to  say.  A,  0,  and  K,  but  in  what  letter 
so  ever  theyr  syngular  nombre  ende  in,  for  the  expressyng 
of  theyr  plureil  nombre  they  hâve  but  onely  thre  letters.  S, 
X,  Z,  whiche  they  adde  to  the  terminations  of  the  syngular 
nombre,  and  so  moche  kepe  they  thèse  thre  onely  letters  to 
serve  for  theyr  plureil  nombres,  that,  if  any  substantyve  in 
theyr  tong,  in  bis  syngular  nombre,  ende  in  any  of  thèse  thre 
letters  S,  X,  Z,  than  is  the  synguler  nombre  and  the  plurel  of 
ail  suche  nownes  with  them  ail  one,  for  the  more  particuler 
knowledge  of  this  matter  rcmittyng  the  lernar  to  the  annota- 
tions upon  the  seconde  accident  belongyng  to  substantyves  in 
the  thyrde  boke.  Howbeit  for  so  moche  as  the  chefest  poynt, 
whiche  concerneth  the  kepynge  of  trewe  congruyte  in  thls 
tong,  resteth  upon  the  knowledge  of  the  gendre  and  nombre 
of  the  substantyve,  forbycause  that  with  hym  must  agre  the 
adjectyve,  the  pronowne  and  the  participle,  as  I  shall  her- 
after  in  this  introduction  more  playnly  déclare,  whan  I  speke 


THE  INTRODUCTION.  xxvu 

of  theyr  congruite.  Besydes  ail  the  rules  written  upon  thèse 
two  accidentes  in  the  sayd  thyrde  boke,  I  hâve  y  et  also,  for 
the  more  farther  easyng  of  the  iernar,  in  the  table  of  substan- 
tives,  after  every  substantyve,  set  forth  also  his  gendre,  and 
the  letter  of  his  plurell  nombre,  that  he  may  atones  herin  be 
satisfyed. 

OF    THE    THïaO    ACCIDENT    PARSON. 

Where  as  this  tong  hath  thre  parsones  in  bothe  the  nombres 
of  theyr  verbes,  as  the  latines  hâve,  every  substantyve  is  onely 
of  the  thyrde  parson,  that  is  to  say,  whan  he  is  nominatyve 
case  to  any  verbe,  the  verbe  to  agre  with  him  must  ever  be 
of  the  thyrde  parson,  as  I  shall  more  playnly  déclare  amongest 
the  concordes. 

OF    THE    NOWNE    ADJECTIVE. 

Nownes  adjectives  bave  also  thre  chefe  accidentes,  gendre, 
nombre,  and  comparation. 

or    THE  GEKDRE    OF    ADJECTIVES. 

Gendres  :  adjecty ves  bave  thre,  the  masculyne,  feminyn  and 
commen  to  the  masculyn  and  feminyn.  The  masculyn  gendre 
thoughe  he  bave  never  so  sondry  termynations,  yet  except 
they  nat  onely  the  threletters  A,  0,  and  K,  in  whiche  no  sub- 
stantyve endeth,  but  also  they  except  other  thre  letters,  B,  P, 
and  Z;  so  that  in  thèse  syxe  termynations  endeth  no  mascu- 
lyne adjectyve  syngular.  The  feminyn  gendre  of  ail  adjectyves 
endeth  ever  in  E,  formed  ont  of  his  masculyne  by  addyng  of 
E  unto  his  last  ende,  for  the  more  particular  knowledge  of 
this  mater  remyttyng  the  Iernar  to  the  annotacions  upon  the 
fyrst  accident  belongynge  to  adjectives  in  the  thyrde  boke.  Of 
the  commen  gendre  be  ail  adjectives  whiche  in  theyr  mascu- 


o. 


xxviii  THE  INTRODUCTION. 

lyne  gendre  ende  in  E,  for  than  isthe  masculyne  and  feniinyn 

both  one  in  this  ton  g. 

OF    THE    ACCIDENT    NOMBRE    BELONGYNG    TO    ADJECTYVES. 

Nombres  :  they  hâve  also  twayne,  the  synguler  nombre  and 
the  plurell.  In  the  synguler  nombre,  nownes  adjectyves  bave 
as  many  sondry  termy nations  as  nownes  substantyves  hâve,  sa- 
vynge  that,  as  I  bave  sayd  in  B,  P,  and  Z,  endeth  no  syngular 
adjectyve.  The  plurell  nombre  hath  onely  the  letters  fynall,  S, 
X,  and  Z,  added  unlo  the  letters  of  the  syngular,  lyke  as  they 
forme  tlie  plurelles  of  theyr  substantyves.  In  so  moche  that,  if 
any  masculyne  adjectyve,  in  bis  syngular  nombre  ende  in  S  or 
X,  the  syngular  and  plurell  is  ail  one,  and  every  feminyn  plurell 
endeth  in  S,  added to  the  E  fynall  of  bis  syngular,  remittyngthe 
lernar  for  the  particulers  herof  unto  my  annotations  upon  the 
seconde  accident  belongyngto  adjectyves  in  the  thyrde  boke. 
Howbeit  in  this  thyng  also  to  ease  the  lernar,  1  bave,  in  the 
table  of  adjectyves,  set  forthe  the  gendre  and  nombre  of  every 
adjectyve  as  he  commeth  in  order  in  the  table  of  adjectyves. 

OF    THE    COMPABATION    OF    ADJECTYVES. 

Adjectyves  hâve  thre  degrees  of  comparation ,  lyke  as  they 
bave  in  our  tong  or  in  latin,  but  with  this  différence,  where 
as  we  and  the  latines  forme  our  comparatives  and  superla- 
tyves  out  of  our  posytives,  by  addyng  of  certayne  letters  to  bis 
ende,  the  frenche  men  kepe  theyr  adjectyve  everunchanged, 
and,  by  addyng  of  plus  before  hym ,  make  theyr  posytive  ',  and 
by  addyng  of  le  plus,  or  some  pronowne  dirivatyve,  forme 
theyr  superlative,  as  I  déclare  in  the  seconde  boke,  in  the 
fourth  accident  belongyng  to  nownes  adjectyves. 

*  Sans  doute  comparatyve. 


THE  INTRODUCTION.  xxix 

OF    THE    PRONOWNES. 

Of  pronownes  there  be  thre  chefe  sortes,  primityves,  deri- 
vatyves,  and  demonstratyves.  Pronownes  primityves  be  fyve, 
je,  tu,  se,  nous,  vous,  and  of  them  be  derived  olher  v,  mon,  ton, 
son,  nostre,  vostre,  ail  x  wordes  beyng  of  suche  syngnifycation 
as  they  be  in  latin.  Pronownes  demonstratyves  they  hâve  but 
thre  il,  le  and  on  or  len.  We  may  also  contayne  under  the  pro- 
nowne  other  thre  dyvers  sortes  :  relatyves  as  (jui  or  lequel; 
interrogatyves  as  qui,  and  numeralles  as  vng,  deux,  troys,  etc. 
And  I  speke  also  amongest  the  pronownes  in  my  seconde 
boke  of  nownes  partityves  and  distributyves  as  tout,  uul,  aal- 
cun,  quelqun,  chascun,  etc. 

OF    THE    ACCIDENTES    BELONGYNG    TO    PRONOWNES. 

Pronownes  hâve  nat  onely  the  thre  accidentes  belongyng 
unto  substantyves,  thatis  to  say,  gendre,  nombre  and  parson, 
but  also  other  thre  accidentes,  case,  declination  and  compo- 
sytion.  But  for  so  moche  as  thèse  accidentes  be  not  generally 
commen  unto  ail  pronownes,  I  shall  hère  brefly  speke  of 
suche  pronownes  as  be  declyned  in  this  tong,  for  the  resydue 
remittyng  the  lernar  to  my  seconde  boke,  the  xxxiii  lefe'  where 
I  speke  brefly  of  the  pronownes  in  this  tong. 

OF   THE    THRE    DECLYNATIONS    OF    PRONOWNES. 

I  fynde  no  maner  partes  of  speche  whiche  be  declyned  in 
this  tong,  that  is  to  say,  bave  case,  gendre  and  nombre  but 
onely  the  pronownes  whiche  be  of  thre  sortes. 

OF  THE  FYRST   DECLYNATION. 

Pronownes  of  the  fyrst  declynation  be  two  :je  and  tu,  whiche 

'  Pag-  74. 


XXX  THE  INTRODUCTION, 

be  of  the  commyn  gendre  and  syngular  nombre  onely,  and 
bave  but  thre  cases,  nominatyve,  accusatyve  and  oblique,  as, 
je,  me,  moy:  tu,  te,  toy. 


OF  THE  SECONDE  DECLYNATION. 


Of  the  seconde  declynation  is  onely  se,  whiche  beyng  of 
the  commen  gendre  hath  both  his  nombres ,  but  he  wanteth 
his  nominatyve  cases,  lyke  as  sui  doth  in  latin,  as  se,  soy  syn- 
gular, and  se,  soy  plurell. 


OF  THE  THÏRDE  DECLINATION. 


Of  the  thyrde  declination  they  bave  but  onely  il,  with  his 
féminin  elle,  whose  declynation  doth  moche  more  approche 
towardes  the  parfection  of  the  latin  tong  ;  for,  besydes  that 
they  bave  distyncte  gendres  and  nombres,  they  bave  also 
un  cases  synguler  and  un  plurell,  that  is  to  say,  the  nomina- 
tyve case,  the  datyve  case,  the  accusatyve  case,  and  the 
oblique  case,  as  il  luy,  le  liiy,  Hz  leur,  les  eulx,  elle  luy,  la  elle, 
elles  leur,  les  elles  :  and  of  ail  the  other  sortes  of  pronownes  for 
the  more  particuler  knowlege  of  them  remittyng  the  lernar  to 
my  seconde  boke,  but  specially  to  my  thyrde  boke,  where  I 
speke  of  the  pronownes  and  the  use  of  them  at  the  lengtb, 
and  shewe  whiche  verbes  in  this  tong  do  governe  the  datyve 
case  of  il  and  elle. 


OF  THE  VERBE. 


Of  verbes  in  the  frenche  tong  be  two  dyvers  sortes,  for 
some  be  parsonall  and  some  be  imparsonall.  Verbes  parsonall 
be  of  thre  sortes,  parfyte,  anomales,  and  defectyves.  Verbes 
parfyte  be  of  thre  dyvers  sortes,  actyves,  passyves  and  meanes. 
Verbes  actyves  hâve  m  divers  conjugations. 


THE  INTRODUCTION.  xxxi 


OF  THE  FYRST  CONJDGATION. 


The  fyrst  is  chefly  ruled  by  E,  saufe  that  in  his  diflynites 
be  torneth  into  A,  and  batb  bis  tbre  cbefe  rotes,  that  bis  to  say, 
bis  thème,  his  prétérit  participle,  and  bis  présent  infynityve 
ever  of  many  syliables,  and  ail  tbre  of  equal  syllables,  as,  je 
parle,  jay  parlé,  parler. 


OF  THE  SECONDE  CONJCGATION. 


The  seconde ,  thorowe  ali  his  conjugation  is  booUy  ruled 
by  Y,  and  batb  bis  cbefe  rotes  also  ever  of  many  syllables  and 
equal  as  je  conuertis,  jay  conaerty,  conuertyr,  and  after  thèse 
two  conjugations  be  ruled  mo  than  tbre  partes  of  foure  of 
tbe  parfyte  verbes  in  tbis  tong. 


OF  THE  THÏRDE  CONJUGATION. 


The  tbyrde  batb  bis  thème  most  commenly  in  S,  and  in 
maner  ever  of  one  syllable,  except  be  be  a  compounde,  and 
than  his  symple  is  but  of  one  syllable,  and  bis  seconde  rote 
is  somtyme  of  one  syllable,  somtyme  of  many ,  and  somtyme 
changeth  bis  last  vowell  from  tbe  vowell  of  tbe  thème,  and  bis 
thyrde  rote  is  ever  of  many  syllables  endyng  in  re  or  myr,  as 
je  voys,  jay  veu,  veoyr.  Je  prens,  jay  prins,  prendre.  Je  dis,  jay  dit, 
dire,  simples;  and  ye  revoys,  jay  reveu,  reveoyr.  Je  reprens,  jay 
reprins,  reprendre.  Je  redis,  jay  redit,  redire,  compoundes.  Con- 
jugation is  tbe  dyvers  alteryng  of  tbe  last  ende  of  a  thème, 
by  reason  of  thèse  tbre  accidentes,  mode,  tens  and  declination 
parsonall. 


OF  THE  VI  MODES. 


Modes  :  every  parfyte  verbe  batb  vi,  tbe  indicatyve,  impe- 
ratyve,  optatyve  or  potenciall,  tbe  subjunctyve,  tbe  condi- 


xxxn  THE  INTRODUCTION, 

cionall,  and  the  infynityve,  of  whiche  the  tlire  fyrst  serve  to 
niake  a  parfyte  sentence  by  one  verbe  alone,  the  other  thre 
be  used  whan  a  verbe  is  nat  the  principall  verbe  in  a  sentence, 
but  dependeth  upon  some  other  verbe,  as  je  parle,  parle,  bien 
parle  je,  voulés  vous  que  je  parle,  si  je  parle  je  me  repentiraj,  je 
doybs  parler. 

OF  THE  SYXE  TIMES  IN  THE  MODES. 

In  thèse  syxe  modes  be  dyvers  tymes,  in  some  mo,  in  some 
fewer,  but  the  indicatyve  mode,  besydes  the  thre  generall  dis- 
tinctions of  tyme,  présent,  pariytly  past,  and  to  come,  devy- 
deth  yet  the  tyme  past  in  to  other  thre  dyvers  tymes,  impar- 
fytly  past,  indiffynitly  past,  and  more  than  parfytly  past. 

OF  THE  FORMATION  OF  THEYR  TYMES. 

Thèse  tymes  be  formed  out  of  theyr  thèmes  by  addyng  of 
certayne  letters  or  syllables  to  theyr  endes,  in  whiche  for  the 
fyrst  conjugation,  by  cause  the  thème  endeth  in  E,  if  the  addi- 
tion begyn  with  a  vowell ,  the  E  fynall  of  the  thème  is  taken 
away.  The  additions  fynall  be  thèse  syxe  :  OYE,  AY,  RAY,  E, 
SE,  ROYE,  and  theyr  présent  infynityves  hâve  but  only  thre 
terminations  ER,  IR,  OR,  RE,  and  the  indiffynite  indicatyve 
of  the  ihyrde  conjugation  endeth  ever  in  S,  havyng  before  S 
one  of  thèse  thre  letters  J,  U  or  N,  and  the  prétérit  participle 
of  the  same  conjugation  endeth  outher  in  S,  with  Jor  A'^  before 
hym ,  or  in  one  of  thèse  thre  letters  T,  U  or  Y. 

OF  THEYR  DECLINATION  PARSONALL  OF  THEYR  TYMES. 

Declination  parsonall  serveth  to  shewe  howe  the  fyrst  par- 
son  syngular  of  a  tens  is  changed  by  reason  of  his  seconde 
and  thyrde  parson  synguler,  and  by  reason  of  his  fyrst,  se- 
conde and  thyrde  parsons  plurell.  Of  thèse  fyve  parsons  the 


THE  INTRODUCTION.  xxxiii 

seconde  syngular  endeth  ever  in  S,  the  thyrde  syngular  som- 
tyme  in  A,  somtyme  in  E,  but  most  commenly  in  T.  The  fyrst 
parson  plurell  endeth  most  commenly  in  ONS,  and  somtyme 
in  ES;  the  seconde  plurell  endeth  ever  in  EZ,  and  the  thyrde 
parson  plurell  ever  in  NT,  with  E  or  0  before  N  :  for  the  par- 
ticular  déclaration  of  ail  thèse  thynges  remyttyng  the  lernar 
to  the  xxxix'  leffe  in  the  seconde  boke,  where  I  conjugate  je 
parle  and  je  conuertis  at  the  length ,  and  consequently  shewe 
the  rules  by  example  oîjefays,  howe  to  conjugate  the  verbes 
of  the  thyrde  conjugation. 

OF  THE  VERBES  PASSIVES. 

Verbes  passyves  in  the  frenche  tong  be  circumlocuted  tho- 
rowe  ail  theyr  modes,  tenses,  and  declination  parsonall,  with 
the  modes,  tenses  and  parsons  oîje  suis,  put  before  theyr  par- 
tyciples  prétérit,  lyke  as  we  do,  in  our  tong,  circumlocute 
our  verbes  passyves  with  the  modes,  tenses,  nombres,  and 
parsons  of  1  am  and  our  partyciples  prétérit.  As,  where  we 
say  I  am  loved,  thou  art  loved,  he  is  loved;  I  was  loved,  thou 
wast  loved,  he  was  loved,  etc.  So  say  theyye  suis  aymé,  tu  es 
aymé ,  il  est  aymé  ;  je  estoye  aymé,  ta  estoys  aymé,  il  estoyt 
aymé,  etc.,  but  with  this  différence,  for  theyr  participle  prété- 
rit altereth  his  gendre  and  nombre,  accordyng  to  the  nomi- 
natyve  case  to  the  tenses  oije  suis,  though  our  participle  re- 
mayne  ever  unchanged,  as  I  déclare  more  at  length  in  my 
seconde  boke  the  li  leffe  ^. 

OF  THE  MEAN  VERBES. 

The  mean  verbes  hâve  also  thre  dyvers  sortes  of  conjuga- 
tions  where  in  they  chefly  folowe  and  be  ruled  by  the 
vowelles  of  the  verbes  actives,  for  the  fyrst  conjugation  of 

'   Pag.  88-93.  —  '  Pag.  126. 


..•'S* 


XXXIV  THE  INTRODUCTION, 

mean  verbes  is  cliefly  ruled  by  E,  the  seconde  by  1,  both  of 
many  syllables,  and  the  tliyrde  hatb  bis  thème  but  of  one  syl- 
lable,  lyke  as  I  bave  afore  shewed  in  the  verbes  actyves.  But 
thèse  mean  verbes  in  theyr  conjugatyng  differ  from  verbes 
actyves  in  thre  thynges:  in  theyr  sygnifycation,  in  the  circum- 
locutyng  of  theyr  prétérit  tenses,  and  in  theyr  declination 
parsonail.  In  signifycatyon,  for  where  as  the  verbes  actyves 
betokyng  some  acte  to  passe  from  the  doer  without  forth,  by 
whiche  acte  some  other  thyng  doth  suffre.  The  acte  of  the 
mean  verbes  passeth  nat  from  the  doar,  but  retourneth  to  the 
doars  selfe  agayne,  or  is  done  within  the  parsone  of  the  doars 
selfe  :  so  that  commenly  ali  suche  verbes  as  be  used  in  the 
latin  tong,  lyke  neuters  or  déponentes,  be  used  in  this  tong 
lyke  mean  verbes.  They  diffre  also  from  verbes  actyves  in  cir- 
cumlocutyng  of  theyr  prétérit  tenses,  for,  Avhere  as  ail  the 
prétérit  tenses  of  verbes  actyves,  savyngthe  two  indifiynites, 
and  the  prêter  imparfyte  tens,  by  circumlocutyng  with  cer- 
tayne  tenses  of  this  verbe  Je  ay,  and  theyr  prétérit  participle , 
lyke  as  we  in  our  tong  do  circumlocut  ail  out  prétérit  tenses , 
save  our  prêter  imparfyte  tens,  with  the  tenses  of  this  verbe 
I  bave,  and  our  participle  prétérit,  as  for  I  bave  spoken,  I  had 
spoken,  etc.  They  say  jay  parlé,  jauoye  parlé,  etc.,  in  theyr 
mean  verbes  they  circumlocute  ail  those  prétérit  tenses  with 
the  tenses  o[  je  suis  and  theyr  prétérit  participle,  changyng 
the  gendre  and  nombre  of  the  participle  lyke  unto  the  gendre 
and  nombre  of  the  nominatyve  case  to  the  tenses  oï  je  suis, 
lyke  as  thoughe  they  were  passy ves ,  where  as  the  participle 
used  in  the  tenses  of  verbes  actyves  aïter  je  ay  remayneth  in 
maner  ever  unchanged.  They  diffre  also  thyrdely  from  verbes 
actyves  in  theyr  declination  parsonail,  for,  where  as  the  ac- 
tyves bave  but  the  pronowne  or  substantyve  before  the  verbe, 


THE  INTRODUCTION.  xxxv 

as  je  parle,  tu  parles,  il  parle,  ung  homme  parle,  in  mean  verbes 
to  sygnyfye  thatlhe  acte  retournetli  to  the  doar  agayne,  they 
double  the  pronowne,  and  in  the  thyrde  parsones  use  recipro- 
cation,  as  Je  me  maruaille,  tu  te  maruailles,  il  se  maruaille,  ung 
homme  se  maruaille,  etc.  "Ail  whiche  différences  of  conjugation 
betwene  the  actyve  verbes  and  theyr  meanes  I  déclare  at  length 
in  my  seconde  boke  the  xlviii  lefe  ^ ,  by  the  examples  of  je  me 
fie,  andye  men  esbahis,  anàje  menfuis. 


OF    THE    VERBES    ANOMALES. 


Verbes  anomales  in  the  frenche  tong  I  not  but  thre,ye  ay, 
conjugate  in  the  seconde  boke' the  xlv  lefe^  and  je  men  nas, 
conjugale  in  the  seconde  boke  the  l  lefe^,  whiche  in  this  tong 
bave  the  very  propertes  of  verbes  anomales,  for  where  as  ail 
the  parfyte  verbes  of  the  frenche  tong,  thorowe  ail  theyr  hole 
conjugation,  kepe  styll,  in  ail  theyr  modes,  tenses,  nombres, 
and  parsons,  the  fyrst  letters  of  theyr  thème  ever  unchanged, 
thèse  thre  verbes  do  nat  so,  for  je  ay  tourneth  bis  a  in  to  e,  as 
je  eus,  je  ay  eu,  cjue  je  eusse,  and  in  one  place  into  o,  as  Hz  ont  : 
and  je  suis  changeth  his  s  somtyme  in  lof,  as  je  fus,  gue  je  fusse, 
and  somtyme  into  e,  as  je  estoye,  estre  :  and  je  vas  tourneth  his 
consonant  somtyme  into  a,  as  nous  allons,  je  alloye,  aller,  som- 
tyme in  to  j,  as  Je  iray,  and  this  changyng  from  the  fyrst  letters 
of  the  thème  happeneth  thorowe  ail  the  tong,  as  I  bave  sayd,  in 
thèse  thre  verbes  onely.  And  as  for  verbes  neutropassyves,  I 
fynde  none  in  ail  the  tong  saufe  onely  Je  nays,  whose  sygni- 
fycation  and  also  conjugation  I  bave  set  forth  in  the  seconde 
boke  Li  lefe  \ 

OF  THE  VERBES  IMPARFYTE  OR  DEFECTYVES. 

And  of  verbes  imparfyte  or  defectyves  there  be  thre  dyvers 

'  Pag.  iiA-121.  —  '  Pag.  107.  —  '  Pag.  laS.  —  '  Pag.  127. 

E. 


XXXVI  THE  INTRODUCTION, 

sortes  :  for  some  want  but  a  tens  or  twayne  in  some  of  theyr 
modes,  as  je  puk  wanteth  his  présent  imparatyve  and  liis  pré- 
sent optatyve,  as  I  déclare  in  the  seconde  boke,  the  xliiii  lefe  ', 
and  some  want  theyr  présent  and  indiffinit  optatyve,  savyng 
onely  the  thyrde  parson  synguler,  as*  vueille  Dieu  and  voulsist 
Dieu,  and  no  more,  as  I  déclare  in  the  seconde  boke,  in  the 
same  lefe.  And  some  be  yet  more  deffectyves,  for  they  want 
ail  theyr  prétérit  tenses  as  je  seuls  (  I  am  wont  ) ,  for  he  bo- 
roweth  ail  bis  preterites  that  be  circumlocuted  oije  accoustume 
or  je  aprens,  sayng  y'aj  accoustume  or  jay  aprins,  as  I  déclare  in 
the  seconde  boke,  the  xliiii  lefe^.  But  where  as  in  the  same  lefe, 
immediatly  after  je  seuls,  is  shewed  that  je  enseuelis  is  also  a 
verbe  deffectyve  that  thyng  passed  my  correctours  bandes,  or 
I  was  ware  therof,  for  je  ensevelis  is  a  parfyte  verbe  of  the 
seconde  conjugation,  and  sygnifyeth  to  sowe  up  a  cors  in  bis 
wyndyng  shete,  and  je  enterre  is  also  a  parfyte  verbe  of  thefyrst 
conjugation,  and  sygnifyeth  to  bury  one  in  the  erth.  Of  the 
thyrde  sort  of  verbes  deffectyves  be  the  verbes  imparson ailes  in 
the  tong,  for  verbes  imparsonalles  bave  no  more  but  the  thyrde 
parsone  syngular onely  thorowe  ail  their  modes  and  tenses,  as  I 
déclare  in  the  lu  lefe^  of  the  seconde  boke.  Verbes  imparsonalles 
lyke  as  they  be  defectyves  in  theyr  parsons,  so  want  they  one  of 
the  thre  conjugations,  for,  after  the  seconde  conj ugation  is conju- 
gate  no  verbe  imparsonall  in  theyr  tong,  as  I  déclare  in  the  se- 
conde boke  the  lui  lefe  *.  And  albeit  that  ail  thèse  thynges  hère 
shewed  in  this  introduclyon,  concernyng  the  verbes,  do  moche 
more  playnly  appere  in  the  seconde  boke,  and  specially  in  the 
thyrde,  yet  in  this  thyng  bothe  to  ease  and  quiet  the  lernar,  ï 
bave  in  the  table  of  verbes  shewed  the  conjugation  of  every  verbe 
in  this  tong  in  his  place,  as  he  commeth  in  ordre;  in  so  moche 

'  Pag.  106.  —  '  Pag.  io3  —  '  Pag.  139.  —  '  Pag.  129. 


THE  INTRODUCTION.  xxxvn 

that  if  any  verbe  be  of  the  thyrde  conjugation ,  I  set  out  ail  his 
rotes  and  tenses,  wherin  the  lernar  myglit  hâve  any  difficulty, 
as  the  latin  grammariens  havedone  the  preterites  and  supines 
of  suche  verbes  as  in  that  tong  be  of  any  dilTycultye. 


OF    THE    PARTICYPLE. 


Participles  thistong  hath  buttwayne,  the  présent  participle 
actyve,  whlche  ever  endeth  in  ant,  what  so  ever  conjugation 
the  verbe  be  of,  as  parlant,  conuertissant  and  faysant;  and  the 
prétérit  participle  passyve,  whiche,  for  the  fyrst  conjugation 
endeth  ever  in  E,  havyng  the  accent  upon  that  E,  for  the 
seconde  ever  in  Y,  and  the  thyrde  endeth  outher  in  S,  with  /  or 
N  before  S,  or  in  one  of  thèse  thre  letters  T,  U  or  Y. 

OF  THE  ACCIDENTES  BELONGVNG  TO  THESE  TWO  PARTICIPLES. 

Présent  participles  hâve  no  mo  accidentes  but  onely  nombre 
and  gendre,  as  parlant,parlans:  conuertissant,  comiertissans  :  faysant, 
faisans,  whiche  serve  to  bejoynedunto  allmanezsubstantyves 
masculyneor  feminynewithoutany  fartherchangyng,by cause 
ail  suche  participles  be  of  the  commen  gendre,  so  that  élégant, 
elegans  :  élégante,  élégantes  and  suche  lyke,  whiche  in  this  tong 
bave  two  distincte  gendres,  be  adjectyves  and  no  présent  par- 
ticiples. Passyve  participles  bave  two  gendres  distinctes  and  two 
nombres,  as  parlé,  parlez,  parlée,  parlées  :  conuerty,  conuertys  :  con- 
uertée,  connertées  :  faict ,  faictz  :faicte,faictes.  And  thus,  as  I  sup- 
pose, I  bave  hère  sufflciently  declaredhow  the  analogie  of  the 
french  tong,  thorowe  ail  theyr  partes  déclinable,  is  chefly 
grounded  upon  this  ternarius  numerus ,  for  the  knowledge  of 
theyr  partes  indeclynable  remyttyng  the  lernar  to  the  seconde 
boke,  but  especially  to  their  tables  in  the  thirde  boke  :  onely 
hère  touchyng  that,  lyke  as  we  out  of  our  adjectyves  forme  our 


XXXVIII  THE  INTRODUCTION, 

adverbes  of  qualité  by  addyng  to  of  ly,  as  of  good  goodly,  fayre 
fayrely  and  suche  lyke,  so  the  frencbe  men  of  theyr  feminyne 
-  adjectyves  forme  theyr  adverbes  of  qualité  by  addynge  to  of 
ment,  as  of  bonne  bonnement,  of  belle  bellement,  etc. 

OF  THE  THRE  CONCORDES  OF  GRAMMAR  IN  THE  FRENCHE  TONG. 

As  touchyng  theyr  congruite  wherby  they  joyne  theyr  ad- 
jectyves, pronownes,  and  participles  unto  substantyves  or  pro- 
nownes,  whan  they  stande  for  substantyves,  and  theyr  verbes 
unto  theyr  nominatyve  cases ,  and  theyr  relatyves  unto  theyr 
antécédentes,  they  therin  be  moche  moreparfyte  than  we  be, 
and  moche  more  resemble  the  latine  tong  :  In  so  moche  that , 
lyke  as  the  latines  bave  thre  concordes  of  grammar,  that  is  to 
say,  betwene  the  substantyve  and  the  adjectyve,  betwene  the 
nominatyve  case  and  the  verbe ,  and  betwene  the  relatyve  and 
his  antécédent,  the  frenche  tonghath  the  selfe  and  the  same, 
but  with  this  différence  :  for,  where  as  theyr  substantyves 

•  hâve  no  cases,  therfore  ail  theyr  thre  sortes  of  adjectyves  bave 
none,  and  so  they  agre  onely  in  gendre  and  nombre,  but 
theyr  verbes  agre  with  theyr  nominatyve  cases  in  nombre  and 
parsone,  in  ail  thynges,  lyke  as  they  do  in  latin,  and  so  do 
theyr  relatyves  with  theyr  antécédentes  in  thre,  gendre,  nom- 
bre and  parson.  Andso  mociie  attayne  they  towardes  the  par- 
fection  of  the  latine  tonge  in  this  thyng  that  they  use  also  con- 
ceptyon,  bothe  in  gendre  and  parsone.  And  in  one  thynge 
they  passe  the  latines,  for  they  cause  theyr  participle  prétérit, 
after  the  tenses  of ye  ay,  to  agre  with  the  accusatyve  case  that 

j  is  governed  of  hym,  and  nat  with  the  nominatyve  case  that 
goth  before  hym,  as  I  déclare  in  my  seconde  boke  in  the  liiii 
lefe\  where  I  speke  of  the  participle  But  yet  so  moche  do  the 

'  Pag.  137. 


THE  INTRODUCTION.  xxxix 

frenchmen  covyte  to  avoyde  ail  maner  displesaunt  sounde 
in  tlieyr  pronounciation ,  that  they  prefer  it  somtyme  afore 
theyr  congruyte,  (as  I  hâve  afore  touched)  in  so  moche  that, 
if  they  must  joyne  any  of  the  thre  fyrst  pronownes  derivatyves 
with  a  feminyne  substantyve  begynnyng  with  a  vowell,  they  use 
nat  ma,  ta,  sa,  but  mon,  ton,  son,  to  avoyde  the  yvell  sounde 
of  the  two  vowelles,  if  they  shulde  be  sounded  one  after  an 
other,  as  I  déclare  in  the  seconde  boke,  the  xxxvi  lefe',  and  for 
the  same  cause,  breke  they  somtyme  the  congruite  betwene  the 
substantyve  and  the  adjectyve,  as  I  déclare  in  the  adjectyve, 
in  the  thyrde  boke  :  of  thèse  other  concordes  and  conceptions 
for  examples  remyttyng  the  lernar  to  the  seconde  boke,  to 
theyr  places ,  but  specially  to  the  thyrde  boke. 

OF  THE  DIFFERENCES  OF  PHRASYS  BETWENE  ODR  TONG  AND  THE  FRENCHE  TONG. 

And  nowe  hère  somthyng  to  speke  of  the  thyrde  and  last 
thyng  where  in  our  tong  and  the  frenche  speche  differeth. 
The  phrasys  of  our  tong  and  theyrs  differeth  chefely  in  thre 
thynges.  Fyrst  :  bycause  they  hâve  somtyme  mo  wordes  in  a 
sentence  than  we  bave  in  the  same,  whiche  happenetli  partly 
by  cause  they  bave  thre  wordes  to  expresse  the  name  of  a 
thyng  whiche  we  expresse  by  one  word  alone,  as  where  we 
say  a  poUaxe,  they  say  vng  beccj  de  Jaaîcon,  and  contrary  by 
cause  we  hâve  mo  wordes  than  they,  as  for  «  holde  thy  pece  » 
they  say  :  tay  toy.  Seconde  :  by  cause,  whan  we  use  a  verbe 
as  parsonall,  they  use  the  same  verbe  as  imparsonall,  as  for  «  I 
«  caze  nat  »  they  say  :  il  ne  men  chault,  and,  for  «  I  must  »,  il  me 
fault,  and  suche  lyke.  And  thirdly  by  cause,  thoughe  we  gyve 
worde  for  worde  out  of  out  tong  in  to  theyrs ,  y  et  we  shall  nat 
expresse  the  sence  that  they  mean  in  theyr  tong,  whiche 

'  Pag.  80. 


XL  THE  INTRODUCTION, 

thyng  somthynge  here  in  a  generalte  to  expresse,  I  shall  conse- 
quently  shewe  tlie  différent  use  betwene  us  and  them  thorowe 
ail  theyr  ix  partes  of  speche. 

OF    THE    PHRASYS    BELONGYNG    TO    THE    ARTICLE. 

Thouglie  we  use  a  ever  before  our  substantyves  in  the  syn- 
gular  nombre ,  they  use  vncj  in  the  plurell  nombre ,  if  the  sub- 
stantyve  of  hym  selfe  be  plurell,  as  vues  nopces  :  vues  lettres. 

OF    THE    PHRASYS    BELONGYNG    TO    THE    SUBSTANTYVES. 

Where  we  use  to  name  dyvers  thynges  by  payres,  as  a  payre 
of  belowes,  a  payre  of  sysers,  they  use  them  by  one  worde  in 
the  plurell  lettre  with  the  article  plurell ,  as  vncjz  snjjletz  :  vncjz 
ciseletz.  Also  where  as  we  semé  to  hâve  a  genityve  case,  for 
so  moche  as,  by  adding  of  is  to  our  substantyve,  we  sygnifye 
possessyon,  as  my  maisteris  gowne,  my  ladyis  boke,  whiche 
with  us  contrevailleth  as  moche  as  the  gowne  of  my  maister, 
the  boke  of  my  lady,  they  hâve  no  suche  fynall  addition  to  sy- 
gnifye possessyon  in  theyr  tong,  and  yet  farthermore  they 
take  awaye  the  preposytion  and  say,  la  robbe  mon  maistre  :  le 
livre  ma  dame.  And  thyrdely,  where  as  we  adde  any  wordes  for 
a  différence  to  any  substantyve,  we  put  the  différence  before, 
and  say  a  winde  myll,  a  weddercocke,  a  fyer  pan,  and  suche 
lyke,  they  torne  the  order  contrary ,  and  adde  this  preposytion 
a,  as  vng  cachet  au  vent  :  vncj  moulin  au  vent  :  vnepoille  a  feu. 

OF    THE    PHRASYS    BELONGYNG    TO    ADJECTYVES. 

Where  we  put  our  adjectyve  before  the  substantyve,  whan 
he  is  put  to  hym  by  cause  of  a  différence ,  and  say  a  whyte 
hors,  a  rounde  cappe,  a  long  gowne,  they  torne  the  order  and 
say  vng  chenal  blanc,  vng  bonet  rond,  vne   robbe   longue.  Also 


THE  INTRODUCTION.  xu 

where  as  we  make  comparison  by  adding  of  certayne  letters  to 
the  ende  of  our  posytives ,  as  whyte,  whyter,  whytest  :  blacke, 
blacker,  blackest,  they  kepe  the  adjectyve  unchanged,  and 
adde  plus  or  le  plus  before  hym,  as  I  hâve  afore  declared  in  the 
thyrde  accident  of  adjectyves. 

OP    THE    PHRASYS    BELON6YNG    TO    PRONOWNES. 

Where  we  use  to  put  our  pronownes  primityves  after  the 
verbes  that  governe  them  and  say  :  I  love  hym,  he  beteth  me, 
I  défende  her,  they  say  :  je  le  ayme,  il  me  bat,  je  la  deffens.  Put- 
tyng  ever  the  pronowne  of  the  accusatyve  case  before  the 
verbe  that  governeth  hym,  Also  where  as  we  use  our  pro- 
nownes possessyves,  whan  we  betoken  an  acte  or  hurte  to  be 
done  to  a  parson,  as  he  hath  hurle  my  bande,  thou  burnest 
thy  hère,  he  shali  breke  his  necke,  they  torne  the  possessyve 
into  his  primityve,  and  in  his  stede  use  the  article  le,  as  il  ma 
blessé  la  mayn,  tu  te  brusles  les  cheneulx,  il  se  rompera  le  col, 
usyng  in  the  thyrde  parson  reciprocation,  whiche  in  thistong 
is  moche  more  precisely  used  ihan  in  latin ,  and  as  for  dou- 
blyng  of  the  pronowne  in  the  declynation  parsonall  of  mean 
verbes  I  bave  afore  spoken  there  of. 

OF  THE  PHRASYS  BELONGYNG  TO  VERBES. 

Somtyme  in  afifyrmation  they  put  en  before  the  verbe,  more 
than  we  hâve  in  our  tong  in  the  same  sentence,  as  for  he  is 
fledde,  they  saye  :  il  sen  est  enjuy.  Also  in  négation  they  use 
one  of  thèse  thre  wordes,pa5,  point  or  mye,  more  than  we  bave 
in  our  tong,  as  for  I  wylnat  do  it,  they  saye  :  je  ne  leferay  pas, 
or  point.  But  mye  is  an  olde  Romant  worde  and  nowe  is  out  of 
use,  as  I  déclare  in  my  seconde  boke,  the  xlvi  lefe  \  in  the  ix  ac- 

'  Pag.  1 1  o. 


♦ 


xui  THE  INTRODUCTION, 

cident.  There  be  also  other  sortes  of  phrasys  betwene  our  tong 
and  theyrs  whiche  happcn  by  reason  of  the  verbes,  as  for  I 
can  nat  do  withall,  tbey  say  :  je  ne  puis  mais  ;  and  suche  other 
whiche  were  to  long  hère  to  make  rehersall  of ,  for  I  suppose 
they  be  nat  so  fewe  as  nerehande  a  thowsande,  and  therfore, 
for  the  certayne  knoledge  of  them,  I  remyt  the  lernar  to  the 
table  of  verbes  where  ail  suche  phrasys  be  set  out  at  the  lengtli 
after,  as  they  corne  in  order. 

OF  THE  PHRASYS  BELONGYNG  TO  PARTICIPEES. 

The  frenche  tong  dyvers  tymes,  in  the  stede  of  our  parti- 
ciple,  useth  the  prétérit  parfyte  tens  of  the  infynityve  mode, 
as,  where  we  say  :  is  this  my  rewarde  for  servyngof  you  trew- 
ly,  they  say  :  est  cecy  mon  (juerdon  pour  vous  auoir  loyallement 
seruy  :  For  the  particuler  knowledge  of  this  thyng  remyttyng 
the  lernar  sjjecially  to  my  thyrde  boke,  where  I  speke  of  ihese 
thynges  at  the  length ,  and  howe  they  use  somtyme  to  agre 
theyrparticiple  with  the  accusatyve  case  of  the  pronowne,  whan 
he  is  governed  of  the  nominatyve  case,  to  the  tenses  oije  ay,  I 
déclare  in  the  seconde  boke,  the  lhii  lefe\  in  the  v  accident 
belongyng  to  participles. 

OF  THE  PHRASYS  BELONGYNG  UNTO  PREPOSITIONS. 

For  to  the,  in  the ,  and  of  the,  beyng  two  distyncte  wordes  in 
our  tong,  they  use  au,  du,  and  ou,  aux,  des,  and  es,  as  I  déclare 
in  my  seconde  boke  the  lv  lefe  ^,  in  the  fourlh  accident  belong- 
yng unto  preposytions.  And  whan  we  shewe  a  thing  to  bave 
more  or  lesse  of  any  substance,  they  use  to  adde  theyr  préposi- 
tion Je,  more  than  we  in  our  tong  bave  in  the  same  sentence,  as 
for  moche  payne,  lesse  connyng,  more  bred,  lytell  wyne,  they 

'  Pag.  i36.  —  '  Pag.  i4o. 


THE  INTRODUCTION.  xuu 

say  :  beaucoup  de  peine,  moyns  de  science,  plus  de  payn,  peu  de  vyn, 
as  I  déclare  in  tlie  sayd  second  boke,  the  lvi  lefe  \  in  the  v  ac- 
cident belongyng  to  preposytions.  Andhowe  somtyme  ihey  levé 
out  de  where  we  use  of  in  our  long,  I  hâve  afore  touclied  in  the 
phrasys  belongyng  to  substantyves ,  and  déclare  it  in  the  se- 
conde boke  in  the  sayd  v  accident  belongyng  to  preposytions. 

OF  THE  PHRASYS  BELONGYNG  TO  THE  ADVERBES. 

Whan  they  use  any  adverbe  of  comparation  with  (fue,  fo- 
lowinge  hym,  sygnifiyng  than,  theyr  verbe  must  bave  ne  be- 
fore  hym ,  though  we  use  nat  in  our  tong  to  put  nat  before  our 
verbe,  as  for  more  than  I  say,  lesse  than  I  deserve,  better  than 
he  dolh,  they  say  :  plus  que  je  ne  dis,  moins  que  je  ne  mérite,  mieulx 
cfuil  ne  fait,  as  I  déclare  in  the  seconde  boke,  the  lviii  lefe^,  in 
the  accidentes  particuler  belongyng  to  adverbes  :  and,  in  the 
same  accident,  I  déclare  also  that,  if  any  adverbe  in  hymselfe 
contayne  a  playne  négation,  or  sygnifie  dimynisshyng  or  pri- 
vation, the  verbe  in  the  frenche  tong  shall  bave  ne  before  hym, 
though  we  put  nat  this  worde  nat  before  our  verbe  in  the  same 
sentence,  as,  where  we  say  :  I  shall  never  se  hym,  it  pleaseth 
me  nothyng,  I  love  hym  but  a  lytell,  they  say  :  je  ne  le  verray 
jamais,  il  ne  me  plait  en  riens,  je  ne  laime  guaires.  Theyr  be  also 
dyvers  other  sortes  of  phrasys  betwene  our  tong  and  theyrs, 
by  reason  that  they  and  we  expresse  the  sence  of  one  selfe  ad- 
verbe by  farre  différent  wordes,  wliiche  were  hère  to  longe  to 
be  rehersed,  for  at  the  leest  they  be  nat  moche  under  a  thow- 
sande,  but  unto  the  lernar  it  is  no  diffiyculte  to  corne  to  the 
very  parfyte  knowledge  and  use  of  them  ail,  for  they  raay 
easely  be  founde  out  under  the  question  that  they  belong,  to 
make  answere  unto  in  the  table  of  adverbes. 

'  Pag.  i4i.  —  '  Pag.  147. 


xLrv  THE  INTRODUCTION. 

OF  THE  PHRASYS  BELONGYNG    CNTO  THE  CONJUNCTYONS  AND  INTERJECTYONS. 

Phrasis  generall  betwene  our  tong  and  theyrs,  concernyng 
theyr  conjunclyons  or  interjectyons  I  fynde  none,  but  of  par- 
ticular  phrasys  there  is  a  great  nombre,  as  may  appere  to  the 
lernar  in  the  table  of  conjunctyons  in  the  thyrde  boke. 

A   CONCLDSYON  OF  THE  ADTHOCR  CONCERNYNG  THESE   TWO   INTRODUCTYONS. 

Thus  bave  I  hère  for  an  introduction  suffycientiy  declared 
the  thre  chefe  thynges  where  in  the  frenche  tong  so  moche 
difl'ereth  from  ours,  and  semeth  unto  them  at  our  natyon  so 
barde  to  corne  by,  whiche  introductyon ,  if  it  be  attentyfly  over 
redde,  and  the  conjugation  of  the  thre  parfyte  verbes  in  the 
seconde  boke,  je  parle,  je  conuertis  anà  je  fais,  and  the  thre  verbes 
anomales  je  ay,  je^uis  and  je  menvas,  parfytly  conned  without 
boke ,  the  lernar  may  than,  by  the  helpe  of  my  tables,  by  bis 
own  study  be  able  to  translate  any  matter  or  sentence  he  wyll 
out  of  our  tong  in  to  frenche,  and  so  incontynente  accustome 
hym  to  bave  theyr  commen  speche,  whiche  by  this  meanes 
with  a  lytell  study  is  sone  attayned  unto.  But  if  any  of  our 
nation  be  desyrous  to  be  exquisyt  in  the  frenche  tong,  and  by 
traycte  of  tyme,  covyte  to  come  unto  suche  parfyle  knowledge 
therin  that  he  may  be  able  to  do  servyce  in  the  faict  of  secre- 
tarishype  or  other  wyse  in  to  those  partyes  lo  bave  farther 
charge,  or  to  use  amongest  them  the  fait  of  marchandyse,  let 
hym  rede  over  ail  the  thre  bokes  by  order,  and  he  shall  evi- 
dently  parceyve  that  the  fruyt  of  bis  labour  shall  farre  passe 
any  traveyle ,  which  shalbe  nedefull  or  requisyte  to  be  there 
about  employed. 


HERE  FOLOWETH  THE  CHAPITERS  CONTAYNED  IN  THIS  FYRST  BOKE, 
AND  WHAT  MATTERS  THEY  ENTREAT  OF. 

Capitula. 

Wherin  trewe  soundyng  of  ihe  frenche  long  restelh i. 

The  soundyng  of  this  vowell  A n. 

The  soundyng  of  ihis  vowell  E ni. 

The  soundyng  of  this  vowell  / un. 

The  soundyng  of  this  vowell  0 v. 

The  soundyng  of  this  vowell  U vi. 

In  what  wordes  this  vowell  /  shalbe  sounded  where  he  his  nat  written vu. 

In  what  wordes  this  vowell  U  shalbe  sounded  where  he  his  nat  written vin. 

In  what  wordes  this  vowell  U  is  written  in ,  where  he  is  lefte  unsounded ix. 

Howe  many  diphthonges  iheyr  be  in  the  frenche  tong,  and  by  what  meanes  it  shalbe 

knoven  in  the  frenche  vocabuler  whan  /  and  t/be  vowelles,  and  whan  ihey  be 

consonantes x. 

The  soundyng  of  this  diphthong  ai xi. 

The  soundyng  of  this  diphthong  ei xn. 

The  soundyng  of  this  diphthong  oi xiii. 

The  soundyng  of  this  diphthong  au xiiii. 

The  soundyng  of  ihis  diphthong  eu xv. 

The  soundyng  of  this  diphthong  ou xvi. 

The  soundyng  of  this  diphthong  ui,  whiche  is  onely  propre  to  the  frenche  long.    xvii. 

What  différence  is  in  sounde  betwene  /  and  Y xviii. 

That  no  vowellc  is  left  unsounded,  thoughe  there  come  never  so  many  to  gether 

in  a  frenche  worde xix. 

The  80undynge  of  this  letter  H,  whan  he  hath  his  aspiration  and  whan  nat,  and 

what  is  ment  by  aspiration xx. 

Howe  many  wordes  there  be  in  the  frenche  tong ,  whiche  havyng  H  written  at 

theyr  begynnyng  gyve  hym  his  aspiration xxi. 

Whan  H  commyng  before  a  vowell  in  the  mean  syllables  shall  bave  his  aspiration , 

and  whan  nat xxii. 

Howe  ch,  ph  and  th  be  sounded  in  the  frenche  tong xxiii. 

To  knowe  howe  the  consonantes  oughte  to  be  sounded  in  the  frenche  tonge .  .  .   xxiiii . 
1    ■'  A  generall  rule  for  the  trewe  soundyng  of  consonantes,  as  they  come  to  gether 

n  in  the  fyrst  syllables  of  any  frenche  worde  by  him  selfe xxv. 

Syxe  generall  rules  for  the  trewe  soundynge  of  consonantes ,  as  they  come  in  the 

mean  syllables  of  frenche  wordes xxvi. 

Sevyn  generall  rules  for  the  trewe  soundyng  of  consonantes,  as  they  come  to- 

gelher  folowyng  the  last  vowelles  of  frenche  wordes,  sounded  by  themselfe. .    xxvii. 


^- 


Wr 


xLvi  THE  TABLE  OF  THE  CHAPITERS 

Capitol*. 

The  declaralion  of  thèse  général!  rules  by  the  example  of  this  consonant  B.  .    xxviii. 

The  soundyng  particular  and  proper  to  this  consonant  C xxix. 

The  soundyng  particular  of  this  consonant  D xxx. 

The  soundyng  particular  of  this  consonant  F. xxxi. 

The  soundyng  particular  of  this  consonant  G xxxn. 

Of  this  letter  H,  whan  he  hath  the  power  or  strength  of  a  consonant ,  and  whan 

nat xxxm. 

The 'Soundyng  of  J,  whan  he  his  a  consonant xxxiiii. 

The  soundyng  of  this  consonant  K,  whiche  in  maner  is  never  used  in  the  frenche 

tong XXXV. 

The  soundyng  particular  of  this  consonant  L xxxvi. 

The  soundyng  particular  of  this  consonant  M xxxvii. 

The  soundyng  particular  of  this  consonant  N. xxxvm. 

The  soundyng  particular  of  this  consonant  P xxxix. 

The  soundyng  particular  of  this  consonant  Q xl. 

The  soundyng  particular  of  this  consonant  R xli. 

The  soundyng  particular  of  this  consonant  S xlii. 

What  wordes  in  the  frenche  tong  sounde  theyr  s  distinctly,  coœmyng  in  the 

mean  syllables,  contrary  to  the  gênerai  rules  above  rehersed xlhi. 

The  soundyng  particular  of  this  consonant  T, XLiiù. 

The  soundyng  of  V  whan  he  is  a  consonant xlv. 

The  soundyng  particular  of  this  consonant  X xlvi. 

The  soundyng  particular  of  this  consonant  Z xlvii. 

Foure  generall  rules  for  ihe  Irewe  redyng  of  frenche  wordes,  as  they  comc  toge- 

ther  in  sentences xlviii. 

Whan  E,  beyng  the  last  letter  in  frenche  wordc,  the  next  worde  folowyng  be- 

ginyng  with  a  vowell,  shalbe  left  unsounded  and  whan  nat xlix. 

What  wordes  there  be  in  the  frenche  long  endyng  in  £  or  ^ ,  whiche  in  writyng 

also  levé  out  theyr  E  or  A  ,  and  joyne  theyr  consonantes  to  the  vowell  of  the 

wordes  folowyng l. 

What  pronownes  ende  in  E  or  A,  whiche  in  writyng  levé  oui  theyr  vowell  and 

joyne  theyr  consonantes  to  the  wordes  folowyng li. 

Whan  preposytions  levé  out  theyr  E  in  writyng  and  joyne  theyr  consonant  or 

letters  to  the  word  folowyng lu. 

What  adverbes  levé  out  theyr  E  in  writyng  and'  joyne  their  consonant  to  the 

worde  folowyng lui. 

What  conjunctyons  levé  out  theyr  E  in  writyng  and  joyne  theyr  consonant  to 

the  worde  folowyng luu. 

Of  le  and  la  whiche,  though  ihey  be  comprehended  under  none  of  the  latin 

VIII  parles  of  speche ,  ycl  also  folowe  this  rule Lv. 

To  kepe  Irewe  accent  in  the  frenche  tong,  and  what  this  worde  accent  sygnifyeth.  lvi. 
That  no  worde  of  one  sillable  in  the  frenche  tong  hath  any  accent lvii. 


CONTAYNED  IN  THE  FYRST  BOKE.  xlvii 

That  ail  ihe  wordes  in  ihe  frenche  long  beyng  of  many  syllables  liave  tlieyr 

accent,  oulher  on  llieyi'  laste  syllable  or  on  iheyr  lasle  syllable  saufe  one. .  .  .    LViii. 

What  wordes  there  be  in  tlie  frenche  tong,  whiche  in  writyng  be  lyke,  and  by 
reason  of  dyvers  accent,  liave  dyvers  sygnifycations lix. 

What  wordes  in  the  frenche  tong  hâve  theyr  accent  on  theyr  last  syllables  save 
one Lx. 

What  wordes  in  the  frenche  tong  bave  theyr  accent  on  theyr  laste  syllables lxi. 

To  knowe  whan  a  vowell  shalbe  long  in  pronounciation,  and  whan  nat,  and  to 
shewe  what  is  ment  therby,  by  example  of  wordes  in  our  tong lxii. 

Example  of  sentences  where  A  shalbe  long  in  pronounciation lxiii. 

Example  where  E ,  beyng  the  last  vowell  of  a  worde,  shalbe  long  in  pronouncia- 
tion       LXIIII. 

Example  where  E,  commyng  in  the  last  syllable  saufe  one ,  shalbe  long  in  pro- 

nounciatyon lxv. 

Example  where  /,  beyng  the  laste  vowell  in  a  worde,  shalbe  long  in  pronoun- 

ciatyon »  •  ■  ■    lxvi. 

Example  where  0,  beyng  the  laste  vowell  in  a  worde,  shalbe  long  in  pronoun- 

ciatyon i.xvii, 

To  shewe  by  example  the  great  différence  betwene  the  writyng  of  the  frenche 

tong  and  the  soundyng  of  it,  in  redyng  and  spekyng lxviii. 

Example  howe  prose  shulde  be  sounded ,  by  the  begynnyng  of  the  Quadrilogue 

of  Alain  Chartier lxix. 

Example  howe  thynges  wrilten  in  ryme  shulde  be  sounded,  by  the  begynnyng 

of  the  Exyle  of  Alayn  Chartier lxx. 

Another  example  of  Prose  rehersed  in  the  xxxi  chapiter  of  the  fyrst  boke  Des 

illustrations  de  Gaule,  where  Jehan  le  Maire  bringelh  in  Pallas  spekyng  to 

Paris Lxxi. 

Another  example  in  ryme  of  Guillaume  de  Lorris ,  wliiche  begynneth  the  Romant 

of  the  Rose  thus lxxii 

Two  causes  why  I  hâve  gyven  exampie  of  thèse  ihre  auclhours  specially  above 

ail  olhers lxxiii. 


LAUCTEUR 


EN    RENDANT    MERCIS    A    MAISTRE. 


A  tout  chascun  il  fault  rendre  son  deu , 

T  ei  que  de  droict  et  rayson  y  appent. 

H  onneur  aux  grans ,  rcuerence  a  uerlu , 

O  ultre  ce  amour,  a  cil  qui  nous  apprent. 

M  ais  en  adversité ,  aussi  sentent , 

A  tous  couraige  pitoyable  porter, 

S  il  est  amy,  adonc  le  fault  monstrer. 

A  lors  bien  a  le  prend  occasion, 

R  endre  du  bien  pour  le  bien  acquis. 

V  ng  noble  cucur  remply  deffection 

N  e  peult  souffrir  que  son  amy  mal  mis, 

D  oybue  périr,  ayns  baille  son  aduis, 

E  t  pour  iuy  parle,  et  luy  enuoye  du  sien, 

L  e  loyal  amy  passe  tout  aultre  rien. 


LESCLARCISSEMENT 


LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE. 


THE   FYRST  BOKE, 

WHERIN  THE  TRUE  SOWNDYNGE  OF  THE  FRENCHE  TONGE 

RESTETH. 

CAPITULUM  PRIMUM. 


Régula 
sec  and  a. 


The  Irue  soundynge  of  thc  frenche  tonge  resteth  in  gyvyng  to     Régula  prima, 
every  frenche  worde  by  hymselfe  his  naturali  frenche  sounde,  and 
in  soundynge  frenche  wordes,  as  thev  corne  to  gether  in  sentences, 
lyke  as  the  frenchemen  use  to  do. 

The  true  soundynge  of  every  frenche  worde  by  hymselfe  resteth 
in  gyvyng  unto  every  vowell,  diphthonge  and  consonant  with  whiche 
they  be  written,  theyr  true  frenche  sounde,  and  in  leavynge  suche 
consonantes  unsounded  as  be  used  with  them  to  be  written  for  the 
kepynge  of  true  orthographie,  and  yel  in  redynge  and  spekyng  be 
left  unsounded. 

The  true  soundyng  of  frenche  wordes,  as  ihey  corne  to  gether  in 
sentences,  is  to  gyve  to  every  worde  his  true  accent,  and  to  every 
vowell  his  juste  tyme  of  pronunciatiou  longe  or  shorte,  and  in  the 
leavynge  of  suche  vowels  or  consonantes  unsounded  beynge  the  last 
letters  of  frenche  wordes,  by  reason  of  the  letters  that  the  wordes 
nexte  folowynge  them  begynne  with,  as  the  frenche  tonge  useth  to 
do.  But  as  for  vowelles  in  frenche  wordes  by  them  selfe  there  is  none 


Régula  tertia. 


2  LESCLARCISSEMËNT 

written  but  they  be  sounded  either  distinctly  or  shortly  and  confusely 

(save  somtyme  v)  as  shall  hère  after  appere. 


THE  SOUNDYNG  OF  THIS  VOWELL  A. 
CAPITULUM  II. 


Régula  prima. 


Régula 
seciinda. 


Exceptio 

a 

secunda  régula. 


Eiceptio 
secunda. 


A  in  the  frenche  tonge  hath  Iwo  dy verse  soundes,  for  somtyme 
they  somide  hym  iyke  as  we  do  in  our  tonge,  and  somtyme  they 
sounde  hym  Iyke  this  diphthong  au  and  a  lyttell  in  the  noose. 

The  soundyng  of  a  whiche  is  most  generally  used  through  out  the 
frenche  tonge,  is  suche  as  we  use  with  us  where  the  best  englysshe 
is  spoken,  whiche  is  Iyke  as  the  Italians  sounde  a,  or  they  with  us 
that  pronounce  the  latine  tonge  aryght. 

If  m  or  n  folowe  nexte  after  a  in  a  frenche  worde ,  ail  in  one  syl- 
lable,  than  a  shall  be  sounded  Iyke  this  diphthong  au,  and  somethyng 
in  the  noose,  as  thèse  wordes  ambre,  chambre,  mander,  amant,  tant, 
quant,  parlant,  regardant,  shall  in  redynge  and  spekynge  be  sownded 
aumbre,  chaumbre,  maunder,  amaunt,  taunt,  qaaanl,  parlaunt,  regar- 
daant,  soundyng  the  a  Iyke  au  and  somethynge  in  the  noose ,  and  so 
of  ail  suche  other. 

But  this  rule  hath  one  exception ,  for  if  the  syllable  next  folowynge 
of  any  suche  wordes  begynne  also  with  a  Iyke  consonant,  that  is  to 
say,  with  another  m  or  n,  as  in  thèse  wordes  Jlàmme ,  gamme,  bannyr, 
tanny,  in  ail  suche  a  shalbe  sounded  Iyke  the  gênerai!  soundynge  of 
a  and  nat  as  I  bave  hère  afore  declared. 

Excepte  also  that  any  of  thèse  ihre  letters  c  g  or  p  folowe  nexte 
after  them  belongynge  to  the  same  vowell  that  they  do,  as  blanc,  sang, 
champ  and  suche  Iyke,  for  in  ail  suche  a  shalbe  sounded  after  bis  most 
generall  sounde,  and  nat  Iyke  au;  and  as  for  âme,  dame,  lame,  rdne, 
and  ail  suche  Iyke  shall  sownde  theyr  a  after  the  generall  sowndynge 
of  a,  and  nat  Iyke  au,  though  m  or  n  folowe  next  after  the  a,  for,  as 
I  bave  sayd  hère  before,  that  rule  is  nat  kept  but  where  as  a  and  m 
or  n  come  both  to  gether  in  one  syllable. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  3 

Aa  l  fynde  nat  wrilten  to  getlier  through  ali  the  frenche  long,  save 
onely  in  thèse  wordes  aàge,  aagér,  aaysér,  and  the  wordes  that  corne 
of  them  :  yet  Jehan  le  Mayre  useth  to  writte  them  eayge  and  eaygér, 
but  where  so  ever  in  any  writtyng  aa  shall  fortune  to  come  to  gether, 
every  of  them  shall  hâve  his  distinct  sounde,  after  the  generall 
soundynge  of  a,  accordyng  as  I  hâve  hère  declâred. 


Reguia  lertia 


THE  SOWNDYNGE  OF  THIS  VOWELL  E. 
CAPITCLUM  III. 


E  in  the  frenche  tong  liath  thi^e  dy verse  sowndes,  for  somtyme 
they  sownde  hym  lyke  as  we  do  in  our  tonge  in  thèse  wordes  «  a  beere, 
«  a  beest,  a  peere,  a  beene,  »  and  suche  lyke.  Sometyme  they  sounde 
hym  lyke  an  a  and  a  lyttell  in  the  noose ,  and  sometyme  almost  lyke 
an  0  and  very  moche  in  the  noose. 

The  sowndyng  of  e  whiche  is  most  generally  kepte  with  them ,  is 
suche  as  we  gyve  to  e  in  our  tong  in  thèse  wordes  above  rehersed, 
that  is  to  say  lyke  as  the  Italians  sounde  e  or  they  with  us  that  pro- 
nounce  the  latine  tong  aright  :  so  thaï  e  in  frenche  hath  never  suche 
a  sownde  as  we  use  to  gyve  hym  in  thèse  wordes  :  «  a  bee  suche  as 
«  maketh  honny;  a  beere  to  laye  a  deed  corps  on;  a  peere  a  make  or 
"  a  felowe,  »  and  as  we  sounde  dyvers  of  our  pronownes  endynge  in  e, 
as  «we,  me,  the,  he,  she,  »  and  suche  lyke;  for  suche  a  kynde  of 
soundynge  both  in  frenche  and  latine ,  is  allmoste  the  ryght  pronoun- 
ciation  of  i,  as  shall  hère  after  appere. 

If  m  or  n  folovve  nexte  after  e  ail  in  oiie  syllable,  than  e  shall  be 
sounded  lyke  an  italian  a  and  some  thynge  in  the  noose,  so  that  for 
thèse  wordes  thus  written  emblcr,  amendrir,  endementiérs,  humblement, 
and  suche  lyke,  in  redynge  and  spekynge  they  sounde  amhler,  aman- 
drir,  andemanliers ,  humblemanl ,  and  so  of  ail  suche  other,  and  this 
sounde  also  they  gyve  unto  e,  though  the  nexte  syllable  folovvynge 
begynne  also  with  an  other  m  or  n,  as  femme,  mienne,  tienne,  sienne,  be 
sounded  with  them  famme,  mianne,  tianne,  sianne,  and  so  of  ail  suche 


Régula  prima. 


Reguia 
secunda. 


Rezula  tertia. 


Exceptio 
a  tertia  régula 


4  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

other.  As  for  démener,  dénoter,  bénédiction,  tenement,  and  suche  lyke  shall 
nat  sounde  the  e  in  theyr  fyrste  syllables  lyke  a ,  thoughe  m  or  n  folowe 
next  after  them  :  for,  as  I  hâve  sayde,  tliis  ruie  holdeth  nat  but  where 
as  e  and  m  or  n  come  ail  together  in  one  syllable. 

But  yet  nat  unyversally  thvough  ail  the  frenche  tong,  where  e 
conuneth  next  afore  m  or  n  in  one  syllable,  he  shall  bave  the  sounde 
of  a,  for  where  as  the  thyrde  parsonnes  plurelles  of  verbes  actyves 
in  the  frenche  tonge,  almost  in  every  of  theyr  modes  and  tenses  in 
writtynge  ende  in  ent,  as  ayment,  aymôyent,  aymérent,  aymerôyent,  ay~ 
massent,  conuertissent ,  conaerlissoyent ,  conueriirent ,  conuertirôyent ,  con~ 
uertissent.  disent,  disôyent,  dirent,  dirôyent,  dissent,  in  redynge  or  spe- 
kynge  they  sounde  ail  suche  thus  aymet,  aymoyet,  aymeret,  aymeroyet, 
aymasset.  conuertisset ,  conuerlissoyet ,  conuertiret,  conuertiroyet ,  conuer- 
tissel.  diset,  disoyet,  diret,  diroyet,  disset,  leavynge  the  n  in  ail  suche 
uusownded ,  and  pronounsynge  the  e  after  the  moste  generall  sown- 
dynge  of  e. 
Régula  quarta.  But  where  as  dyvcrse  thyrde  parsones  syngular  of  verbes  end  in 
ent,  as  well  personall  as  il prent,  il  rcnt,  il  sent,  as  impersonall  as  il  co- 
ulent, il  deuient,  il  apariieni ,  il  luy  souuyent,  ail  suche  shall  folowe  the 
rule  of  e  comynge  before  m  or  n  in  one  syllable ,  and  in  redynge  or 
spekynge  be  sounded,  ilprant,  ilrant,  il  sant,  and  so  of  the  resydue 
and  ail  suche  lyke. 

If  e  be  the  laste  vowell  in  a  frenche  worde  beynge  of  many  syl- 
lables, eyther  alone  or  with  an  5  folowynge  hym,  the  worde  nat  ha- 
vyng  bis  accent  upon  the  same  e,  than  shall  he  in  tliat  place  be  sounded 
almoste  lyke  an  o  and  very  moche  in  the  noose,  as  thèse  wordes, 
homme ,  femme ,  honéste,  parle,  hommes ,  femmes ,  honéstes,  avécques,  shall 
bave  theyr  laste  e  sounded  in  maner  lyke  an  o,  as  hommo,femmo,  ho- 
nesto,  parlo.  hommos ,  femmos ,  honestos,  avecquos;  so  that,  if  the  reder 
lyft  iip  bis  voyce  upon  the  syllable  that  commeth  nexte  before  the 
same  e,  and  sodaynly  depresse  bis  voyce  whan  he  cometh  to  the  soun- 
dynge  of  hym ,  and  also  sounde  hym  very  ntioche  in  the  noose,  he 
shall  sounde  e  beyng  written  in  tbis  place  accordyng  as  the  Frenche- 


Regula  quinta. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  f) 

men  do.  Whiche  upon  this  warnynge  if  the  lerner  wyll  observe  by 
ihe  frenche  mens  spekynge,  he  shall  easely  perceyve. 

But  if  e  be  the  last  letter  of  a  frenche  worde  eyther  beyng  of  one  Excepiio 
syllable  or  of  niany,  havynge  his  accent  upon  the  same  e,  than  shall  ^**"'"  "^  ^'  ' 
he  in  ail  suche  wordes  be  sounded  after  the  most  generall  soundyng 
of  e,  and  nat  as  I  bave  hère  afore  described,  as  in  the  wordes  beyng 
of  one  syllable  in  this  sentence  :  il  me  lefaict  de  bon  gré,-  and  in  thèse 
wordes  of  niany  syllables  bonlé,  beaallé,  parlé,  regardé,-  and  in  ail  other 
of  lyke  sort,  there  e  shalbe  sounded  after  the  most  generall  soundyng  of 
e,  and  nat  almost  lyke  an  o  or  any  thynge  in  the  noose;  whiche  cometli 
by  reason  that  in  ail  suche  wordes  the  accent  falleth  upon  the  sanie  e. 
And  of  this  sort  also  is  ciprés,  excès,  exprés,  procès,  and  suche  lyke, 
tkoughe  s  folowe  after  e,  bycause  theyr  accent  is  upon  the  same  e, 
as  shall  hère  after  in  his  place  appere.  But  whiche  wordes  in  the 
frenche  tonge  endyngc  in  e  bave  theyr  accent  upon  the  same  e  and 
whiche  upon  the  syllable  that  cométh  nexte  before  hym  il  shall  hère 
after  appere  in  the  chaplcis  accent. 

And  hère  it  is  to  be  noted  that  e  in  this  place ,  that  is  to  say,  bevnge  Régula  seita. 
the  last  letter  in  a  frenche  worde,  may  nat  utterly  be  left  unsounded 
(except  the  worde  folowyng  be  cause  of  it)  as  we  do  for  the  most 
part  in  our  tong  in  nowyse,  for  that  writtyng  of  e  and  nat  soundynge 
of  hym  bave  we  taken  of  the  saxon  tong,  or  rather  douche  tong  : 
whiche,  if  we  woli  rede  or  speke  frenche  naturaiJv,  we  must  nedes 
amende. 

If  ee  come  to  gether  in  a  frenche  worde  in  the  ineane  syllables,    Regulasepiima. 
whiche  often  bappenneth ,  a.s prééminence ,  beér,  hecr,  neemént,  uergondee- 
mént,  and  suche  lyke,  in  ail  suche  wordes  both  ee  shall  hâve  theyr 
distinct  sounde  by  them  selfe  after  the  most  generall  soundyng  of  e. 

If  ee  come  to  gether  in  the  last  ende  of  a  frenche  worde,  whiche     Régula ociava. 
happennetl)  in  dyverse  substantyves,  as  matinée,  vesprée,  soyrce,  and 
suche  lyke,  and  also  in  ail  the  femyne  genders  of  participles  of  the 
fyrst  conjugation  in  the  frenche  tong,  as  aymée,  parlée,  gardée,  tor- 
mentée,  troublée,  and  suche  lyke,  in  ail  suche  the  fyrst  e  shall  bave  bis 


6  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

sounde  after  the  most  generall  soundyngc  of  e,  havyng  the  accent  of 
the  worde  upon  hym,  and  the  last  e  shalbe  soiinded  almost  iyke  an  o, 
accordyng  to  the  ruie  hère  afore  declared. 


THE  SOWNDYNG  OF  THIS  VOWELL  l. 
CAPITULUM  IV. 


Régula 
seconda. 


Régula  prima.  /,  in  the  frenche  tong  hath  i  i  dyverse  nianers  of  soundynges.  The 

soundyng  of  i,  which  is  most  generally  used  in  the  frenche  tong,  is 
like  as  the  Italians  sounde  i,  and  suche  with  us  as  sounde  the  latine 
tong  aright,  whiche  is  almost  as  we  sounde  e  in  thèse  wordes  «  a  bee  a 
«  Aie,  a  beere  for  a  deed  corps,  a  peere  a  felowe,  a  fee  a  rewarde,  » 
a  litell  more  soundynge  towardes  i,  as  we  sounde  i  with  us. 

If  i  be  the  first  letter  in  a  frenche  worde  or  the  laste,  he  shall,  in 
those  twO  places,  be  sounded  Iyke  as  we  do  this  letter  y  in  thèse 
wordes  with  us,  «  by  and  by,  a  spye,  a  flye,  awry,  »  and  suche  other, 
in  whiche  places,  in  those  frenche  bokes  as  be  diligently  imprinted 
they  use  to  writte  this  letter  y.  But  whether  the  frenche  worde  be 
written  with  i  or  y,  in  thèse  two  places  he  shalbe  sounded  as  I  bave 
shewed  hère  in  this  rule ,  as  in  ymage,  conaerty,  ydole,  estourdy,  in 
whiche  the  y  hath  suche  sounde  as  we  wolde  gyve  hym  in  our  tonge. 

Régula  lertia.  J  i  to  come  to  gether  in  a  frenche  worde  I  fynde  used  of  none 
auctor  save  onely  of  Jehan  le  Maire  whiche  useth  to  viritte  festijér, 
christijén ,  glorifijér,  specifijér,  magnijijér,  whiche  Alayn  Chartier  wolde 
writie  festoyer,  cristièn,  glorifier,  spécifier,  magnifier,  whiche  orthogra- 
phye  1  more  commende  :  for,  as  I  shall  hère  after  déclare,  it  is  agaynst 
the  nature  of  the  frenche  tonge  to  hâve  ii  come  to  gether,  eyther  both 
as  vowels,  or  the  lîrst  as  consonant  belongynge  to  the  i  folowyng. 


THE  SOUNDYNG  OF  THIS  VOWEL  O. 
CAPITULUM  V. 


Régula  prima.  0   in  the  frenche  tong  hath  two  divers  nianers  of  soundynges. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  7 

The  soundyng  of  o,  whiche  is  mot  generall  with  them  is  lyke  as  we 
sounde  o  in  thèse  wordes  in  our  tonge  «  a  boore ,  a  soore ,  a  coore  » 
and  such  lyke,  that  is  to  say,  lyke  as  the  Italians  sounde  o,  or  they 
with  us  that  sounde  the  latine  tong  aright. 

If  m  or  n  foiowe  next  after  o  in  a  franche  worde  both  in  one  syl- 
lable,  than  shall  the  o  be  soimded  almost  lyke  this  diphthonge  ou 
and  some  thyng  in  the  noose  :  as  thèse  wordes  mon,  ton,  son,  renom 
shalbe  sownded  moun,  loun,  soun,  renoum  and  so  of  ali  sache  other; 
and  in  like  wyse  shall  o  be  sownded  though  the  next  syllable  folo- 
wynge  begynne  with  an  other  m  or  n,  as  in  thèse  wordes  home,  somme, 
bonne,  tonnerre,  whiche  they  sounde  hoame,  boune,  soamme,  toanner; 
and  so  of  suche  other. 


Régula 
secunda. 


THE  SOU.NDYNGE  OF  THIS  VOWEL  U. 
CAPITULUM  VI. 


U,  in  the  frenche  tong,  where  so  ever  he  is  a  vowel  by  hymselfe, 
shall  be  sownded  like  as  we  sownde  ew  in  thèse  wordes  in  our  tong: 
«  rewe  an  herbe ,  a  mew  for  a  hauke ,  a  clew  of  threde ,  »  and  suche 
lyke ,  restyng  upon  the  pronounsyng  of  hym ,  as  for  thèse  wordes  :  plus , 
nul,  fus,  user,  humble,  uertà,  they  sounde  plevas,  nevul,  fevus,  évaser, 
hevumble,  uertevu,  and  so  in  ail  other  wordes  where  u  is  a  vowel  by 
hym  selfe  alone  :  so  that  in  the  soundynge  of  this  vowel  they  diiferre 
both  from  the  latine  tong  and  from  us.  And  as  for  w  is  no  letter  used 
in  the  frenche  tong,  but  belongeth  to  the  saxon  tong  of  whom  we 
hâve  taken  it,  and  therfore  as  impertinent  I  passe  it  over. 


Régula  unica. 


IN  WHAT  WORDES  THIS  VOWEL  /  SHALBE  SOUNDED  WHERE  HE  IS  NAT 

WRITTEN. 

CAPITDLUM  VII. 

Besydes  the  diverse  soundynges  of  thèse  fyve  vowels  in  the  frenche     Régula  prima 
tong  where  as  they  be  written,  they  sounde  this  vowel  i  somtyme 


Reguia 
secundo. 


"Exceplio. 


Regulaqiiarla. 


8  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

shortlv  and  confusely  where  he  is  nat  written.  For  whiche  thynge  it 
is  to  be  noted  that  whan  soever  the  lui  letters  illa,  ille  or  illo  come 
to  gilher  in  a  nowne  substantive  or  in  a  verbe,  the  i  nat  havyng  an  o 
commynge  next  before  bym,  they  use  to  sounde  an  i  shortiy  and  con- 
fusely betwene  the  last  /  and  the  vowel  folovvyng,  albe  it  that  in 
writtyng  they  expresse  none  suche,  as  thèse  wordes,  ribaudaille ,  faille , 
bailler,  gaillàrt,  neillàrt,  billùrt ,  faeille ,  fille ,  cheuille,  qaocqiiille,  ardil- 
lon, basiillôn,  covillôn,  and  suche  hke  in  redyng  or  spekynge  they 
sounde  thus  :  ribaadaillic,  faillie,  baillier,  gailliart,  ueilliart,  billiarl, 
fueillic,  fillie,  cheuillie,  quocquillie,  ardillion,  bastillion,  covillion;  but, 
as  I  hâve  sayd,  if  the  i  hâve  an  o  commyng  next  before  hym,  in  ail 
suche  wordes  they  sounde  none  i  after  the  letter  /;  so  thaï,  thèse 
nownes  substantyves  moylle,  uoille,  toille,  and  suche  iyke  he  except 
from  this  rule. 

And  note  that,  thougli  in  thèse  wordes  above  rehersed  this  vowell  i 
be  sounded  where  lie  is  nat  written,  that  thyng  shall  nothynge  do  in 
the  ahei"}'nge  of  the  accent  of  any  suche  wordes  no  more  than  thoughe 
he  were  nat  sounded  at  ail  :  for  in  that  thyng  the  reder  shall  regarde 
how  they  be  written  onely.  Except  also  from  this  rule  aille  whiche 
soundeth  none  i  after  bis  lalter  /. 

Also  wlian  so  ever  thèse  m  letters  yna,  (jne  or  gno  corne  to  gyther, 
eyther  in  a  nowne  substantive  or  in  a  verbe ,  the  reder  shall  sounde 
an  i  shortiy  and  confusely  betwene  the  n  and  the  vowel  folowynge, 
as  for:  gaignà,  seigneur,  mignon,  champignon,  uergoignc,  mainliéngne, 
charoigne  :  he  shall  sounde,  gaignia ,  seignieur,  mignion,  champinion  , 
uergoignie,  cliaroignie,  maintiengnie ,  nat  chaungynge  therfore  the  ac- 
cent, no  more  than  though  the  sayd  i  were  unsounded. 

But  from  this  rule  be  excepted  thèse  two  substantyves  signe  and 
régne,  with  theyr  verbes  signer  and  régner,  whiche  with  ail  that  be 
formed  of  them  the  reder  shall  sounde  as  they  be  written  onely. 

Also  ail  wordes  in  the  frenche  tong  whiche  in  writtyng  ende  in 
âge  shall  in  redyng  and  spekyng  sounde  an  ;  betwene  a  and  g,  as 
though  that  a  were  this  diphthong  ai;  as  for  langage,  heretàge,  sage, 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  9 

dammàge ,  bocquàge,  apprentissage ,  they  sounde  langaaige ,  heritaige, 
saige,  dammaige,  bocquaige ,  apprentissaige ,  and  so  of  ail  suche  lyke 
excepte  rage.  And  noie  that  many  tymes  I  fynde  suche  nownes 
whiche  hâve  the  i  in  vvritting  betwene  the  a  and  g,  but,  whether 
he  be  written  or  nat,  in  redyng  or  spekyng  lie  shalbe  sounded ,  ac- 
cordyng  as  I  hâve  here  shewed  by  exainple. 

fN  WHAT  WORDES  THIS  VOWEL  U  SHALBE  SOUNDED  WHERE   HE  IS  NAT 

WRITTEN. 
CAPITULOM  VIU. 

Whan  soever  ;«  or  n  lolowe  next  after  any  of  thèse  n  vowelles  a  Régula  prima, 
or  0  both  in  one  syllabîe,  than  shall  the  reder  sounde  an  u  betwene 
the  said  vowels  and  m  and  n  as  though  the  vowell  were  a  diphthonge , 
as  ambre,  tant,  nom,  mon  shalbe  sounded  aumbre,  taunt,  noam,  moun, 
accordyng  as  I  bave  shewed  here  before,  whan  I  spake  of  the  soun- 
dynge  of  the  sayd  vowelles. 

Also  whan  soever  ihis  worde  ex  commeth  in  the  composicion  of  Régula 
any  worde  in  the  frenche  tong  or  at  the  begynnynge  of  a  worde, 
the  reder  shall  sounde  an  a  betwene  the  sayd  eand  x,  as  for  exemple, 
expérience,  expédient,  exprimer,  they  sounde  eaxemple,  eaxperiense, 
euxpedient,  eaxprimer  :  but  if  e  come  before  x  in  mean  syllables,  they 
kepe  nat  this  rule  as  in  texte,  complexiùn,  annexer,  for,  in  suche,  there 
is  no  u  sounded  betwene  the  e  and  x. 

IN  WHAT  WORDES  THIS  VOWELL  V  IS  WRITTEN  WHERE  HE  IS  LEFT  UNSOUNDED. 

CAPITULUM  IX. 

Whan  V  foloweth  ^  in  a  frenche  worde ,  a  vowell  comyng  next  after  Régula  prima. 
them,  than  shall  u  be  left  unsounded,  and  the  q  sounded  with  the 
vowel  folowynge  shall  bave  suche  sounde  as  we  gyve  to  k  commynge 
before  vowelles  in  our  tong  :  as  wbere  as  thèse  wordes  euésque, 
quartier,  quant,  quinze,  qui,  quarésme,  in  writtyng  bave  this  vowell  u 
commyng  betwene  theyr  q  and  the  vowell  folowyng,  in  redyng  or 


Régula 
secunda. 


Regiih  tertia. 


Eiceptio 
»  Icrtia  reçtula. 


10  LESGLARCISSEMENT 

spekyng  they  shalbe  sounded  eueske,  karticr,  kanl,  kinze,  ki,  karesme, 
and  so  of  ail  suche  lyke  in  the  frenche  long. 

Also  whan  soever  a  foloweth  ^f  in  a  frenche  worde,  a  wowel 
comyng  next  after  them,  in  ail  suche  wordes  the  a  shalbe  left  un- 
sounded,  and  the  g  shall  hâve  suche  sounde,  commynge  heîore  e  or 
i,  as  he  hath  in  latine  commyng  before  a,  or  o,  or  h,  as  guaittér, 
gaarrant,  giiéspe,  guise,  longue,  langue,  shalbe  sounded  :  gaitler,  gar- 
rant,  gespe,  gyse,  nal  jespe ,  jise;  longe,  lange,  nat  lonje,  lanje.  Except 
from  this  rule  a  gve  (ii  wordes),  and  agve,  the  femine  gender  of  aga, 
and  the  verbe  that  is  made  of  hym  aguisér,  and  this  worde  ambigve, 
and  ail  that  be  formed  of  hym,  as  ambigveux,  ambigvyte,  whiche  ail 
gyve  unto  h  bis  distinct  sounde. 

Also  whan  soever  a  foloweth  next  after/  in  a  frenche  worde,  the 
vowel  next  folowyng  bcyngnat  an  i,  the  a,  accordyng  as  I  bave  sayd, 
shalbe  left  unsounded ,  and  the /sounded  distinctly  witb  the  vowell 
folowynge,  as /veille,  briefve,  bretifve,  hatifve  shalbe  sounded /eiV/e, 
briefe,  brelife,  hatife,  and  so  of  ail  suche  other. 

But  if  i  folowe  next  after  u,  than  shall  that  «  and  i  be  sounded 
both  distinctly,  as yt5jr,/(;j'/j/" shalbe  sounded  as  they  be  written,  so 
that  in  this  worde  fvytifve  the  fyrst  u  shalbe  sounded  by  reason  that 
i  foloweth  hym,  and  the  seconde  «  shalbe  left  unsounded  accordyng 
to  the  rule. 


HOW  MANY  DIPHTHONGES  THERE  BE  IN  THE  FRENCHE  TONG, 

AND  BY  WHAT  MEANES  IT  SHALBE  KNOWEN  IN  THE  FRENCHE  VOCABULAR 

WHAN  /  AND   t«E  VOWELS   AND  WHAN   THEY   BE  CONSONANTES. 

CAPITULUM  X. 


Reguia  prima.  Of  these  vowelles  above  rehersed  be  made  in  the  frenche  tong 
VII  diphthonges,  that  is  to  saye  :  ai,  ei,  oi  :  au,  en,  ou  and  ui,  whiche 
is  onely  propre  to  the  frenche  tong.  As  for  œ  and  œ,  whiche  be 
written  in  latine  and  nat  sounded,  it  is  nat  material  to  speke  of  them 
in  this  purpose,  for  the  frenchemen  observe  no  suche  kynde  of  or- 
thographie in  theyr  tong. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  11 

And  note  that  nat  ever  whan  thèse  vowels  corne  togeder  in  this         Reg"!» 

"  secunua. 

ordre,  that  is  to  say,  a,  e  and  o,  before  i  and  a,  they  shalbe  sounded 
lyke  diphthonges  :  for  somtyme  i  and  a  commyng  after  thèse  vowelles 
hâve  theyr  distinct  sounde  by  them  selfe,  and  oftenlymes  they  be 
consonantes  and  than  shall  hâve  suche  sounde  as  shall  hereafter 
appere.  Whiche  thyng,  for  by  cause  that  in  the  myddell  syllables 
where  many  vowelies  corne  togelher,  eyther  alone  or  with  some 
one  consonant  with  them,  it  myght  cause  a  great  doubt  unto  them 
that  be  desirous  to  lerne  whether  that  i  and  w  be  vowelles  and 
shulde  be  joyned  to  the  vowelles  goyng  before  them,  and  make 
with  them  diphthonges,  orcls  spelled  with  the  vowels  folowyng  as 
consonantes,  or  hâve  theyr  distmct  sounde  by  themself. 

For  the  avoydynge  of  this  doubte,  let  the  Icrnar,  whan  he  fyndeth  ^eg"'»  '«^tia. 
a  worde  in  any  auctor  wherof  he  is  uncertayne,  resort  unto  the 
frenche  vocabular,  and  fyndyng  out  the  same  worde  after  the  ordre 
of  a,  b,  c,  let  hym  marke  howe  the  worde  whyche  he  slandeth  in 
doute  of  is  there  written;  for,  if  i  and  a  be  vowelies,  they  shalbe 
written  with  thèse  caracters  j  and  v  :  and,  if  they  be  consonantes, 
they  shalbe  written  with  thèse  characters  i,  a,  and  whan  they  be 
vowelles,  if  they  bave  theyr  distinct  sounde,  and  be  nat  part  of  a 
diphthong,  they  shall  bave  n  prickes  over  theyr  heed,  thus  y,  v,  as 
shall  in  thèse  wordes  folowynge  appere  by  example. 

Example  of  wordes  where  i  and  v  be  vowelles  and  belong  to  the 
vowell  goyng  before  them:  sayôn,  payén,  layette,  gâye,  avôst,  eâve , 
eaveûx,  hévre,  mévre,  mevrier. 

Example  where  i  and  a  be  consonantes  and  shall  belonge  to  the 
vowelles  folowynge  :  ajeunir,  ajourner,  gajér,  bourjôn ,  haalberjôn, 
auoyr,  auoyne,  aaortyne,  pôvre,  œvare,  hàare,  naarer,  learyér. 

Exampie  where  i  and  v  bave  theyr  distinct  sounde  horyon,  ayde, 
hayr,  bevryav,  amer,  oysyav  ;  as  for  hayoye,  croyoye,  ovyoye,  and  suche 
lyke  where  many  vowels  come  to  gether  by  reason  of  the  formation 
of  tenses,  ail  though  that  I  expresse  them  nat  in  the  vocabular, 
yet  the  lemer  shall  knowe  howe  to  sounde  ail  suche  by  reason  of 


12  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

the  rules  that  1  shall  gyve  for  ihe  formation  of  Icnses,  as  shall  more 
playnly  appere  in  the  thyrde  boke.  And  as  for  ail  suche  wordes  as 
begynne  eyther  with  i  or  v,  havyng  a  vowel  next  folowyng  the  sayd 
i  or  tt,  can  never  make  any  confusion  to  the  ierner  with  what  carac- 
ters  se  ever  they  be  written.  For  generally,  throughe  out  ail  the 
frenche  tonge ,  whan  any  worde  begynneth  eyther  with  i  or  u,  ihe 
next  letter  immediatly  folowyng  beyng  a  vowell,  the  sayd  i  and  u  be 
ever  consonantes;  except  begynnyng  with  i,  yarér  to  make  or  waxe 
dronken,  and  suche  as  come  of  hym  and  fuoire  for  yvery  :  in  whiche 
the  j  is  a  vowel,  and  the  a  next  folowyng  them  a  consonant  :  and 
as  for  juer  for  wynter,  his  true  orthographie  is  with  an  h ,  and  except 
begynnyng  with  v  onely,  vydér  to  go  out  or  voyde,  whiche  I  fynde 
written  uvydér,  where  the  fyrst  v  is  a  consonant  and  the  seconde  a 
vowell.  By  reason  wherof  the  Ierner  maye  also  be  sure  thaï,  whan 
composicion  is  made  with  any  of  thèse  wordes  begynnyng  with  i  or 
V,  and  theyr  preposicions,  as  resjoyr,  auUenér,  the  i  and  v  shall  ever 
be  consonantes,  as  they  were  afore  in  the  simple;  so  that  the  i  be- 
fore  0  and  the  v  before  i  be  consonantes  in  thèse  compounde  wordes, 
by  cause  theyr  simples  beyojrand  uilenér.  But,  yet  in  thèse  places, 
lest  the  Ierner  shulde  accustome  any  mispionunciation ,  I  shall  use 
ever  the  caracters  afore  mencioned.  But  if  a  frenche  worde  bave  no 
mo  vowelles  in  hym  but  one  onely  diphthonge ,  in  ail  suche  wordes 
it  can  make  no  confusion ,  howsoever  the  vowelles  of  the  sayd  di- 
phthonges  be  written,  save  that  in  ayde,  pays,  and  boys,  eche  of  the 
vowelles  maketh  a  distinct  sillable  by  it  selfe;  and  so  inhayr,  (to  hâte) 
whiche  as  often  as  a  and  i  come  to  gether  in  his  conjugatyng,  they 
make  distinct  sillables. 

THE  SOUNDYNG  OF  THIS  DIPHTHONG  AL 
CAPITULUM  XI. 

Régula  unica.  Ai  in  the  frenche  tong  is  sounded  lyke  as  we  sounde  «  ay  »  in  thèse 
wordes  in  our  tong  «  rayne,  payne,  fayne,  disdayne,  »  that  is  to  say, 
a  distinctly  and  the  i  shortly  and  confusely. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  13 

Except  in  thèse  wordes  pays,  ajde,  hayr,  in  whiche  i  hath  his  dis-    Exccptio prima, 
tinct  soiinde  by  hym  selfe  ,  as  shall  by  his  writtyng  in  the  vocabuiar 
appere. 

Except  also  the  fyrst  parsones  singular  of  the  future  tenses  of 
verbes  actives  in  the  frenche  tonge,  for,  where  as  ail  suche  univer- 
sally  ende  in  ray,  whan  they  be  written,  as  diray,  feray,  parleray,  con- 
uertiray,  in  redyng  and  spekyng  in  suche  contrays  as  theyr  tonge  is 
inost  parfit,  they  say  direy,  ferey,  parterey,  conuertirey ,  soundyng  the 
a  Ivke  the  most  generall  sounde  of  e  :  and  so  of  ail  suche  other. 


Exceptio 
secunda. 


THE  SOUiNDYNG  OF  THIS  DIPHTHONG  El. 
CAPITULCM  XI!. 


Ei  universally  through  out  ail  the  frenche  tong  shalbe  sounded     Régula  unica. 
like  as  he  is  with  us  in  thèse  wordes  «  obey,  a  sley,  a  grey,  »  that  is 
lo  say,  the  e  to  bave  his  distinct  sounde  and  the  i  to  be  sounded 
shortly  and  confusely  as  conseil ,  uermeil  :  and  so  of  ail  suche  other. 


THE  SOUNDYNG  OF  THIS  DIPHTHONG  OY. 
CAPITULUM  XIII. 


Rcgula 
secunda. 


Oi  in  the  frenche  tonge  hath  ii  diverse  soundes,  for  sometyme  it     Régula  prima. 
is  sounded  lyke  as  we  sounde  oy  in  thèse  wordes  «  a  boye,  a  froyse, 
«  coye,  »  and  suche  lyke,  and  somtyme  they  sounde  the  i  of  oy  almost 
lyke  an  a. 

The  generall  soundyng  of  oi  is  suche  in  frenche  as  I  bave  shevved 
by  example  in  our  tong,  so  that  thèse  wordes  oyndre,  joyndre,  poyndre, 
moytie,  moyen,  roy,  moy,  loy,  be  sownded  with  them  lyke  as  we  wolde 
sounde  them  in  our  tonge. 

If  s,  t  or  X  folowe  next  after  oy  in  a  worde  of  one  syllable,  in  ail     Régula  ténia. 
suche  the  i  shalbe  sounded  in  maner  lyke  an  a,  as  for  boys,  foys,  soyt, 
croyst,  uoix,  croyx,  they  sounde  boas,foas,  soat,  croast,  uoax,  croax  : 
and  in  like  wyse,  in  wordes  of  many  sillables  if  oj  be  the  last  vowels 


14  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

of  the  wordes,  havyng  s  or  t  folowyng  them,  ail  suche  shall  soundc 

theyr  i  of  oj  lyke  an  a,   as  aincoys ,  francoys ,  disoyt,  lisoyt ,  jasoyt , 

shalbe  sounded  aincoas,  francoas,  disoat,  lisoat,  jasoat  :  and  so  of  ail 

suche  other.  But  o  and  a,  in  ail  suche  wordes,  shalbe  sounded  as 

though  they  also   made  a  diphthong ,  and  nat  distinctly  by  them 

selfe. 

Exceptio.  Except  from  this  rule  this  worde  6oja;  for  boxe ,  in  whiche  o  and  i 

hâve  eche  theyr  distinct  sounde. 
Régula  quarta.  Also  wlian  SO  ever  oy  cometh  in  the  meane  syllables  of  a  worde 
havyng  r  or  l  immediatly  folowyng  hym,  the  i  of  oy  shalbe  sounded 
almost  lyke  an  a;  as  (jloyre,  croyre ,  mcmoyre ,  uictoyre.  poille,  uoille, 
poillon,  shalbe  sounded  gloare ,  croare ,  memoare ,  uictoare,  poalle , 
uoalle,  poallon,  and  so  of  ail  other. 

Exceptio.  And  as  for  royne  they  sounde  it  reyne,  changyng  the  sounde  of  o 

into  e,  but  the  changyng  of  o  into  e  of  this  diphthong  oy  I  fynde 
onely  in  this  worde. 

THE  SOUNDYNG  OF  THIS  DIPHTHONG  AV. 
CAPITULUM  XIIII. 

Régula  unica.  Aa  in  the  frenclic  tonge  shalbe  sounded  lyke  as  we  sounde  hym 

in  thèse  wordes  in  our  tonge,  «  a  dawe,  a  mawe,  an  hawe.  » 
Exceptio.  Except  where  a  frenche  worde  begynneth  with  this  diphthong  aa, 

as  in  thèse  wordes,  avlcùn,  àvltre,  av,  avssi,  avx,  and  auctevr,  and 
ail  suche  lyke,  in  whiche  they  sounde  the  a  almost  lyke  an  o  :  and  as 
for  in  amer,  a  and  v  be  distinct  syllables,  as  shall  appere  by  bis  writ- 
tyng  in  the  frenche  vocabular. 

THE  SOUNDYNG  OF  THIS  DIPHTHONG  EU 
CAPITULUM  XV. 

Eu  in  the  frenche  tong  hath  two  dyver.se  soundynges,  for  some- 
tyme  they  sounde  hym  lyke  as  we  do  in  our  tonge  in  thèse  wordes 


Régula 
secuntla. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  15 

"  a  clewe ,  a  shrewe ,  a  fewe ,  »  and  somtyme  like  as  we  do  in  thèse 
wordes  «  trewe ,  glew ,  rewe ,  a  mewe.  » 

The  soundyng  of  eu  whiche  is  most  gênerai  in  the  frenche  tong,  is     Régula  prima, 
suche  as  I  hâve  shewed  by  example  in  thèse  wordes  «  a  dewe ,  a 
«  shrewe ,  a  fewe ,  »  that  is  to  saye,  lyke  as  the  Italians  sounde  eu,  or 
they  with  us  that  pronounce  the  latine  tonge  aryght,  as  evrévx,  irévx, 
liev,  Diev. 

If  eu  be  the  laste  letters  in  a  frenche  worde ,  eyther  alone  or 
with  an  s  folowynge ,  the  worde  beyng  eyther  a  nowne  adj  active  or  a 
participle  or  the  indiffinite  tense  of  any  verbe,  then  shall  eu  be 
soiinded  as  1  bave  shewed  by  exaraple  in  thèse  wordes  :  «  trewe,  glewe, 
«  rewe ,  a  mewe.  » 

Example  of  nownes  adjectives,  of  whiche  adjectives  Jehan  le  Maire 
leaveth  the  e  unwritten,  iyke  as  they  shulde  in  dede  be  written  as 
fourchév,  barbév,  bovssév,  torlév. 

Example  of  participles,  as  decév,  recév,  bév,  esmoîév,  dev,  crev,  repév. 

Example  of  indiffinite  tenses,  as  decévs,  recévs,  bèvs,  crévs,  repévs, 
with  ail  other  nombres  and  parsons  of  them,  whiche  participles  and 
indiffinite  tenses  also  after  the  true  perfection  of  the  tonge  shulde  be 
written  onely  with  v  and  so  I  often  fynde  them  :  but  in  decus,  reçus, 
deçà,  reçu,  lest  the  reder  shvilde  gyve  unto  c  before  u  the  sounde  of 
k,  they  bave  added  also  e,  and  in  the  other  rather  by  cause  of  simi- 
litude than  for  any  trewe  soundynge;  for  u  alone  hath  suche  a  sounde, 
as  I  bave  afore  declared;  but  this  shall  in  the  thyrde  boke,  whan  I 
speke  of  the  formation  of  tenses,  moi'e  playnly  appere. 


THE  SOUNDYNG  OF  THIS  DIPHTHONG  OU. 
CAPITULUM  XVI. 


Ou,  in  the  frenche  tong  shalbe  sounded  lyke  as  the  Italians  sounde     Régula  unica. 
this  vowell  a,  or  they  with  us  that  soimde  the  latine  tong  aright,  that 
is  to  say ,  almost  as  we  sounde  hym  in  thèse  -  wordes ,  «  a  cowe ,  a 
«  mowe,  a  sowe,  »  as  oùltre,  sovdajn,  ovbliér:  and  so  of  suche  other. 


16 


LESCLARCISSEMENT 


THE  SOUNDYNGE  OF  THIS  DIPHTHONGE  UI, 
WHICHE  IS  ONLY  PROPRE  TO  THE  FRENCHE  TONGE. 

CAPITULUM  XVII. 

Régula  unica.  For  as  moche  as  u  and  i  corne  often  together  in  ihe  frenche  tonge, 
where  as  the  u  hath  with  them  his  distinct  sounde ,  and  the  i  is  sounded 
shortly  and  confusely,  whiche  is  the  propreté  of  a  diphthonge,  I  reken 
Hi  also  among  the  diphthonges  in  the  frenche  tong,  whiche,  whan 
they  corne  to  gether,  shalle  hâve  suche  a  sounde  in  Irenche  wordes 
as  we  gyve  hym  in  thèse  wordes  in  our  tong  :  «  a  swyne ,  I  dwyne ,  I 
«twyne,  »  so  that  thèse  wordes  agvysér,  agvyllôn,  condvyre,  dedvyre, 
avjourdhvy,  meslivy,  and  ail  suche  lyke  shail  sounde  theyr  u  and  i 
shortly  to  gether,  as  we  do  in  our  tong  in  the  woi'des  I  hâve  gyven 
example  of,  and  nat  eche  of  them  distinctly  by  hymselfe,  as  we  of 
our  tong  be  inclined  to  sounde  them,  whiche  wolde  rather  say  av- 
jourdhvy, dedvyl ,  sanfcondvyt,  soundyng  them  both  shortly  to  gether. 
And  so  of  ail  suche  other. 

WHAT  DIFFERENCE  IN  SOUNDE  IS  BETWENE  /  AND  Y. 
CAPITCLUM  XVIII. 

Régula  unica.  The  writtyuge  of  j  and  y  in  any  frenche  worde ,  eyther  alone  or  as 

part  of  a  diphthong,  causeth  no  différence  in  sounde  contrary  to  the 
ruies  that  I  hâve  hère  afore  rehersed ,  save  that  y,  where  he  is  writ- 
ten  alone  without  an  other  vowell,  eyther  beyng  the  fyrst  letter  of  a 
worde  or  the  laste,  shall  bave  suche  a  sounde  as  I  bave  shewed 
before ,  where  I  bave  spoken  of  the  soundynge  of  tbis  vowell  i. 


Régula  unica. 


THAT  NO  VOWELL  IS  LEFT  UNSOUNDEÛ, 
THOUGH  THERE  COME  NEVER  SO  MANY  TO  GETHER  IN  A  FRENCHE  WORDE. 

CAPITULUM  XIX. 

Thoughe  there  come  never  so  many  vowelles  to  gether  in  a  frenche 
worde,  or  that  a  worde  be  made  onely  of  vowelles  as  ovyoye,  hayoye, 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  .        17 

and  dyverse  suche  other,  yet  in  ail  suche  wordes  every  vowel  that 
they  be  written  with  must  be  sounded,  eytber  distinctly  or  confusely, 
accordyng  to  the  ruies  that  I  bave  hereafore  gyven  ;  so  that  where 
as  we ,  in  our  tong ,  that  bave  nat  lerned  how  to  rede  the  frenche 
tong,  use  to  sounde  mon  per,  ma  mer,  un  hom,  anfem,  for  mon  père, 
ma  mère,  ung  homme,  une  femme,  and  also  use  to  sounde  premerment, 
dovsment,  tendérment,  for  primieremént,  dovlcemènt,  tendrement,  errynge 
both  in  the  true  soundyng  of  the  vowelles  and  aiso  in  the  accent  : 
we  must  leave  that  kynde  of  redyng  and  pronounsynge ,  if  we  woii 
sounde  the  frenche  tong  aright.  For,  as  I  bave  sayd,  there  is  no  vo- 
well  written  in  a  frenche  worde,  but,  whan  he  bis  red  or  spoken  by 
bym  selfe,  he  must  bave  bis  sounde  short  or  distinct,  after  the  rules 
that  I  bave  hereafore  rebersed.  But  as  for  qaesse  for  que  est  ce,  and 
quessy  for  que  est  ce  cy,  vbere  in  writtyng  the  letters  be  chaunged, 
that  is  nat  used  of  any  proved  auctor,  but  onely  of  suche  as  writte 
farcis  and  contrefait  the  vulgare  speche.  And  this  for  the  trewe  soun- 
dynge  of  vowels  and  diphtbonges  in  the  frenche  tonge  I  suppose  to 
be  sufficient.  And  bowe  tbeyr  consonantes  ougbt  to  be  sounded  it  sball 
hereafter  appere  ;  but  fyrst  f  sball  speke  of  the  soundyng  of  this 
letter  //,  apart  by  bymselfe. 

THE  SOUNDYNGE  OF  THIS  LETTER  H.  WHAN  HE  HATH  HIS  ASPIRATION, 

AND  WHAN  HE  HATH  IT  NAT,  AND  WHAT  IS  MENT  BY  ASPIRATION. 

CAPITULUM  XX. 

This  letter  h,  where  he  is  written  in  frenche  wordes,  bath  somtynie  Régula  unica. 
suche  a  sounde  as  we  use  to  gyve  bym  in  thèse  wordes  in  our  tong  : 
«  hâve,  halred,  bens,  hart,  burt,  hobby,  »  and  suche  lyke,  and  than 
be  bath  bis  aspiration  :  and  somtyme  he  is  written  in  frenche  wordes 
and  bath  no  sounde  at  ail,  no  more  than  he  bath  with  us  in  thèse 
wordes  :  «  bonest ,  honoiu",  habundaunce ,  habitacion,  »  and  suche  iike , 
in  whiche  h  is  written  and  nat  sounded  with  us.  Whiche  thynge  also 
happenneth  in  the  frenche  tonge ,  in  ail  suche  wordes  as  be  deducted 
ont  of  latin  wordes  whiche  be  written  with  h  and  sounde  bym  nat 

3 


18       .  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

in  that  toilg,  as  in  thèse  wordes  :  habit,  herbe,  homicide,  hôste,  humble, 
the  h  shall  nat  hâve  his  aspiration ,  for  the  latin  wordes  that  they 
come  of,  though  they  writte  h,  sounde  it  nat,  as  apereth  by  habitas, 
herba,  homicida ,  hospes,  humilis;  and  so  of  ail  suche  other.  And  to 
make  the  lerner  sure  of  this  thyng  in  the  frenche  tong,  I  shall 
reherse  in  ordre  ail  theyr  wordes  whiche  havyng  h  at  theyr  be- 
gynnyng ,  gyve  hym  his  aspiration  :  so  that ,  if  A  be  written  in  any 
worde  nat  conteyned  among  thèse,  the  reder  may  be  sure  that  he 
shal  nat  hâve  his  aspiration ,  and  that  the  h  is  written  only  for  kepyng 
of  true  orthographie  and  nat  to  be  sounded. 


HERE  AFTER  FOLOWE  ALL  SUCHE  WORDES  IN  THE  FRENCHE  TONG 
AS  HAVYNG  //  WRITTEN  AT  THEYR  BEGYNNYNGE  GYVE  HYM  HIS  ASPIRACION. 

CAPITULUM  XXI. 

Régula  prima.         Notynge  fyrst  that  ail  propre  names  begynnynge  with  an  h  gyve 
hym  his  aspiration,  as  Henry,  Haét,  Hûges. 

Hanettôn.  Haterèl.  Herciér.  Hohhyn.  Hovssévre. 

Hànte.  Hastereàv.  Hérdre.  Hochélte.  Hovx. 

Hanter. 


H  ANTE  A. 


Hache. 

Hacher. 

Hachél. 

Hacquenée. 

Haye. 

Hàyne. 

Hayneûx. 

Hayr. 

Hàyre. 

Hayt. 

Hay^ér. 

Haytyé. 

Hàle. 

Halebàrde. 

Halér. 

HaUttèr. 

HdUr. 

Hamassôn. 

Hameàv. 

Hameix. 

Hanàp. 

Hanche. 


Hantise. 

Happer. 

Haras. 

Hurccllér. 

Hardy. 

HardilUn. 

Harcnc. 

Harengiére. 

Haréngue. 

Hariàs. 

Haricot 

Hariér. 

Harnoys. 

Harô. 

Harpe. 

Harpye. 

Harpày. 

Hart. 

Hasârt. 

Hàste. 

Hastér. 


Haterèl. 

Hastereàv. 

HatiJ. 

Havbàns. 

Havberjàn. 

Havbért. 

Hàue. 

Havre. 

Hannyr. 

Havlt. 

HavUéar. 

Hazàrd. 

Hazardér. 

H  ANTE  li. 

Headlme. 

Hemée. 

Helâs. 

Hennyr. 

Hérault. 

Herbergiér. 

Hérce. 

Hercér. 

Hercié. 


Herciér. 

Hirdre. 

Hericôn. 

Hérisson. 

Herissir. 

Heràn. 

Hérpe. 

Héstre. 

Hévre  a  boris 

hced. 
Hevrt. 
Hevrtér. 
Hévse. 
Hevsir. 

H  ANTE  /. 

Hybàv. 
Hydevx. 
Hyérre. 
Hyre. 

H  ANTE  0. 

Hobér. 
Hobreàv. 


Hobbyn. 

Hochétte. 

Hocqaetdn. 

Hoydv. 

HoUélte. 

Hongnér. 

Honnyr. 

Honte. 

Hovrs. 

Hontêr. 

Hotte. 

Hovllér. 

H6ve. 

Hovér. 

Hovlélte. 

Hàvppe. 

Hovppelànde 

Hàvrl. 

Hovs. 

Hovsedv. 

Hovsétte. 

Hovspaillér. 

Hàvsse. 

Hovssér. 


H  ANTE    V. 

Hvàn. 

Huche. 

Huchèr. 

Hue  hier. 

Hiicqae. 

Haée. 

Huer. 

Hviboûst. 

Hviér. 

Humer. 

Hûne. 

Huppe. 

Happer. 

Hure. 

Hariér. 

Hartér. 

HurtebilUr. 

Hatyn. 

Heurt. 

Hutyner. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  19 

And  it  is  to  be  noted  that  nat  only  thèse  wordes  above  rehersed  give         Régula 
ther  h  bis  aspiration,  but  also  ail  tbe  wordes  wbicbe,  after  tbe  forma- 
tion of  verbes  in  tbe  frencbe  tonge,  be  derlved  of  them,  whiche,  after 
tbe  lernar  batli  red  tbe  seconde  boke,  shal  easely  inougb  be  perseved. 

WHAN  H  COMMYNG  BEFORE  A  VOWELL 
IN  THE  MEANE  SILLABLES  SHALL  HAVE  HIS  ASPIRATION  AND  WHAN  NAT. 

CAPITULCM  XXII. 

Whan  so  ever  composicion  is  made  with  any  of  tbese  wordes    Régula  prima. 
above  rebersed,  and  tbe  preposicions  in  tbe  frencbe  tong,  tbe  h  sball 
kepe  bis  aspiration  styll,  as  in  tbese  wordes  ahontér,  dchontér,  enhan- 
tér,  enhazardér,  dehovsér,  dehors,  tbe  h  sball  kepe  bis  aspiration  styil, 
and  so  of  sucbe  otber. 

Also  wban  so  ever  sucbe  a  worde  is  compounde  witb  any  prepo- 
sicion  as  soundetb  bis  h  in  latine,  or  wban  so  ever  h  is  written  in 
tbe  mean  sillables,  nat  commyng  before  a  perfect  worde  of  tbe  fren- 
cbe tong,  but  onely  beyng  a  part  of  a  worde,  in  ail  sucbe  wordes  h 
.sball  bave  bis  aspiration. 

Exampie  of  sucbe  wordes  wbere  tbe  latine  worde  kepetb  bis  aspi- 
ration, as  cnhortér,  adhérence,  compréhension. 

Example  wbere  h  is  written  afore  a  syllable  onely  or  a  wbicbe  be 
of  no  signification,  as  trahyr,  esbahir,  behùvrs,  chathvdn,  bahàs  and  su- 
cbe lyke,  in  ail  wbicbe  h  sball  bave  bis  aspiration. 

But  whan  tbere  is  composicion  made  of  prépositions  and  sucbe 
wordes  as  bave  h  written  for  tbe  kepyng  of  true  orthographie,  by 
cause  tbe  latine  worde  is  written  with  h,  and  y  et  in  frencbe  they  sounde 
hym  nat,  ail  sucbe  wordes  comyng  in  composition  leave  theyr  h  un- 
sounded  also,  as  çnhabitér,  sarhabundér,  deshonéste  and  ail  sucbe  lyke. 


Régula 
secunda. 


Régula  tertia. 


HOWE  CH.  PH  AND   TH  BE  SOUNDED  IN  THE  FRENGHE  TONGE. 
CAPIÏULUM  XXIH.     ' 


Ch,  whiche  is  verv  moche  used  in  tbe  frencbe  tonge,  is  sounded    Régula  prima, 

3. 


Régula 
secunda. 


Régula  tertia. 


20  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

with  them  lyke  as  sh  is  wilh  us  in  thèse  wordes  :  «  a  shaare,  a  shert, 
«  a  shyn,  a  shoo;  »  so  that  ch  in  no  vvise  shalbe  sounded  with  them  like 
as  we  sounde  hym  where  as  we  writte  hym  in  our  tong,  as  in  thèse 
wordes  :  <>  a  chaare ,  a  cheeke ,  a  chynne ,  a  chorle ,  »  and  suche  lyke  ;  and 
therfore  ch  written  with  them  in  thèse  wordes  :  chambre,  chandéille, 
chose,  chemise,  hache,  richesse,  duchesse,  chère,  charité,  shalbe  sounded  : 
shambre,  shandeille,  shose,  shemise,  hashe,  rishesse,  dushesse,  shiefe,  sha- 
riie.  And  so  of  ail  other  wordes  where  ch  is  written  through  the 
frenche  tong,  whiche  the  lerner  must  nedes  note ,  for  we  be  moche 
inclined  to  sounde  ch  amysse.  But  as  for  estomàch  havynge  ch  in  the 
laste  ende,  I  fynde  used  of  none  auctorbut  onely  in  Jehan  le  Maire; 
whiche  Alayn  Chartier  and  ail  other  writte  estomac,  for  ch  is  no  ter- 
mination  for  any  frenche  worde  to  ende  in. 

Ph  and  ih  be  never  founde  written  in  the  frenche  tong  but  in 
sviche  wordes  as  they  borowe  out  of  the  greke  tong,  of  whiche  they 
sounde  ph  lyke/,  whiche  is  in  dede  bis  true  sounde,  as  for  sphère, 
prophète,  phavtasie,  prophesie,  they  sounde  sfere,  projeté,  fantasie, 
profesie. 

As  for  th  it  is  in  maner  agaynste  the  nature  of  theyr  tonge  to  gyve 
hym  suche  sounde  as  the  Grekes  do ,  no  more  than  they  can  sownde 
the  wordes  of  our  tonge  whiche  we  writte  with  th;  so  that  for  théolo- 
gie, théorique,  theophile,  mathcmaticque,  diphthôngue ,  orthographie ,  they 
sounde  :  teologie,  teoricque,  teophile,  matcmaticque ,  diphtongue,  ortogra- 
phie,  soundyng  t  in  the  stede  of  th.  And  as  for  righévr,  uighévr,  and 
suche  lyke  whiche  I  finde  in  Jehan  le  Maire,  I  do  nat  greatly  ap- 
prove  tke  orthographie  of  them,  so  that  I  wolde  both  writte  them 
and  Sound  them  without  any  h;  for  in  Alayne  Chartier  and  ail  other 
auctors  I  fynde  them  written  uigvevr,  rigvevr.  And  as  for  thoreàv  soun- 
deth  bis  aspiration  with  the  o  and  nat  with  the  t  goyng  before ,  whiche 
I  wold  rather  writte  toreàv  without  an  h. 

And  this  for  the  true  soundynge  of  ^ ,  as  farre  as  concerneth  the 
frenche  tong ,  I  suppose  to  be  sufTicient. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  21 

TO  KNOWE  HOVV  CONSONANTES  OUGHT  TO  BE  SOUNDED  IN  THE  FRENCHE 

TONGE. 
CAPITULUM  XXIIII. 

Nowe  that  I  hâve  declared  howe  the  vowelles  and  diphthonges  of    Régula  unica. 

the  frenche  tonge  ought  to  be  sounded,  and  also  whan  h  shall  hâve 

his  aspiration  and  whan  nat,  resteth  to   shewe  and  déclare  howe 

they  sounde  theyr  consonantes,  and  what  consonantes  they  use  to 

writte  for  the  kepynge  of  true  orthographie,  and  yet  in  redyTQgç  or 

spekyngthey  sounde  them  nat.  For  the  shewynge  of  whiche  thynge, 

I  shall  fyrst  by  certayne  generall  rules  expresse  howe  ail  maner  con- 

sonauntes  shulde  be  sounded,  as  they  be  written  in  any  worde  by 

hymselfe,  both  in  theyr  fyrste  syllables,  meane  syllables,  and  last  syl- 

lables.  And  after,  intreat  particularly  of  the  sowndynge  of  every  con- 

sonant  by  hymselfe,  referrynge  the  lernar  to  the  generall  rules,  where 

as  they  folowe  them;  and  ail  suche  particular  sounde  as  any  of  theym 

hath  I  shal  in  his  place,  whan  I  speke  of  hym  apart,  déclare    it  at 

length.  And  after,  I  wyll  shewe  howe  frenche  wordes  sounde  theyr 

consonantes,  as  they  corne  to  gether  in  sentences. 

A  GENERALE  RULE  FOR  THE   TRUE  SOUNDVNG  OF  CONSONANTES 

AS  THEY  COME  TO  GETHER 

IN  THE   FYRST   SYLLABLES  OF  ANY   FRENCHE    WORDE   BY   HYMSELFE. 

CAPITCLUM   XXV. 

Whan  so  ever  at  the  begynnyng  of  a  frenche  worde,  afore  the  Reguia prima, 
vowell,  there  commeth  eyther  one  consonant  or  ii,  they  shal  ever  in 
that  place  bave  theyr  distinct  sounde,  suche  as  the  latine  tonge  useth 
to  gyve  them,  as  baniére,  cause,  dàrt,  famine,  garçon,  jàvne,  mayn. 
nation,  payn,  quant,  raine,  sain,  tant,  scabélle,  plàyndre,  clamévr, 
cràynle,  zélé,  zodiaque,  in  whiche  the  consonantes  afore  the  fyrst 
vowell  bave  suche  sounde  as  they  bave  in  latine,  or  as  we  wolde 
sounde  them  in  our  tonge. 

Excepte  ps  whiche  they  sounde  but  s,  sayeng  for  psâlme,  psaltére.    Exceptio prima. 


Exceptio 
.secunda. 


Exceptio  lertia. 


Régula 
secunda. 


22  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

saline,  saltcrc,  by  cause  they  can  nat  gyve  ps,  whiche  is  a  greke  letter, 

his  triie  sounde. 

Except  also  x,  if  he  be  the  fyrste  letter  of  a  worde,  as  xenotrophe , 
xjlobahôme,  whiche  they  sounde  but  s,  sa.y enge  senotrophe ,  sylobalsome, 
for  they  can  nat  gyve  x,  whiche  is  also  a  greke  letter,  is  true  sownde. 

Except  also  this  verbe  scauôir  and  ail  the  modes  and  tenses  of  hym , 
in  whiche  they  sounde  5  and  c  lyke  s  onely,  sayeng  saiioir,  as  for 
science,  descendre,  and  suche  other  in  the  frenche  tong,  they  sounde 
also  theyr  se  but  like  s,  for  they  can  nat  gyve  se  in  latine  wordes  theyr 
trewe  Roniayn  sounde. 

And  note  ihat  it  is  nat  the  nature  of  the  frenche  tonge  to  hâve 
niany  consonantes  at  the  begynnynge  of  theyr  wordes  to  corne  before 
the  vowell,  so  that,  for  the  most  part,  where  as  the  latine  worde 
hath  II  consonantes  or  m  commyng  before  the  vowel,  in  the  frenche 
worde  that  is  taken  out  of  the  latine,  they  use  to  put  re  or  e  at  the 
begynnynge  of  the  worde  before  thèse  consonantes,  so  that,  where 
the  Latins  say  sptendeo,  scribo,  stringo,  sfudeo,  scandahim,  schola,  scu- 
tam,  species,  spada ,  spero ,  spiritus ,  siabulum ,  siella,  slola,  they  say  resplen- 
dir, escripre,  estrâyndre,  estadiér,  esclandre,  escale,  escà,  espèce,  espée, 
espérer,  espirit,  estàble,  esioille,  eslàlle,  and  so  for  the  most  part  of  ail 
suche  like.  So  that  I  fynde  nat  in  the  frenche  tong  any  aiictor  that 
hath  a  worde  havyng  m  consonantes  before  his  first  vowel,  save  only 
in  Jehan  le  Maire  whiche  useth  splendeur  and  strideur  :  but  I  juge  hym 
among  other  vvriters  in  the  frenche  tong  to  be  like  as  amonge  latine 
auctors  lemed  men  judge  Apuleius.  But  what  my  judgement  is  of 
hym  shall  in  my  prologue  upon  the  seconde  boke  more  playnly 
appere. 

SIX  GENERAL  RlJLES  FOR  THE  TRUE  SOUNDYNG  OF  CONSONANTES,  AS  THEY COME 

IN  THE  MEAN.SILLABLES  OF  FRENCHE  WORDES. 

CAPITULIJM   XXVI. 


Régula  prima.  Fyrst.  m,  n,  r,  X  and  z  commyng  in  the  meane  syllables  of  frenche 

wordes  lèse  never  the^i  sounde. 


Excepiic. 


Keguia 
seconda. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  23 

Except  X  in  this  worde  déxtre  and  suche  other  :  and  therfore  I  ex- 
cept  thèse  fyve  letters  from  thèse  other  fyve  rules  that  I  shall  gyve 
hère  after. 

Seconde.  Whan  se  ever  ii  consonantes  conie  to  gether,  hoth  of  one 
sort,  they  shall  both  hâve  theyr  distinct  sounde,  as  accoler,  addition, 
affoler,  aggreaér,  allegvér,  ammonestér,  annedv,  appliquer,  arrovsér,  as- 
saillir, attendre. 

Thyrde.  Whan  so  ever  two  consonantis  corne  to  gether  in  any     Régula  ténia. 
meane  siliable,  both  belongyng  to  the  vowell  folowing,  they  shall 
eche  of  them   bave  theyr  distinct   sounde,   as   noble,  acre,   sôvpte, 
dôvble. 

Fourth.  Whan  so  ever  two  consonantis  come  to  gether,  of  whiche  Régula  quaria. 
the  first  belongeth  to  the  vowel  that  goeth  before,  and  the  next  to 
the  vowel  folowyng,  the  fyrst  of  them  only  shalbe  left  unsounded, 
as  sovldain,  Ivictér,  dicton,  ad,jugér,  digne,  multitude,  despéns,  respii, 
shalbe  sounded  soudain,  hiiter,  diton,  ajuger,  dine,  moutitude,  dépens, 
répit,  and  so  of  ail  suche  other. 

Fyft.  Whan  so  ever  m  consonantis  come  to  gether  betwene  u  vo- 
welles,  of  whiche  the  fyrst  belongeth  to  the  vowel  goynge  before. 
and  the  other  ii  to  the  vowell  folowyng,  the  fyrst  only  shalbe  lett 
unsounded,  as  ovltre,  assoûldre,  tiltre,  epistre,  substance  shalbe  soun- 
ded ovtre,  assovdre,  titre,  epitre,  sustance,  and  so  of  ail  suche  other. 

Syxt.  Whan  so  ever  m  consonantis  come  to  gether,  of  whiche  two 
belong  to  the  vowel  that  goeth  before,  and  but  one  to  the  vowell 
folowyng,  both  the  fyrst  shalbe  left  unsounded  or  one  of  them,  if 
the  other  be  m,  n  or  r  as  scovlptùre,  niovlctàre,  dompter,  samptvévx. 
shalbe  sovmded  scoatare,  movture,  domter,  sumteux. 

And  note  that  by  thèse  rules  it  doth  appere  that  some  m  conso- 
nantes may  bave  theyr  distinct  sounde,  though  they  come  together 
in  mean  sillables,  as  in  thèse  wordes  simple,  oncle,  payndre .  fayndre , 
and  suche  like,  for  theyr  fyrst  consonant  must  nedes  be  sounded 
by  cause  of  the  fyrst  rule  and  the  other  ii  by  cause  of  the  thyrde 
rule. 


Régula   quinta. 


Régula  sexta. 


Régula  septinia. 


24  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

Reguia octava.         Note  also  that  in  the  mean  siilables  of  frenche  wordes,  there  co- 
meth  never  past  m  consonantis  to  gether  at  ones  betwene  ii  vowelles. 


Hegula 
secunda. 


SEVEN  GENERALL  RULES  FOR  THE  TRUE  SOUNDYNGE  OF  CONSONANTES,  AS  THEY 
COME  TO  GETHER,  FOLOWYNG  THE  LAST  VOWELS  OF  FRENCHE  WORDES  OF 
MANY  SILLABLES,  OR  FOLOWYNG  THE  VOWELS  OF  SUCHE  WORDES  AS  BE 
BlîT  OF  ONE  SYLLABLE  ONELY. 

CAPITULUM  XXVII. 

Reguia  prima.  Fyrst.  m,  fi ,  OT  r,  comniyng  after  the  last  vowel  in  a  frenche  worde 
lèse  never  theyr  sounde,  whether  they  corne  alone,  or  hâve  other 
consonantes  joyned  with  them  :  but  m  chaungeth  his  sounde  into  n, 
as  in  champs  and  temps,  and  suche  lyke,  vvhere  he  is  joyned  afore  p 
in  one  sillable,  and  in  certayne  other,  as  I  shall  hère  after  touche. 

Seconde,  s,  x  or  z,  beyng  the  last  letters  in  a  frenche  worde,  lèse 
never  theyr  sounde,  if  the  worde  next  folowingbe  natthe  cause  the- 
rof,  as  shall  hère  after  appere.  And  therfore  thèse  vi  letters  be  except 
from  the  rules  folowyng  :  m,  n,  r  ever;  and  s,  x  and  z,  whan  they  be 
the  laste  letters  of  frenche  wordes  by  them  selfe. 

Recula  lertla.  Thyrde.  Whan  so  ever  a  frenche  worde  hath  but  one  consonant 

onely  after  his  last  vowel,  the  consonant  shalbe  but  remissely  sounded , 
as  anéc,  soyf.fil,  beavcoiip,  moi,  shalbe  sounded  in  maner  aue,  soy,  fi, 
heavcou,  mo;  how  be  it,  the  consonant  shall  hâve  some  lyttell  sounde. 
But  '\{  t  or  p  folowe  a  or  e,  they  shall  hâve  theyr  distinct  sounde,  as 
chat,  debât,  diicàt,  combat,  hanàp,  décret,  regret,  entremet;  and  so  of 
ail  suche  other. 

Régula  quaria.  Fourth.  If  a  freuche  worde  bave  ii  consonantes  folowyng  his  vowel, 
of  whiche  the  fyrst  is  m,  n  or  r,  and  the  last  neyther  s,  x  nor  z,  the 
laste  consonant  shalbe  remissely  sounded,  and  in  maner  left  unsoun- 
ded,  as  plomb,  blanc,  sourd,  sang,  champ,  mort,  whiche  shalbe  sounded 
^  plom,  blan,  sovr,  san,  cham,  mor;  how  be  it,  the  consonant  shall  bave  a 
littel  sounde. 

Régula  quiiiia.         Fift.  Whan  SO  ever  a  frenche  worde  endeth  in  n  consonantes  of 
whiche  the  fyrst  consonant  is  neyther  m,  n  nor  r,  than  shal  the  fyrst 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  25 

ofthem  twayne  be  utterly  left  unsounded,  as  soubz,  sacz,  nevdz,  serfz, 
fdz,  molz,  lovps,  coups,  quoqz,fist,  melz,faalt,  toult,  vvhiche  shalbe 
sounded  sovz,  saz,  nevz,  serz,fiz,  moz,  lovs,  covs,  quoz,  fit,  mez,faut, 
tout. 

Syxt.  Whan  so  ever  a  frenche  worde  endeth  in  m  consonantes  of     Régula  sexia. 
whiche  the  fyrst  is  m,  n  or  r,  ihan  shall  the  consonant  that  cometh 
in  the  myddes  of  the  thre  be  utterly  left  unsounded,  as  corps,  champs, 
blancz,  haslardz,  whiche  shalbe  sounded  cors,  chams,  hlans,  bastars. 

Seventh.  Whan  so  ever  a  frenche  worde  endeth  in  m  consonantes,  Régula septlma. 
of  whiche  none  of  them  is  m,  n  or  r,  than  shall  the  two  fyrst  be  left 
unsounded,  as  savllz ,  faiclz ,  dictz,  defàultz,  shalbe  sounded  savz,faiz, 
diz,  defauz.  And  note  that  by  the  ii  fyrst  rules  appereth  that  thèse 
wordes  clarôns,  barons,  mors,  noms,  and  suche  lyke  shalle  sounde  both 
theyr  consonantes  whiche  folowe  theyr  last  vowelles. 

Note  also  that  there  can  never  come  past  ni  consonantes  after  the     Régula  octava. 
last  vowel  in  a  frenche  worde  : 

And  that  thèse  vu  gênerai  rules  be  to  déclare  how  frenche  wordes     Régula  nona. 
commyng  next  to  a  poynt  in  any  sentence  shall  be  sounded  :  for  whan 
they  come  before  other  wordes*  of  any  sentence  and  must  be  sounded 
with  them,  there  is   farther  considération  to  be  had,  as  shall  hère 
after  appere. 

But  for  so  moche  as  diverse  consonantes  in  theyr  sovindyng  folowe 
thèse  generall  rules  in  every  condicion ,  (that  is  to  say,  eyther  bave 
suche  sounde  as  they  bave  in  the  latine  tong,  orels  be  remissely 
sounded  or  left  unsounded,  accordyng  as  thèse  sayd  rules  do  déclare) 
and  that  dyverse  other  bave  a  sounde  moche  diflerent  from  the  latine 
tong,  and  bave  also  in  the  frenche  tong  nat  always  one  sounde,  I  shall 
reherse  al  the  consonantes  used  in  the  frenche  tong  after  the  ordre 
of  a,  b,  c;  and  suche  as  in  every  condicion  foiow  thèse  generall  rules, 
I  shall  brevely  passe  them  over,  referryng  the  lernar  in  ail  suche  to 
the  gênerai  rules;  and  suche  as  bave  any  other  diversité  in  sounde 
or  particular  exception ,  I  shal  déclare  it  in  every  of  theyr  places  at 
length.  And  for  by  cause  the  b  differeth  nothyng  froni  the  generall 


26  LESCLÂRCISSEMENT 

rules  above  rehersed,  I  shali  by  example  of  hym  shewe  the  lernar 
howe  he  shall  in  lyke  wyse  apply  the  generall  rules  to  the  other.  con- 
sonantes  that  in  lyke  wyse  differre  nothyng  from  thena. 

A  DECLARACION  OF  THESE  GENERALL  RULES  BY  THE    EXAMPLE  OF  THIS 

CONSONANT  B. 

CAPITULIJM  XXVIU. 

Régula  prima.  If  6  be  the  fyrst  letter  in  a  frenche  worde,  eyther  alone  or  with 
an  other  consonaunt  with  hym,  he  shall  in  that  place  be  sounded  lyke 
as  he  is  in  the  latine  tong  or  in  our  tong,  accordyng  as  I  hâve  shewed 
in  the  fyrst  gênerai  rule  of  the  soundyng  of  the  fyrst  syllables ,  as  bàtre, 
bénigne,  bigame,  bonté,  bvissôn,  blanc,  bragvér,  and  ail  sache  lyke 
shalbe  sounded  in  frenche  like  as  they  be  in  latine. 

If  II  bb  corne  to  gether  in  the  mean  syllables,  than,  accordyng  to 
the  seconde  rule  of  meane  syllables,  eche  of  theym  shall  hâve  theyr 
distinct  sounde,  as  rabblér. 

If  6  joyned  with  an  other  consonant  belong  both  to  the  vowell  fo- 
lowinge,  than  shal  b,  accordyng  to  the  thyrde  rule  there,  bave  his 
distinct  sounde,  as  noble,  sobre,  dôvble. 

If  b  and  an  other  consonant  come  to  gether  in  the  mean  syllable, 
the  b  belongyng  to  the  vowell  that  goetli  before,  than,  accordyng  to 
the  un  rule,  there  he  shalbe  left  xmsounded ,  as  sovbdain,  double, 
shalbe  sounded  .çovdoj'n,  rfov/e. 

Regulaqninta.  If6  bc  one  ofthe  iH  consonantcs  commyng  betwene  iivowels,the 
b  belongyng  to  the  vowell  that  goeth  before ,  than ,  accordyng  to  the 
fyft  rule  there,  he  onely  shalbe  left  unsounded,  as  substance  shalbe 
sounded  sastance. 

Régula  sexu.  If  6,  where  there  is  m  consonantes  commyng  betwene  ii  vowelles, 

be  one  of  the  ii  belongyng  to  the  vowell  that  goeth  before,  than, 
accordyng  to  the  vi  rule  there ,  b  shalbe  left  unsounded ,  as  sovbstrayt , 
sovbstrayrc  shalbe  sounded  sovstrait,  sovstraire. 
Régula septima.        Also  if  any  frenche  worde  ende  in  6  onely,  as  I  remembre  none,  than, 
accordyng  to  the  m  rule  of  last  syllables,  he  shuld  be  remissely  sounded. 


Régula 
jecnnda. 


Régula  tertia. 


Régula   quarta . 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  27 

If  a  frenche  worde  ende  in  b,  the  next  letter  goyng  before  keyng     Régula  octava. 
m,  R  or  r,  than,  accordyng  to  the  nu  rule  there,  he  shalbe  remissely 
sounded  and  in  maner  left  ixnsounded  as  plomb,  colomb. 

If  a  frenche  worde  ende  in  ii  consonantes,  b  beyng  the  fyrst,  than,  Régula  nona. 
accordyng  to  the  fyft  nde  there,  he  shalbe  left  unsounded  as  des- 
sôubz.  And  so  of  the  other  ii  rules  foUowynge  there ,  if  b  shall  fortune 
to  corne  in  any  worde  in  suche  ordre  as  the  rides  speke  of.  And  this 
applyenge  of  this  consonaunt  b  to  the  rules  above  rehersed  I  wolde  - 
the  lernar  shulde  diligently  note,  for  lyke  as  I  thiuke  it  but  super- 
fluous  to  kepe  suche  ordre  in  ail  other  consonantes  whiche  folowe 
the  generall  rules,  so  thynke  I  it  necessary  ofone  to  gyve  a  playne 
example ,  for  I  may  the  better  be  short  whan  I  come  to  the  residue , 
save  onely  where  nede  is. 

THE  SOUNDYNG  PARTICULAR  AxND  PROPRE  TO  THIS  CONSONANT  C. 

CAPIT0L13M  XXIX. 


C  commynge  next  before  the  vowelles  in  the  frenche  tonge  hath     Régula  prima. 
two  diverse  soundes  :  for  c  comyng  before  e  or  i  shalbe  sounded  with 
them  lyke  as  he  were  an  s,  as  for  cendres,  cent,  ceynctàre,  cire,  ciel, 
ciercle,  cité,  they  sounde  sendres,  sent,  seinclure,  sire,  siel,  siercle,  site; 
and  so  of  ail  suche  other,  lyke  as  the  Latins  do. 

C  commyng  before  a,  o  or  u  shal  bave  the  sounde  of  k,  as  câvse,         Régula 
côste,  custode,  shalbe  sounded  kavse,  Icosfe,  kustode. 

Except  where  c  commeth  before  a  or  o  in  the  formation  of  suche  Exceptio  prima, 
tenses  as  come  of  verbes  of  the  fyrst  conjugation  in  the  frenche 
tonge,  havynge  c  before  er  in  theyr  infmitive  mode;  for,  in  ail  suche 
tenses,  through  al  theyr  nombres  and  parsons,  c  shall  hâve  the  sounde 
of  5;  as  where  as  of  corroucér  commeth  after  the  formation  of  tenses 
,in  the  frenche  tonge  corrovcôye,  corrovcày ,  corrovcànt;  and  oî  groncér, 
groncàye,  groncây,  groncànt;  despeccr,  despecôye,  despecày,  despecànt.  In 
al  suche,  c  comyng  before  oye,  ay  or  ant  shall  bave  the  sounde  of  5, 
and  nat  of  k.  But  many  tymes  I  fynde  in  suche  tenses  an  e  added  next 

4. 


Eiceptio 
secunda. 


Regala  tertia. 


28  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

aftei'  the  c,  as  lacer,  laceôye,  laceây,  laceànt,  whiche  ihey  use  to  writte 

to  shewe  that  c  in  suche  verbes  may  nat  bave  the  sounde  of  k. 

Except  also  ibese  two  présent  tensesje  recôysetje  decôys,  bycavised 
they  be  formed  o(  recipio  anddecipio,  wbicbe  shulde  make  decas  and 
ay  deçà;  reçus  and  ay  reçu.  But,  lest  the  redar  shulde  gyve  ctbe  sounde 
of  k,  they  use  to  adde  an  e,  as  I  bave  afore  touched  wbere  I  spake  of 
the  diphlhong  ev;  —  and  tbis  novvne  leçon,  by  cause  of  leciio;  —  and 
thèse  wordes  hère  after  folowyng  :  Ca,  eitber  by  bymselfe ,  or  whan  he 
is  compounde  with  other  wordes,  as  deçà,  piecà,  deslorsencà,  orcd,  and 
suche  lyke;  — and  rançon  rançonner,  csiancôn  estanconnér,  façon  façonner, 
limaçon,  hamacon,  plancôn,  arcôn,  hericôn,  garçon,  suspecon,  chancôn, 
tencôn,  aincôys ,  francoys ,  and  câyndre,  whiche  I  wolde  writte  céyndre  : 
in  whiche  and  ail  the  wordes  formed  oftheym  c  commyng  bcfore  a 
or  0  shall  bave  the  sounde  of  s ,  and  nat  of  k. 

And  note  that  like  as  they  sounde  c  alone,  commyng  before  e  or  /, 
like  an  s,  so  do  they  whan  s  is  joyned  unto  hym,  as  sceptre,  science, 
and  ail  suche  like,  so  as  I  bave  touched  in  the  xxv  chaptre.  In  ail  other 
wordes  in  the  frenche  tonge  howe  c  ought  to  be  sounded,  whan  he 
is  joyned  with  other  consonanles,  I  bave  sufficiently  sbewed  in  the 
generall  rides  above  rehersed,  and  declared  by  example  of  tins  con- 
sonant  b. 

THE  SOUNDYNG  OF  THIS  CONSONANT  D. 
CAPITULUM   XXX. 


Régula  unica.  D  in  ail  maner  thynges  confermeth  hym  to  the  gênerai  rules  above 

rehersed,  so  that  I  se  no  particular  thyng  wherof  to  warne  the  1er- 
uar,  save  that  they  sounde  nat  d  of  ad  in  thèse  wordes  adultère,  adop- 
tion, adoulcér,  like  th,  as  we  of  our  tonge  do  in  thèse  wordes  of  la- 
tine ath  athjuuandum,  for  ad  adjavandum  corruptly  :  for,  in  ail  wordes 
where  d  bath  bis  distinct  sounde ,  he  shalbe  sounded  lyke  as  the  la- 
tine tong  soundeth  d. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE. 


29 


THE  SOUNDYNG  OF  THIS  CONSONANT  F. 
CAPITULUM  XXXI. 


F,  how  soever  he  bis  written  in  any  frenche  wordes,  foloweth  the     Régula  unica. 
generall  rules  above  rebersed  witbout  any  exception. 


THE  SOUNDYNG  OF  THIS  CONSONANT  G. 
CAPITULUM   XXXIl. 


Régula 
secunda. 


G  commynge  next  before  the  vowels  in  the  frenche  tong  batb  ii     Régula  prima. 
divers  soundes,  for  g  commyng  before  e  or  i  shalbe  sounded   with 
them  bke  i,  whan  he  is  a  consonant,  as  gendre,  gingembre,  shalbe  soun- 
ded jendre,  jinjembre. 

G  commyng  before  a,  o  or  a  shall  hâve  suche  sounde  as  he  hath 
in  latin  in  thèse  wordes,  gaiidium,  Gomorra,  gala,  whiche  is  almost 
lyke  a  k. 

Except  where  <]  commeth  before  a  or  o,  in  the  formation  of  suche  Exceptio prima, 
tenses  as  corne  of  verbes  of  the  fyrst  conjugation  in  the  frenche  tong, 
havynge  g  before  er  in  theyr  infinitive  mode  :  for  in  ail  suche  tenses, 
ihrough  ail  theyr  nombres  and  parsons,  g  shali  bave  the  sounde  of  i 
whan  he  is  a  consonant,  as  where  as  of  songer,  after  the  formation 
of  tenses  in  frenche,  is  formed  songoje,  songay,  songant;  of  oubliger,  ou- 
bligoyc,  oubligay,  oabliganl;  and  oï  corriger,  corrif^ye,  corrigay,  corri- 
gant.  In  ail  suche,  g  commyng  before  oye,  ay  or  ant,  shall  bave  the 
sound  of  i,  whan  he  is  a  consonant,  and  nat  as  he  hath  in  the  latin 
tong.  Howbeit,  for  the  most  part,  through  out  ail  the  frenche  tong, 
in  ail  suche  tenses  ï  fynde  an  e  written  betwene  the  g  and  the  a  or  o 
folowyng,  as  songeoye,  songeay,  songeant;  oubligeoye,  oubligeay,  oubîi- 
geant;  corrigeoye,  corrigeay,  corrigeant;  whiche  they  do  lest  the  redar 
shuide  sounde  g  in  suche  tenses  amysse.  Lyke  as  they  writte  for  men- 
gûs  and  mengàsse,  mengeas  and  mengeusse;  and  so  of  al  suche  where 
as  by  reason  of  conjugation  g  and  a  shuide  come  to  gether,  so  oft  as 
the  infinitive  mode  endeth  in  ger,  where  as,  if  the  rules  of  formation 


Exceptio 
secunda. 


30  LESGLARCISSEMENT 

of  tenses  in  this  tonge  were  kept,  there  shiilde  none  e  be  written  :  for, 
like  asthey  say  :  assorbér,  assorbôye,  assorbày;  corrovcér,  corrovcoye,  cor- 
rovcày;  tarder,  tardôye,  tardây  ;  truffer,  traff'ôye,  truffây;  covlér,  covlôye, 
covlày;  aymér,  aymôye,  aymây;  acharner,  acharnoyc,  acharnày;  harpér, 
harpôye,  harpây;  danser,  dansôye,  dansây;  hevrtér,  hevrtôye,  hevrlày,  ke- 
pyng  alway  before  oye  and  ay  ibe  consonant  that  commeth  before  er 
in  the  infinitive  mode,  so  shulde  we  by  lyke  reason  writte  songer, 
songôye,  somjày.  But  of  thèse  two  I  sbal  speke  more  at  length  in  theyr 
place  in  the  thirde  boke. 

Except  also  g  conimynge  before  o  in  tliese  wordes  boargùys,  bour- 
gôyse,  bourgôn,  liavlbergôn,  dongôn.  How  be  it,  many  tymes  I  fynde 
thèse  wordes  written  with  an  e  betwene  the  g  and  o,  and  sometyme 
with  i  (the  consonant)  in  the  place  oi  g. 


Régula  prima. 


Régula 
secunda. 


OF  THIS  LETTER   //,  WHAN  HE  HAS  THE   POWER  OF  A  CONSONANT, 

AND  WHAN  NAT. 

CAPITULUM   XXXUl. 

Though  it  appere  sulFiciently ,  where  as  I  spake  of  k  before,  that  he 
is  no  consonant  in  the  frenche  tong,  but  onely  an  addynge  of  a  stron- 
ger  sounde  to  the  vowell  that  foloweth  hym,  yet,  if  h  come  in  the 
mean  syllables  of  a  frenche  worde  havyng  bis  aspiration,  the  syllable 
next  commyng  before  hym  endynge  in  a  consonant,  than  shali  h  bave 
the  power  of  a  consonant  and  cause  ihe  consonant  belongyng  to  the 
vowel  that  goth  before  to  be  left  unsounded,  accordyng  to  the  un 
rule  of  mean  sillables,  as  eshoutér,  deshontér,  desliovsér,  tréshavU,  shalbe 
sounded,  ehonler,  delionter,  deliovser,  trehavlt. 

But  if  h  commyng  in  the  mean  syllables  bave  nat  bis  aspiration, 
than  he  changeth  nothing  the  sounde  of  the  consonant  goyng  before 
hym,  no  more  than  if  he  were  nat  written,  as  in  treshonevre  ^ ,  desho- 
néste,  déshabituer,  and  suche  like,  in  whiche  the  s  hath  bis  distinct 
sounde.  And  lyke  power  hath  h  havynge  his  aspiration,  whan  he  is 
the  fyrste  letter  of  a  frenche  worde.  For  where  as  wordes  that  be  writ- 

'   Probablement  il  faut  lire  treshoneste. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  31 

ten  witb  h  nat  havynge  his  aspiration  admilteth  certaine  wordes  com- 
myng  before  them  to  be  joyned  to  them  in  writtyng  as  wel  as  wordes 
begynnyng  with  vowelles,  a.s  dhonnévr,  lliômme,  Ihabit,  in  suche  wordes 
as  bave  tbeyr  aspiration  we  can  not  do  so,  no  more  than  tbougb 
tbey  began  vvitii  consonantes;  so  ihat  we  can  nat  say  dhonie,  Ihayne, 
Iheavlnie,  but  de  honte,  la  hàyne,  le  heâvlme,  by  cause  tbat  in  tbese  iast 
wordes  h  bath  bis  aspiration.  But  of  tbis  tbyng  I  suppose  in  tbis  place 
sufficient  to  warne  tbe  lemar,  for  I  shall  bere  after,  in  tbe  seconde 
rule  of  tbe  lv  cbaptre  in  tbis  boke,  speke  more  tberof  at  lengtb. 

THE  SOUNDYNG  OF  I,  WHAN  IlE  HIS  A  CONSONANT. 
CAPITULUM  XXXini. 

7,  wban  he  is  a  consonant,  sball  bave  sucbe  sounde  in  frenche  Régula  unica. 
wordes  as  he  bath  in  latine  in  thèse  wordes  janas,  jecar,  jocandas, 
jadex,  witbout  any  exception.  And  note  tbat,  like  as  i  beynge  a  con- 
sonant is  never  founde  in  latine  cominyng  before  i  a  vowell,  no  more 
is  lie  in  tbe  frenche  tong.  As  for  in  ail  otber  tbynges  i  beyng  a  conso- 
nant foloweth  tbe  gênerai  rules  above  rebei'sed  :  bow  be  it,  be  is  ne- 
ver  left  unsounded,  for  he  ever  belongeth  to  the  vowell  tbat  foloweth 
hym. 


THE  SOUNDYNG  OF  THIS  CONSONANT  K,  VVHICHE  IN  MANER  IS  NEVER  USED 

IN  THE  FRENCHE  TONGE. 
CAPITULUM  XXXV. 

K,  wbere  so  ever  be  is  founde  written  in  the  frenche  tonge,  Régula  unica. 
shalbe  sounded  like  as  he  is  in  latine,  whiche  is  only  in  propre 
names  commyng  out  of  tbe  Greke  or  doutche  tong,  and  in  thèse  nii 
wordes  Kyrielle,  kyrie,  kalénde  and  kalendriér,  whiche  also  in  dede 
be  taken  out  of  Greke  wordes;  so  that  the  very  true  frenche  tong  of  it- 
selfe  useth  never  k,  but  eyther  c,  q,  cq  or  qu  before  the  vowels.  And 
therfore  I  se  no  cause  wby  karesme  or  karolle  shulde  be  written 
with  a  k,  seyng  the  latine  worde  that  karesme  cometh  ofqaadragesima. 


32  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

whiche  is  written  with  a  9  in  latine,  and  that  oneiy  ones  1  fynde  ka- 
rolle  written  with  a  /c  in  Jehan  le  Maire ,  whiche  the  Romant  of  the  Rose 
^  ever  writtetb  with  c.  How  he  it,  in  the  olde  Romant  long  k  was  ever 
used  in  the  stede  oî  qu,  and  of  c  or  cq;  but  sache  kynde  of  writtyng 
the  newe  frenche  tong  hath  clerely  lefte.  But  where  as  there  is  a 
boke  that  goeth  about  in  this  reaime,  intitled  The  introductory  to 
wrilte  and  pronoance  frenche,  compiled  by  Alexander  Barcley,  in 
whiche  k  is  moche  used  and  many  olher  thynges  also  by  hym  af- 
firmed  conti-ary  to  my  sayenges  in  this  boke,  and  specially  in  my 
seconde,  where  I  shall  assaye  to  expresse  the  declinations  and  conju- 
gatynges  with  the  other  congruiles  observed  in  the  frenche  tonge, 
I  suppose  it  sufficient  to  warne  the  lernar  that  I  hâve  red  over  that 
boke  at  length ,  and  what  myn  opinion  is  iherin  it  shall  well  inough 
apere  in  my  bokes  selfe,  though  I  make  therof  no  ferther  expresse 
mencion,  save  that  I  bave  sene  an  olde  boke  written  in  parchement,  in 
maner  in  ail  thynkes  like  to  bis  sayd  introductory,  whiche,  by  con- 
jecture, was  natunwritten  ibis  hundred  yeres.  I  wot  nat  if  he  happe- 
ned  to  fortune  upon  suche  an  other  :  for,  whan  it  was  commaunded 
that  the  grammar  maisters  shulde  teche  the  youth  of  England  joyntly 
latin  with  frenche,  there  were  diverse  suche  bokes  divysed:  wheru- 
pon,  as  Isvippose,began  one  great  occasyoh  why  we  of  England  sounde 
the  latyn  tong  so  corruptly,  whiche  bave  as  good  a  tonge  to  sounde 
ail  maner  speches  parfîtely  as  any  other  nacyon  in  Europa. 

THE  SOUNDYNG  OF  THIS  COiNSONANT  L. 
CAPnULUM  XXXVl. 

Régula  unica.         L  in  ail  thynges  foloweth  the  generall  rules  above  rebersed,  with- 
out  any  maner  exception. 

THE  SOUNDYNGE  OF  THIS  CONSONANT  M. 
CAPITULCM  XXXVII. 

Régula  prima.  M,  in  the  frenche  tong  hath  thre  dyvers  soundes.  The  soundyng 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  33 

of  m  that  is  niost  generall  is  suche  as  he  hath  in  the  latyn  tong  or  in 
our  tong. 

If  m  folowe  any  of  thèse  thre  vowelles  a,  e  or  o,  ail  in  one  syllable, 
he  shalhe  sounded  somthyng  in  the  nose,  as  I  hâve  before  declared 
where  I  hâve  shewed  the  soundyng  of  the  sayd  thre  vovyelles. 

If  m,  foiowyng  a  vowell,  corne  before  b,  p  or  sp,  he  shalbe  sounded 
in  the  nose  and  almost  lyke  an  n,  as  in  thèse  wordes  plomb,  colomb, 
champ,  dompter,  circumspection,  and  suche  lyke  :  whiche  in  partie  I 
hâve  hère  before  touched  in  the  xxvii  chapiter  ;  and  that  m  leseth 
never  his  soimde,  whersoever  he  be  written,  I  bave  sufficiently  decla- 
red in  the  generall  rules. 


Régula 
secunda. 


Régula  tertia. 


THE  SOUNDYNGE  OF  THIS  CONSONANT  ^. 
CAPITCLUM  XXXVIll. 


N,  in  the  frenche  tong,  hath  two  dyvers  soundes.  The  soundyng  of    Régula  prima. 
n  that  is  moost  generall  is  suche  as  is  in  latyne  or  in  our  tonge. 

If  n  folowe  any  of  thèse  thre  vowelles  a,  e  or  o,  ail  in  one  syllable, 
he  shalbe  sounded  somthyng  in  the  nose,  as  I  bave  before  declared 
where  I  bave  spoken  of  the  sayd  thre  vowelles. 

That  n  leseth  never  his  sounde,  nother  in  the  first  nor  meane  syl- 
lables,  nor  in  the  last  syllables,  I  bave  afore  declared  in  the  generall 
rules. 

But  it  is  nat  to  be  forgoten  that  n,  in  the  last  syllable  of  the  thirde 
parsons  plurelles  of  verbes  endyng  in  ent,  is  ever  lefte  unsounded,  ac- 
cordyng  as  I  bave  afore  declared  where  I  spake  of  the  true  soundyng 
of  e. 

THE  SOUNDYNGE  OF  THIS  CONSONANT  P. 
CAPITCLUM  XXXIX. 


Régula 
secunda. 


Régula  tertia. 


Eiceptio. 


P  in  ail  thynges  folovveth  the  generall  rules  above  rehersed  without     ReguU  unie», 
any  maner  exception. 


34 


lÈsclarcissement 


THE  SOONDYNGE  OF  THIS  CONSONANT  Q. 
CAPITULUM  Xf.. 


Régula  unica.  Q  in  the  frenche  tonge  shalbe  sounded  lyke  as  he  is  in  latyn 
without  any  exception  or  diflycultie,  so  that  it  be  noted  what  I 
hâve  sayd  before,  whan  I  spake  of  q  comynge  before  «  ;  and  note  that 
he  never  cometh  so  that  he  leseth  bis  sounde. 


THE   SOUNDYNG  OF  THIS  CONSONANT  fi. 
CAPITULUM  XLI. 


Régula  unicB.  R,  in  the  frenche  tonge,  shalbe  soiuided  as  he  is  in  latyn  withont 
any  exception,  so  that,  where  as  they  of  Parys  sounde  somtyme  r 
lyke  z,  sayeng  pazys  for  parys,  pazisien  for  parisien  ,  chaize  for  chayre , 
mazy  for  mary  and  sache  lyke,  in  that  thyng  I  wolde  nat  hâve  them 
folowed,  albeit  that  in  ail  this  worke  I  moost  folowe  the  Parisyens 
and  the  counti-eys  that  be  conteygned  betwene  the  ryver  of  Seyne 
and  the  ryver  of  Loyrre,  which  the  Romayns  called  somtyme  Gallya 
Celtica  :  for  within  that  space  is  contayned  the  herte  of  Fraunce, 
where  the  tonge  is  at  this  day  moost  parfyte,  and  hath  of  moost 
auncyente  so  contynued.  So  that  I  tliynke  it  but  superfluous  and  unto 
the  lernar  but  a  nedelesse  confusyon  to  shewe  the  dyversite  of  pro- 
nuncyacion  of  the  other  frontier  countreys,  seyng  that,  besydes  the 
thousandes  that  bave  written  sythe  Alayn  Charliers  dayes,  whiche  in 
maner  bave  left  none  auctours  written  in  the  latyn  tonge  untransla- 
ted,  there  is  no  man,  of  what  parte  of  Fraunce  so  ever  he  be  borne, 
if  he  desyre  that  bis  writyngcs  sliulde  be  had  in  any  estymacion,  but 
he  writeth  in  suche  language  as  they  speke  within  the  boundes  that 
I  bave  before  rehersed.  Nor  there  is  no  man  that  is  a  mynister  of 
theyr  common  welth,  outher  as  a  capitayne,  or  in  oflyce  of  iudica- 
toure,  or  as  a  famous  preachour,  but,  where  soever  bis  abyding  be, 
he  speketh  the  pai'fyte  frenche  :  in  so  moche  that  the  Heynowers  and 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  35 

they  of  Romant  Brabante ,  and  ail  other  nacyons  usynge  the  kynde  of 
speclie  nowe  called  Vallon  or  Romant,  thoii^çhe  in  pronunciation  they 
folowe  moche  the  said  old  Romant  tonge,  lyke  as  the  Pycardes, 
Liegeoys  and  Ardenoyes  do,  yet  in  writynge,  as  well  concernynge 
their  judiciail  causes  as  any  other  thyng  made  by  any  of  them  of 
their  owne  invencyon,  or  in  the  letters  missyves  of  suche  as  be  se- 
creatores  in  the  sayd  countreis,  they  folowe  in  wriltyng,  as  nere  as 
they  may,  the  very  true  ortography  and  congi-uite  of  the  parfyte 
frenche  tonge;  and  onely  suche  be  had  in  estymacion  and  bave  charge 
commytted  to  them  as  be  able  so  to  do.  But  if  there  were  dyversite 
in  writyng  amongest  them  of  the  frenche  tonge,  lyke  as  there  were 
somtyme  among  the  Grekes  dialecla,  so  that  every  man  wrote  in  bis 
owne  tonge ,  lyke  as  the  grekes  somtyme  dyd ,  or  that  the  Romani 
of  the  Rose,  whiche  undouted  is  a  syngular  auctour,  were  nowe  at 
thèse  dayes  imprinted  in  the  olde  Romant  tong  wherin  it  was  made, 
as  dothe  appere  by  a  boke  in  the  library  of  Gyldehall  in  London, 
whiche  mayster  Gylles,  somtyme  scole  maysterto  our  soverayne  nowe 
raygning  in  the  frenche  tong,  shewed  me,  I  coude  than  be  contented, 
and  il  were  for  that  auctours  sake  onely  to  shewe  the  différence  bi- 
Iwene  iholde  Romant  long  and  the  right  french  long.  But  I  se  that 
they  whiche  bave  corrected  and  pul  to  printe  ihe  sayde  auctour  of 
the  Romaynt  of  the  Rose  bave  donc  as  moche  as  myght  lye  in  them 
to  distroy  the  olde  Romant  tonge  whiche  il  was  written  in,  and  to 
make  it  in  suche  frenche  as  is  nowe  used;  so  that,  if  be  nat  hère  and 
there  where,  for  kepynge  of  the  ryme,  the  wordes  stande  unallred 
as  they  were  first  written,  a  man  shulde  scarsely  parceyve  that  ever 
it  was  written  first  in  the  Romant  tong.  Howbeit,  I  confesse  that  as  it 
was  first  written  in  the  Romani  tonge,  it  halh  a  marveylous  grâce, 
and  who  soever  understandelh  the  true  frenche  tonge  shall  with 
small  labour  also  understande  that  auctour  or  any  other  suche  lyke. 
But  of  thèse  ihynges  I  defarre  to  speke  any  more  at  tins  tyme,  and 
retourne  to  déclare  the  soundynge  of  the  resydue  of  thé  consonantes. 


36 


LESGLARCISSEMENT 


Régula 
secunda. 


THE  SOUNDYNG  OF  THIS  CONSONANT  S. 
CAPITULUM  XLII. 

Régula  prima.  S  in  the  frenche  tonge  hath  two  dy\'ers  soundes.  The  soundynge 
of  s  whiche  is  moost  generall  in  frenche ,  is  suche  as  is  in  latyn  or  in 
oure  tonge  :  so  that  s  in  thèse  wordes  obéissance,  astronome,  las,  santé, 
and  in  ail  suche,  is  sounded  in  ail  the  thre  tonges  alyke. 

If  a  syngle  s  corne  hytwene  two  vowelles  in  the  meane  syllables  of 
a  frenche  worde  by  hymselfe,  he  shall  in  that  place  ever  be  sounded 
lyke  an  z,  so  that  for  disant ,  faisant ,  trésor,  resôrt,  maison,  they  sounde 
dizant,  faizant,  trezor,  rezorl,  maizon,  and  so  of  ail  suche  lyke.  But  if 
a  frenche  worde  begyn  with  s,  a  vowell  folowyng  hym,  thoughe  the 
worde  that  cometh  next  before  ende  also  in  a  vowell,  those  two  vo- 
welles shall  nat  cause  5  to  be  sounded  lyke  an  z,  but  lyke  bis  generall 
sounde. 

Régula  tertia.  And  in  ail  other  thynges  s  confirmeth  him  to  generall  rules  above 
rehersed,  save  that  in  thèse  wordes  hère  folowyng,  5  comyng  in  the 
meane  syllables,  contrarie  to  the  sayd  ndes,  shall  bave  bis  distincte 
sounde. 


THE  WORDES  WHICHE  SOUNDE  THEIR  S  DISTINCTELY,  COMYNG  IN  THE  MEANE 
SYLLABLES,  CONTRARIE  TO  THE  GENERALL  RULES  ABOVE  REHERSED. 

CAPITULUM  XLIII. 


Régula  prima. 

Apostat. 

Bastillàn. 

Constituer. 

Digestion. 

Distinguer. 

Esplrit. 

Astroloijir. 

BastilUr. 

Construire. 

Digestes. 

Distraire. 

Estimer. 

Aspirer. 

Bestialité. 

Circamspection. 

Discorder. 

Distribuer. 

Estomaquer. 

Ayréste. 

Bistocquér. 

Castéde. 

Discret. 

Domestique. 

Estradiot. 

Assister. 

Discuter. 

Existence. 

Aspic.  , 

Caheslân. 

Dispenser. 

Escabeâv. 

- 

Administrer. 

Chaste. 

Désister. 

Disparsér. 

Esclave. 

Fastidieux. 

Asteàre. 

Coiisistoyre. 

Desperér. 

Disparér. 

Escorpiôn. 

Festival. 

Astrasér. 

C:ru:tànt. 

Désespérer. 

Disposer. 

Especidl. 

FestiviU*. 

Astuce. 

Conspirer. 

Destinée. 

Disputer. 

Espèce. 

Frisque. 

Constellation. 

Destruction  '. 

Distinctir. 

Espalgne. 

Frustrer. 

BasiiUe. 

Consterner. 

Détestable. 

Distance. 

Espérer. 

'  But  nat  deslruire.  —  '  But  nal /este. 

DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE. 


37 


Hisloyre. 


Illustrer. 

Indiscret. 

Industrie. 

Instruire. 

Instance. 

Instant. 

Instituer. 

Instrument. 

Invesliç/uèr. 


Investiture  ' . 

Majesté. 

Misté. 

Mistére. 

Mistion. 

Molester. 

Monastère. 


Obstânt. 


Obstination. 

Obscarcér. 

Offusquer. 

Ostentér. 

Ostrûce. 

Obstacle. 


Pésle. 
Pestilence. 
Perspicacité. 
Postérieur. 


Prosterner. 

Postale. 

Prédestiner, 

Prospérer. 

Pronostiquer. 

Questionner. 

Qaestuévx. 

Question. 

Recrastinér. 


Résister. 
Restituer. 
Robuste. 
Rustre. 

Sinistre. 

Substance. 

Substentâcle. 


Testament. 
Triste. 


And  note  that  nat  onely  thèse  wordes  above  rehersed,  but  also  of 
the  verbes  ail  their  tenses  and  other  wordes  fourmed  of  them,  and  of 
the  nownes  substantyves  or  adjectyves  ail  the  wordes  that  be  fourmed 
of  them,  sounde  s  in  their  meane  syllables,  contrai'ie  to  the  generall 
rule  afore  rehersed.  For  where  as  there  is  any  exception,  I  bave  tou- 
ched  it  hère  in  bis  place. 


Régula 
secunda. 


THE  SOUNDYNG  OF  THIS  CONSONANT  T. 
CAPITULUM   XLIIII. 


Regala 
secunda. 


T  also  hatb  two  dyvers  soundes.  The  gênerai  sounde  of  t  is  suche     Roguia  prima, 
as  the  latyns  gyve  hym,  or  we  in  our  tong,  as  tant,  ter,  tien,  ton, 
tvmber,  sounde  their  t  lyke  as  we  wolde  sounde  hym. 

If  t  be  written  in  frenche  nownes  endyng  in  tion,  for  the  kepynge 
of  true  ortography,  bycause  they  come  of  latyn  nownes  verballes  end- 
yng in  tio,  as  of  correctio  correction,  subjectio  subjection,  reformatio  re- 
formadoii,  and  so  of  ail  other  verballes,  the  t  of  tion  shalbe  sounded 
lykc  a  c,  for  the  frenchemen  can  nat  sounde  nownes  verballes  end- 
yng in  tion  accordyng  as  the  ytalyens  do  their  nownes  endyng  in  tio. 

And    note   that  this  worde   et,  whiche   signilieth  and,  is  never     Régula  ténia. 
sounded  in  the  frenche  tonge  but  e ,  wheder  the  worde  folowynge 
begyn  with  a  vowell  or  with  a  consonant. 

Note  also  that  this  worde  est,  whiche  signifieth  is,  if  the  next  worde    Régula  quaria. 

'  Nat  vestir  llie  verbe,  nor  vestement.  —  '  Begynning  with  N  I  fynde  none. 


38  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

folowyng  begyn  with  a  consonant,  shalbe  sounded  but  e  :  if  ihe  next 
worde  folowyng  begyn  with  a  vowell,  it  shall  be  sounded  et,  but  ne- 
ver  est  soundyng  5,  nor  eth,  soundynge  i  lyke  ih,  for  /  bath  ne  ver  no 
suche  sounde  in  the  frenche  tonge.  And  in  ail  otber  thynges  /  confir- 
meth  bym  to  the  generall  rules  hère  before  rehersed. 

THE  SOUNDYNG  OF  V,  WHAN  HE  HIS  A  CONSONANT. 
CAPITULUM  XLV. 

Régula  prima.  V,  whan  he  is  a  consonant,  shall  be  sounded  in  frenche  lyke  as  he 

is  in  latyn  in  thèse  wordes  uanitas,  uenio,  uindicta,  aoluntas,  that  is 
to  saye  almost  lyke  an/. 
Régula  And  note  that  v  beyng  a  consonant  cometh  never  so  in  a  frenche 

secuada.  i       i        i       i  i     i  ■  i 

worde  that  he  leseth  his  sounde. 

THE  SOUNDYNG  OF  THIS  CONSONANT  X 
CAPITULUM  XLVI. 

Régula  prima.  X  thorowout  thc  frenche  tonge  hath  suche  a  sounde  as  they  gyve 
to  5  with  them,  whan  he  cometh  bytvvene  two  vowelles,  that  is  to 
saye  lyke  as  the  latyns  do  sounde  z  in  thèse  wordes  zona,  zodiacus, 
Elizabet  :  so  that  thèse  wordes  in  frenche  jduar/e,  perplexité,  cheuâvlx, 
beàulx,  shall  be  sounded  youz/e,  perplezite,  cheuavlz,  beauz;  wherbv 
appereth  that  thèse  wordes  exemple,  expérience,  exécuter,  and  suche 
lyke,  where  the  worde  begynncth  with  ex,  shalbe  sounded  evzemple, 
evzperience,  evzecater;  for,  as  I  bave  shevved  afore ,  this  worde  ex 
hath  ever  an  v  sounded,  though  he  be  nat  written,bytwene  the  eand 
X,  and  the  x  by  this  rule  shalbe  sounded  lyke  an  z. 
Régula  And  note  that  x  shall  never  be  sounded  in  frenche  lyke  as  he  is  in 

latyn,  or  as  we  wolde  do  in  our  tonge,  in  no  wyse,  but  lyke  an  z,  as 
I  hère  before  bave  descrybed.  In  ail  other  thynges  x  foloweth  the 
generall  rules  above  rehersed. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE. 


39 


THE  SOUNDYiNG  OF  THIS  CONSONANT  Z. 
CAPITULUM  XLVn. 


Z  ihorowe  ail  the  frenche  tonge  shalbe  sounded  lyke  as  he  is  in  Régula  unica. 
latyn  or  in  our  tonge,  that  is  to  saye  lyke  s,  whan  he  cometh  in  a 
frenche  worde  bytwene  two  vowelles;  so  that  z  in  thèse  wordes  zélé, 
zodidcgae,  bréze,  hazàrt,  quatorze,  quinze,  dez,  vietz,  secz,  the  z  shall 
be  sounded  lyke  as  he  shulde  be  in  the  latyn  tonge  or  in  our  tonge. 
In  ail  other  thynges  z  confirmeth  hym  to  the  generall  rules  above  re- 
hersed.  And  this  for  the  trewe  soundynge  of  consonantes  as  they 
corne  toguyder  in  frenche  wordes  by  themselfe,  I  suppose  to  be  sufli- 
cient. 


FODRE  GENERALL  RULES  FOR  THE  TRUE  REDYNG  OF  FRENCHE  WORDF^ , 

AS  THEY  COME  TOGUYDER  IN  SENTENCES. 

CAPITULUM  XLVllI. 

First.  Every  frenche  worde  comynge  next  unto  a  poynt,  whether  Régula  prima. 
it  be  suche  as  the  Latins  call  punctum  planum  thus  made  ( .  ) ,  where  the 
nexte  worde  commonly  begynneth  with  a  great  letter,  or  with  sxiche 
as  the  Latins  call  comma  tliiis  made  (:),  or  vmjula  thus  made  (,),  al 
suche  wordes  shal  sounde  theyr  last  letters  distinctly  or  remissely, 
accordyng  to  the  rules  hère  afore  rehersed  :  and  so  shal  ail  the  last 
wordes  in  the  lynes  of  suche  thynges  as  be  made  in  ryme. 

Seconde.  If  a  frenche  worde  ende  in  a  vowell  or  diphthong,  the 
next  worde  folowyng  begynnyng  also  with  a  vowell  or  diphthong,  both 
the  vowels  and  diphthonges  shal  bave  theyr  distinct  sounde. 

Except  some  tyme  wordes  endyng  in  e  or  a  wherof  I  wyl  hereafter    Exceptio  unica. 
speke. 

Thirde.  If  a  frenche  worde  ende  in  a  consonant,  the  next  worde 
folowyng  begynnyng  with  a  vowel  or  diphthong,  or  contrary,  the 
worde  goyng  befoi-e  ende  in  a  vowel  or  diphthong,  the  next  worde 
folowynge  begynninge  with  a  consonant,  ail  the  vowels,  diphthonges 
and  consonantes  shall  bave  theyr  distinct  sounde. 


Régula 
secunda. 


Régula  tertia. 


40  LESCLARCISSEMENt 

Régula  quarta.  Fouith.  If  a  frenche  worde  ende  in  a  consonant  or  consonantes, 
the  next  worde  folowyng  begynnyng  also  with  a  consonant  or  conso- 
nantes, they  shalbe  sounded  or  left  unsounded  accordyng  to  the 
rules  hère  afore  rehersed  :  as  well  as  though  they  came  to  gether  in 
one  worde  by  hym  selfe,  that  is  to  saye  m,  n  and  r,  shall  never  lèse 
their  sounde.  And  if  the  worde  goyng  before  ende  in  any  other  con- 
sonant, he  shal  lèse  bis  sounde  by  reason  that  the  worde  folowynge 
begynneth  also  with  a  consonant,  ail  though  they  be  both  of  lyke 
kynde.  And  also  if  the  worde  goyng  before  ende  in  u  or  m,  he  shal 
lèse  them  ail,  if  the  consonant  or  consonantes  of  the  worde  folowyng 
be  of  suche  nature,  accordyng  to  the  rules  hère  afore  rehersed  :  as 
thèse  wordes  commyng  next  to  gether  sans  cause,  soubz  covleur,  ung 
combat  tel,  faictz  plaisans ,  suis  sayn,  shalbe  red  and  sounded  san 
cause,  sov  covlevr,  un  comba  tel,  fai  plaisans,  svi  sayn.  And  so  of  ail 
other,  though  xx  suche  wordes  both  endyng  and  begynnyng  with 
consonantes  shulde  fortune  to  folowe  one  an  other  in  a  sentence. 
And  hère  upon  it  ryseth  why  the  frenche  tong  semeth  unto  other 
nations  so  short  and  sodayne  in  pronounsyng;  for  after  they  bave  taken 
away  the  consonantes,  as  wel  from  the  particular  wordes  by  them 
selfe  as.  from  theyr  last  endes  by  reason  of  the  wordes  folowyng, 
they  joyne  the  vowels  of  the  wordes  that  go  before  to  the  consonan- 
tes of  the  wordes  folowynge  in  redyng  and  spekyng  without  any 
pausyng ,  save  only  by  kepyng  of  the  accent  :  as  though  fyve  or  syx 
wordes  or  somtyme  mo  made  but  one  worde  :  vhiche  thyng,  though 
it  inake  that  tong  more  hard  to  be  atteyned,  yet  it  maketh  it  more 
pleasant  to  the  eare  :  for  they  put  avay  ail  maner  consonantes,  as  often 
as  they  shulde  make  any  harshe  sounde,  or  let  theyr  sentences  to  flowe 
and  be  fuU  in  soundyng  :  vhiche  thyng  1  shal  hère  after  déclare  playnly 
by  example.  But  nowe  to  shewe  whan  e  or  a  beyng  the  last  letters  in 
frenche  wordes,  shalbe  left  unsounded. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  41 

WHAN  E  BEYNG  THE  LAST   LETTER  IN  A  FRENCHE   WORDE,  THE  NEXT  WORDE 
FOLOWYNG  BEGYNNYNG  WITH  A  VOWELL,  SHALBE  LEFT  UNSOUNDED, 

AND  WHAN  NAT. 

CAPITULUM    XLIX. 

Whan  any  frenche  worde  endyng  in  e,  and  havyng  his  accent  Régula  prima, 
upon  the  same  e  comnieth  next  before  an  other  worde  begynnyng 
with  a  vowel,  both  the  e  and  the  vôwel  folowyng  shal  hâve  theyr 
distinct  sounde  :  whiche  happenneth  in  certaine  nownes  endyng  in  te, 
and  al  the  participles  masculyne  of  the  fyrst  conjugation,  as  in  the 
chapters  of  accent  more  playnly  shal  appere  ;  and  in  ail  the  féminine 
participles  of  what  conjugation  so  ever  they  be ,  though  they  bave 
nat  theyr  accent  upon  the  same  e,  yet  shal  e  in  ail  suche  kepe  his 
sounde  styll,  nat  withstandyng  any  vowel  that  the  worde  folowyng 
doth  begyn  with,  as  pour  sa  bonté  il  est  aymé,  et  a  bon  droit.  Pour  sa 
bonté  elle  est  aymèe,  et  a  bon  droit.  Elle  sen  fut  partye  aaant  que  je  ne 
sceùsse  riens,  in  whiche  the  last  e  is  sounded  nat  withstandyng  the 
vowels  of  the  next  wordes  folowynge. 

But  if  a  frenche  worde  ende  in  e,  nat  havynge  his  accent  upon  Régula 
the  same  e  nor  beyng  a  femine  participle ,  the  next  worde  folowynge  '*'""  *' 
begynnyng  also  with  a  vowel,  eyther  alone  or  in  a  diphthong,  or  with  h 
nat  havyng  his  aspiration,  than  shal  the  e  of  the  worde  so  goyng  be- 
fore lèse  his  soimde,  and  the  consonant  comyng  before  e  be  joyned 
in  soimd  to  the  vowel  folowyng ,  as  though  they  made  both  but 
one  worde. 

Except  (as  I  hâve  sayd)  the  commyng  before  a  poynt  cause  the        Exceptio. 
contrary,  as  this  sentence  //  a  trovue  une  aultre  dame  belle  et  gracievse 
shall  in  redyng  and  spekyng  be  sounded  :  //  a  trouue  un  aultre  dame 
bellegracieuse;  and  so  of  ail  other. 


42  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

WHAT  WORDES  THERE  BE  IN  THE  FRENCHE  TONG  ENDYNG  IN  E  OR  <4. 

WHICHE  IN  WRITTYNG  ALSO  LEAVE  OUT  THEYR  EOR  4, 

AND  JOYNE  THEYR  CONSONANTES  TO  THE  VOWELL  OF  THE  WORDES  FOLOWYNG. 

CAPITULCM  L. 

Régula.  There  be  certaine  wordes  in  tlie  frenche  tong  endyng  in  e  and 

some  fewe  endyng  in  a,  whiche  nat  onely  in  redyng  or  spekynge 
leave  theyr  vowels  unsounded,  but  also,  whan  so  ever  they  writte 
them  in  any  sentence,  they  leave  out  theyr  last  vowel,  and  joyne  the 
last  consonant  or  letters  commyng  next  before  the  vowel  to  the  vowel 
of  the  nextworde  folowyng  orunto  ^,  if  the  worde  next  folowyng  be- 
ginne  with  h  nat  havyng  bis  aspiration,  as  though  they  were  the  lîrst 
letters  of  the  worde  folowyng,  whiche  ntiyght  cause  a  great  dout  to 
the  lemer,  whan  he  shulde  fynde  no  worde  so  written  in  the  frenche 
vocabular  ;  or  paradventure ,  if  he  founde  a  worde  written  with  suche 
letters,  it  myght  be  of  a  far  différent  signification  from  the  ryght 
worde  in  dede ,  whiche  of  hym  selfe  begynneth  with  a  vowell  :  and 
therfore  I  shall  hère  consequently  reherse  ail  the  wordes  in  the  frenche 
tong  that  be  of  that  sort  :  notyng  first  that  in  nownes ,  verbes,  parti- 
ciples  and  interjections  of  the  frenche  tong  there  be  no  wordes  that 
be  of  this  sort. 

WHAT  PRONOWNES  ENDE  IN  E  OR  i,  WHICHE  IN  WRITTYNG  LEAVE  OUT 

THEYR  VOWEL, 
AND  JOYNE  THEYR  CONSONANTES  TO  THE  WORDES  FOLOWYNG. 

CAPITULUM  LI. 

Régula  prima.  Pronownes  of  the  frenche  tonge  of  this  sort  there  be  viii  :  je,  me, 
te,  le,  la,  se,  ce  and  que  for  quid.  Je,  as  forye  ajme,je  endure,  they 
writte  jayme,  jendure,  leavyng  out  the  e  oîje,  and  joynyng  the  conso- 
nant to  the  vowel  of  the  verbe  folowyng.  And  in  lyke  wyse  for  je  me 
habite,  il  me  àyme,  il  me  endure,  they  writte  and  sownde  thusy'e  mha- 
bite,  il  mayme,  il  mendure;  and  also  (or  je  te  àyme,  je  te  endure  :  je 
tayme,je  tendure;  and  (ot  je  le  àyme,  je  le  endure  :je  layme,  je  lendare: 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  43 

and  for  il  se  âyme,  il  se  endure:  il  sayme,  il  sendure.  And  for  ce  est  they 
say  cest.  And  for  que  auéz  uoas,  quauez  uous.  But  as  for  ella  tort  for  elle 
a  tort  and  suche  like,  is  only  used  of  suche  as  writte  in  ryme;  like  as  . 
they  joyne  tel  and  quel  and  suche  other  adjectives  endyng  in  el  to 
nownes  of  the  femine  gendre,  as  tel  paour,  quel  amour,  mortel  plàye, 
mémoire  perpétuel,  wherof  I  shall  speke  more  in  the  thirde  hoke  ; 
whiche  I  wolde  the  lemer  shulde  wel  note  ;  or  though  I  shall  hère 
aller  in  the  seconde  and  thyrde  bokes  writte  the  verbes  from  the 
pronownes,  and  nownes  from  theyr  articles,  and  in  like  wyse  also 
ever  the  other  partes  of  speche  that  folow  this  rule,  by  cause  I  wold 
the  lerner  shidde  the  more  distinctly  perceve  one  worde  by  an  other  : 
yet  if  he  writte  them  in  any  sentence,  he  must  in  every  poynt 
kepe  this  rule ,  accordyng  as  I  in  this  place  déclare  unto  hym.  And 
note  that  this  kinde  of  writtyng  they  use  specially  whan  the  verbe 
beginneth  with  a,  e  or  o,  and  but  seldome  or  never  with  verbes  be- 
gynnyng  with  i  or  u;  for  before  suche  they  use,  for  the  most  part, 
to  writte  thèse  pronownes  at  length. 

But  where  as  in  maner  of  ail  suche  auctors  as  use  to  writte  in  ryme         Régula 

r  f       1  1  /  -17  secunda. 

1  fynde  used  gy  or  ge,  sayeng  nayge,ferayge,  se  gy  ossâsse  la  main  tendre, 
and  suche  lyke,  for  je  y,  nay  je ,  feray  je,  changyng  the  i  of  ye  in  g, 
whiche  thyng  whan  they  writte  in  prose  they  use  nat.  And  I  can  se 
no  cause  why  they  shulde  change  the  letter  but  by  cause  it  is  agaynst 
the  nature  of  the  frenche  tonge  to  hâve  twoyy'  orjy  or  yj  to  corne 
immediatly  togyder,  as  I  bave  somthynge  afore  touched. 

Except  where  the  first  person  of  the  preterimperfectens  endeth  Exccptio. 
in  yoye,  asfvyôye,  ouyôye,  and  suche  like  :  for  sythe  ail  suche,  in  their 
first  and  seconde  persons  plurell,  ende  in  yons  andye^;,  we  must  nedes 
hâve  two  u  come  toguyder,  and  sayefuyyons,  fuyyez,  oayyons,  ouyyes; 
for  if  he  wrote  but  one  i,  we  shulde  confounde  the  persons  of  this 
tens  with  the  same  persons  of  their  presentenses. 


44 


LESCLARCISSEMENT 


WHAT  PREPOSITIONS  LEAVE  OUT  THEIR  E  IN  WRITYNGE, 
AND  JOYNE  THEIR  CONSONANTES  OR  LETTERS  TO  THE  WORDE  FOLOWYNG. 

CAPITULDM  LU. 


Régula  unica.  Prepositions  of  tliis  sorte  be  foure  :  contre,  entre,  de,  and  re  whiche 

is  onely  used  in  composition.  Contre,  as  for  contre  eulx,  contre  elles, 
contre  hommes,  contre  âme,  they  write  contreulx,  contrelles,  contrhommes, 
contrame.  Entre,  as  for  entre  éulx,  entre  elles,  entre  àultres,  they  write 
entrealx,  entrelles,  entraaltres,  which  also  they  use  in  composityon 
with  entre  and  verbes  begynnynge  with  vowelles,  as  for  entre  aymér, 
entre  cspousér  :  entraymer,  entrespoaser.  De,  as  for  de  or,  de  argent,  de 
auécques,  de  homme,  de  anôyr,  de  âme:  they  write  dor,  dargent,  da- 
aecques,  dhomme,  dauoyr,  dame.  Re,  whiche,  as  I  hâve  sayde,  they 
use  onely  in  composytion  with  verbes  as  for  re  auôyr,  re  appellér,  re 
amender  :  rauoir,  rapellér,  remander,  and  so  of  suche  lyke. 

WHAT  ADVERBES  LEAVE  OUT  THEIR  E  IN  WRITYNG 

AND  JOYNE  THEHl  CONSONANT  TO  THE  WORDES  FOLOWYNG. 

CAPITDLDM   LUI. 

Régula  unica.  Of  adverbes  in  the  frenche  tonge  beyng  of  this  sorte  I  fynde  no 
mo  but  ne  and  que  for  than  :  as  ior  je  ne  dyme,je  ne  endure,  je  ne  ose, 
they  write  ye  nayme,  je  nendure,  je  nose  :  and  for  non  plus  que  a  moy, 
moyns  que  a  ung  àaltre,  ains  que  aymér,  they  write  non  plus  qua  moy, 
^  moyns  qua  ung  aultre,  ains  quaymer,  and  so  of  suche  lyke.  But  whan 
the  verbe  beginneth  with  i  or  v,  they  use  ne  on  this  maner  but  sel- 
dome.  And  as  for  jusquavmourir,  jusquadix,  and  suche  lyke  used  of 
suche  authours  as  write  in  ryme  ior  jusques  av  mourir,  jûsques  a  dix, 
it  is  nat  by  reason  of  this  rule,  no  more  than  encor  used  for  encore,  or 
hom  or  com  for  home  or  côme,  and  suche  lyke,  whiche  auctors  do  ra- 
ther  by  a  lycence  poetycall  than  for  the  advoyding  of  any  yuell 
sounde.  For  thoughe  the  oldeRomayne  tonge  use  many  suche  wordes, 
the  trewe  frenche  tonge  leaveth  never  the  e  of  suche  wordes  onwrit- 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  45 

ten,  thoughe  they  may  be  lefte  unsounded,  accordyng  to  the  rules 
afore  rehersed. 

WHAT  CONJUNCTIONS  LEAVE  OUT  THEIR  E  IN  WRITYNG,  AND  JOYNE 

THEIR  CONSONANTES  TO  THE  WORDE  FOLOWYNG. 

CAPITULUM   LUIl. 

Conjunctions  in  the  frenche  tonge  of  this  sorte  I  fynde  but  se,     Régula  unica. 
whiche  is  often  tymes  written  si,  as  for  si  aulcun,  se  elle,  si  il,  they 
Write  saalcan,  selle,  sil;  and  so  of  suche  other. 


OF  LE  AND  LA.  WHICHE,  THOUGH  THEY  BE  COMPREHENDED  UNDER  NONE 
OF  THE  LATYN  VIII  PARTES  OF  SPECHE,  YET  ALSO  FOLOWE  THIS  RULE. 

CAPITULUM   LV. 

Besydes  thèse  wordes  above  rehersed  there  be  two  other  whiche  Régula  prima, 
hâve  the  same  propertie ,  that  is  to  saye  le  and  la ,  whiche  I  hâve  nat 
rehersed  under  any  of  the  viii  partes  of  speche  of  the  lalyn  tonge  ; 
for  the  iatyns  hâve  no  suche  wordes ,  but  we  in  our  tonge  bave  wordes 
of  lyke  signification,  whiche  is  this  worde  the:  as  where  they  saye  in 
frenche  le  maistre,  la  dame,  we  saye  in  our  tonge  the  mayster,  the  lady; 
so  that  this  worde  the,  with  us,  counter  vayleth  bothe  le  and  la.  And 
therfore,  sythe  the  latyn  tonge  hath  no  suche  wordes  and  that  the 
frenche  tong  hath  certayne  other  that  be  of  lyke  sorte,  I  shall,  in  the 
seconde  boke,  where  I  make  rehersall  of  the  partes  of  speche  in  the 
frenche  tonge,  call  them  articles,  borowyng  a  name  for  tliem  of  the 
Grekes,  whiche  also  bave  wordes  of  lyke  signifycation  and  propertie 
intheir  tonge.  Bulnowe  to  shewe  howethe  sayde  le  and  la  folowe  this 
rule,  le,  as  for  le  abbé,  le  ennemy,  le  home,  le  habit,  le  innocent,  le  oyél, 
le  vsaige,  they  write  labbe,  lennemy,  linnocent,  Ihomme,  Ihabit,  loyel, 
lasage,  and  so  of  ail  oiher  :  la,  as  for  la  abbèsse,  la  enuie,  laymàge,  la 
oaertàre,  la  vniôn,  la  habitation,  la  habitude,  they  write  labbesse,  lenuie, 
lymage,  loauertare,  Ivnion,  Ihabitation,  Ihabitade,  and  so  of  ail  suche 
other. 

And  note  that,  where  as  I  bave,  in  ail  this  chapiter,  gyven  example         Régula 

secunda. 


r- 


46  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

of  h,  whan  he  hath  nat  his  aspiration,  I  meane  therby  thaï  h,  whan 
he  hath  his  aspiration,  is  excepted  from  this  rule.  For  he  hath  than 
the  power  of  a  consonant,  as  I  hâve  shewed  before,  so  that,  though  I 
maye  write  for  la  habitation,  la  habitude,  la  humilité,  Ihabitation ,  Iha- 
bitude,  Ihumilite,  by  cause  h  hath  nat  his  aspiration,  I  can  nat  write 
Ihayne,  Ihevrt,  Iheaulme,  for  la  hayne,  le  heurt,  la  heaulme;  for  the  h 
in  thèse  wordes  is  aspirate,  as  apereth  by  my  rules  herafore  de- 
clared.  And  therfore  so  often  as  /  conmeth  before  h  havyng  his  aspira- 
cion,  as  I  fynde  hym  somtyme  in  Alayn  Chartier,  it  is  the  errour  of 
the  printers  whiche  knowe  nat  their  owne  tonge.  And  this  différence 
appereth  evydently  in  this  worde  hevre,  whiche  havynge  his  aspira- 
tyon betokeneth  a  Boores  heed :  havyng  it  nat,  it  betokeneth  an  houre ; 
so  that  Ihevre  betokeneth  the  hour  and  nat  the  boores  heed,  for  I 
must  nedes,  in  that  signifycation,  write  le  hevre.  And  this  for  the 
trewe  soundyng  of  vowelies,  diphthonges  and  consonantes  in  the 
franche  tonge,  botlie  in  the  frenche  wordes  by  themselfe  and  as 
they  come  toguyder  in  sentences,  I  suppose  to  be  suffycient. 

TO  KEPE  TRUE  ACCENT  IN  THE  FRENCHE  TONGE, 

AND  WHAT  THIS  WORDE  ACCENT  SIGNIFIETH. 

CAPITULUM  LVI. 

Régula  unicd.  Accent  in  the  frenche  tonge  is  a  lyftinge  up  of  the  voyce  upon 
some  wordes  or  syllables  in  a  sentence,  above  the  resydue  of  the 
other  wordes  or  syllables  in  the  same  sentence,  so  that  what  soever 
worde  or  syllable,  as  they  come  toguyder  in  any  sentence,  be  sowned 
higher  than  the  other  wordes  or  syllables  in  the  same  sentence,  upon 
them  is  the  accent.  And  upon  whiche  wordes  or  syllables  the  redar 
shall  lyfte  up  his  voyce  and  upon  whiche  nat,  it  shall  hère  after 
appere.  And  note  that  sucbe  lyftynge  up  of  the  voyce  happeneth 
ever  by  reason  of  some  vowell  or  diphthonge,  never  by  reason  of 
any  consonant. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANGOYSE.  47 

THAT  NO  WORDE  OF  ONE  «YLLABLE  IN  THE  FRENCHE  TONGE 
HATH    ANY    ACCENT. 

CAPITULUM   LVIl. 

Generally  there  is  no  worde  of  one  syllable  in  the  frenche  tonge  Régula  prima. 
that  hath  any  accent,  except  the  comyng  next  unto  a  poynt  be  the 
cause  of  it;  so  that,  whan  a  worde  or  two  or  thre  or  mo,  beyng 
but  of  one  syllable,  folowe  one  another,  the  redar  shall  sounde 
them  ail  under  one  tenour,  and  never  rest  upon  them  nor  lyft  up  bis 
voice,  tyll  he  come  to  the  next  worde  of  many  syllables  that  fo- 
loweth,  as  il  a  ung  corps  fort  amiable,  ta  dis  vray  maynienànt,  shalbe 
sounded  in  redyng  and  spekyng  il  avncor  fort  amiable,  tv  dis  vray- 
mantenànt,  lyfting  nat  up  the  voyce  but  upon  the  seconde  a  oî  amiable 
and  mayntendnt  onely.  And  so  of  ail  other  of  one  syllable  thorowe  the 
frenche  tonge. 

But  if  it  happe  that  ail  the  wordes  in  a  sentence  be  of  one  syl-  Régula 
lable,  than  shall  they  be  ail  reed  shortely  togyder,  tyll  the  redar 
come  to  that  worde  of  one  syllable  that  cometh  next  unto  the  poynt, 
and  there  shall  he  lifte  up  bis  voyce  and  pause ,  rather  by  reason  of 
the  poynt,  as  I  hâve  sayd,  that  next  folowe,  than  by  reason  of  the 
wordes  selfe;  as  shall  appere  by  example  in  thèse  sentences  :  de  son 
bon  gré,  il  me  afaict  tort;  je  ne  scay  pas  que  cést,  quil  veult  de  moy;  car 
mon  las  cuéar,  pour  vous  se  meurt.  And  al  suche  other  shalbe  soimded 
in  redyng  and  spekyng  :  desonbongré  ilmafaitôrt  :  jenesaypaquecét  qui 
ueudemoy:  Car  monlacueùr  pourvoasemeùrt,  lyftyng  nat  up  the  voyce  but 
at  gre,  tort,  cest,  moy,  caear  and  meurt.  And  so  of  ail  suche  other.  And 
this  is  an  other  great  cause  why  the  frenche  tong  semeth  so  brefe 
and  sodayne  in  pronounciation,  and  so  harde  to  be  perceyved  by  a 
lernar. 

And  note  that  in  al  interrogations  and  answeres  they  use  to  sounde 
the  last  vowel  hyghest  without  pausyng,  tyll  they  come  therunto  : 
excepte  the  last  worde  ende  in  e,  and  wyll  bave  bis  accent  upon  the 


secuada 


48  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

last  sillable  commyng  before  :  but  ever  ihe  last  worde  shalbe  sounded 
hyghest,  as  le  Roy,  ou  sert  ua  il?  Combien  me  baillez  nous?  and  so  of 
ail  suche  other. 


THAT  ALL  THE  WORDES  IN  THE   FRENCHE  TONGE  BEYNG  OF  MANY   SILLABLES 

HAVE  THEYR  ACCENT  EYTHER  ON  THEYR  LAST  SILLABLES, 

OR  ON  THEYR  LAST  SILLABLES  SAVE  ONE. 

CAPITULUM    LVUI. 

Régula  prima.  Generally  ail  the  wordes  of  many  sillables  in  the  frenche  tong 
bave  theyr  accent  eyther  on  theyr  last  sillable,  that  is  to  say,  sounde 
the  iaste  vowell  or  diphthong  that  they  be  written  with,  hygher  than 
the  other  vowels  or  diphthonges  commyng  before  them  in  the  same 
worde;  orels  they  bave  theyr  accent  on  the  last  sillable  save  one,  that 
is  to  say,  sounde  that  vowell  or  diphthong,  that  is  the  last  save  one, 
hygher  than  any  other  in  the  same  worde  commyng  before  hym.  And 
whan  the  redar  hath  lyft  up  bis  voyce  at  the  soundyng  of  the  said 
vowel  or  diphthong,  he  shal,  whan  he  commeth  to  the  last  sillable, 
depresse  his  voyce  agayne;  so  that  there  is  no  worde  through  out 
ail  the  frenche  tonge  that  hath  his  accent  eyther  on  the  thyrde  sil- 
lable or  on  the  forth  syllable  from  the  last,  like  as  diverse  wordes 
bave  in  other  tonges,  but,  as  I  bave  sayd,  eyther  on  the  very  last 
sillable,  orels  on  the  next  sillable  onely. 
Régula  And  note  that  there  is  no  worde  in  the  frenche  tong  but  he  hath 

his  place  of  accent  certaine ,  and  hath  it  nat  nowe  upon  on  sillable , 
nowe  upon  an  other. 
Exceptio.  Except  diversité  in  signification  causeth  it  where  the  worde  in 

writtyng  is  alone,  as  I  shall  hère  after  déclare ,  rehersyng  suche  wordes 
in  the  frenche  tong  as  be  of  this  sort. 


.<,. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE. 


49 


7f 


Exceptio 
secunda. 


WHAT  WORDES  THERE  BE  IN  THE  FRENCHE  TONGE  WHICHE  IN  WRITTYNGE 

DE  LYKE, 
AND  BY  REASON  OF  DYVERSE  ACCENT  HAVE  DIVERSE  SIGNIFICATIONS. 

CAPITULUM   LIX. 

Generally  ail  the  verbes  of  the  fyrst  conjugacion  in  the  frenche  tong    Excepuo  prima. 
hâve  theyr  fyrst  parsons  singular  of  the  présent  tense  in  the  indicatyve 
mode  and  theyr  partyciple  prétérit  written  with  lyke  letters  ;  onely  the 
dy  versite  of  accent  sheweth  the  dyfTerence ,  as  I  shali  hère  after  déclare . 

Also  nownes  in  the  frenche  tonge  there  be  diverse  of  this  sort,  as 
péché  betokeneth  syn,  pèche  a  pèche,  a  kynde  of  fruité  :  costé,  a  syde; 
caste,  a  rybbe  :  posté,  a  pasty  ;  poste,  paaste  to  baake  wiith:  fossé,  a  dytche 
aboutatowne;/()55e,  a  pytte  :  conté,  an  erledome;  conte,  an  erle  :  cure, 
a  cure  a  personage  ;  curé,  a  curate  a  parson  :  bàle,  a  baie  of  any  marchan- 
dise ;  bolé,  a  baies  a  precioustone  :  marche,  a  bondes  or  a  marke  betwene 
contrey  and  contrey;  morchè,  a  bai'gen  or  a  marketstede  or  cheepe, 
as  good  cheepe,  bon  morchié  :  porenté,  a  kyndred;  porénte,  a  kynswo- 
man  :  clére,  cliere  ;  cleré,  clary  a  kynde  of  wyne  :  père,  a  father;  peré, 
perya  kynde  of  drynkerpi'e,  a  pye  byrde  ; /Jie,  a  foote,  whiche  I  wolde 
wr'itte  pied  :  planchera  planke  a  brydge;  planché,  the  florth  of  any  thyng 
that  is  bourded  :  âpres,  sharpe,  in  plurali;  après,  afterwarde  :  fille,  a 
daughter;^//e,  a  spyndel  with  threde  upon  it,  or  a  baye  for  coonys. 
And  of  this  sort  I  fynde  fewe  suche  other. 

WHAT  WORDES  IN  THE  FRENCHE  TONGE 

HAVE  THEYR  ACCENT  ON  THEYR  LAST  SYLLABLE  SAVE  ONE. 

CAPITULUM  LX. 


Generally  throug  out  ail  the  frenche  tonge  ail  maner  of  wordes  of 
many  syllables,  what  partes  of  speche  so  ever  they  be,  if  they  ende 
in  e  or  in  es,  they  shall  bave  theyr  accent  on  theyr  last  syliable  save 
one,  as  homme,  femme,  dovlovrevse ,  contre,  entre,  ôaltre,  àyme  (whan 
he  is  the  fyrst  parsone  of  the  présent  tense)  aymoye,  conuertie,  aymée, 
aymâsse ,  oymeroye,  a  lencôntre ,  comme,  hommes, femmes,  dovlovrevses , 
oymées,  auécques,  dôncques;  and  so  of  ail  other.  So  that  the  redar 

7 


Régula  unica. 


50  LESCLARCISSEMENT      ' 

shall  in  ail  suche  wordes  lyfte  up  his  voyce  whan  he  commeth  to 
the  vowell  or  diphthong  next  afore  e  or  es,  and  whan  he  commeth  to 
the  soundynge  of  them,  sodayniy  depresse  his  voyce  agayne;  whiche 
sodayne  fall  of  the  voyce  at  the  soundyng  of  the  sayd  e  or  es  causeth 
that  e,  commyng  in  that  place,  is  sounded  in  a  meane  voyce  betwene 
e  and  o  and  moche  in  the  nose  :  as  the  lernar  shall  easely  perceyve ,  if 
he  assay  to  sounde  the  wordes  that  I  hâve  here  rehersed  for  example , 
accordynge  as  I  hâve  here  and  in  his  place  before  described.  But  this 
gênerai  rule  hath  two  exceptions. 
Exccptio  prima.  Fyrst.  For  ail  suclie  nownes  in  the  frenche  tonge  as  ende  in  te 
whose  englysshe  also  with  us  endeth  in  te,  by  cause  we  use  the  same 
wordes  in  our  tonge,  or  whose  englysshe  endeth  in  heed  as  godheed, 
manheed,  or  in  nesse  as  goodnesse,  fayrenesse,  al  suche  nownes  in 
the  frenche  tong  with  theyr  plurell  nombres  shall  hâve  theyr  accent 
on  theyr  lasl  sillable,  as  charité,  humanité,  deité,  bonté ,  beavlté  :  cha- 
ntez, deitéz,  hamanitéz,  bontéz,  beavlléz;  and  so  of  ail  suche  lyke.  But 
in  other  wordes,  to  theym  that  be  lerned ,  to  expresse  this  thynge 
more  playnely,  ail  suche  substantives  as  in  the  latine  tonge  ende  in  tas, 
especially  if  they  be  suche  as  the  logiciens  call  abstractes,  the  frenche 
worde  that  is  formed  of  any  suche,  if  he  ende  in  te,  shal  bave  his  ac- 
cent upon  the  same  te  :  as  for  by  cause  that  out  of  thèse  abstractes  bo- 
nitas ,  ueritas,  deitas,  humanitas  be  formed  thèse  frenche  nownes  bonté, 
uerité,  deité,  humanité,  they  shall,  accordynge  as  I  bave  here  declared, 
hâve  theyr  accent  on  theyr  last  sillable  ;  and  so  of  ail  such  lyke.  And 
in  lyke  wyse,  by  cause  that  of  œstas,  ciaitas,  pietas,  paapertas,he 
formed  esté,  cité,  pitié,  poureté,  though  they  be  none  abstractes,  yet 
by  cause  they  come  of  nownes  endyng  in  tas,  they  folowe  this  rule. 
And  of  this  sort  also  I  fynde  thèse  nownes  folowyng,  congé,  dicté, 
traicté,  whiche  Alayn  Chartier  writteth  congié,  dictié ,  traictié ,  like 
as  he  writteth  planchié,  marchié  and  pechié,  for  planché,  marché  and 
péché.  And  also  thèse  nownes  sarlimé ,  eschauldé,  degré,  euesché,  ar- 
cheuesché,  abbé,  priovré,  laicté,  and  fewe  suche  other.  And  of  this  sort 
be  excès,  procès  and  après,  though  they  ende  in  es. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  51 

But  where  as  there  be  diverse  wordes  in  the  frenche  tong  whiche 
ende  in  te  that  be  nat  formed  of  nownes  in  latine  endyng  in  tas,  as 
honte,  hàvlte,  and  femine  adjectives,  as  côvrte ,  forte ,  and  also  femynyne 
participles,  Sisfàicte,  dicte,  ail  suche  wordes  folowe  the  generall  rule 
of  frenche  wordes  endyng  in  e,  and  bave  tbeyr  accent  on  the  last  sil- 
lable  save  one. 

Seconde.  For  ail  the  participles  prétérit  of  the  fyrst  conjugation  in 
the  frenche  tonge  with  theyr  plurell  nombres  shal  bave  theyr  accent 
on  the  laste  syllable,  lyke  as  I  hâve  some  thyng  touched  hère  afore,  as 
regardé,  aymé,  ordonné;  regardez,  ayméz,  ordonnez;  and  so  of  ail  suche 
other. 

And  note  that ,  where  as  the  prêter  perfect  temps  actyve  and  passyve 
in  the  frenche  tonge  is  circumloquuted  by  thèse  verbes  ay  and  suis , 
and  the  participles  prétérit  of  the  verbe,  so  that  in  verbes  of  the  fyrste 
conjugation  they  say  ay  aymé,  ay  regardé;  suis  aymé,  sais  regardé,  and 
so  of  ail  other  :  in  ail  suche  tenses  the  participle  of  the  mascvdyne 
gender  bave  theyr  accent  on  theyr  laste  syllable  ;  as  for  theyr  femy- 
nine  genders  folowe  the  common  rule,  as  I  touched  in  the  trewe 
sowndyng  of  this  vowel  e,  as  aymée,  regardée,  and  so  of  al  other. 


Exceptio. 


Exceptio 
secunda. 


Régula 
secuoda. 


WHAT  WORDES  IN  THE  FRENCHE  TONGE 

HAVE  THEYR  ACCENT  ON  THEYR  LAST  SILLABLE. 

CAPITULUM  LXI. 


Generally  through  out  ail  the  frenche  tonge ,  ail  maner  of  wordes  Régula  unica. 
of  many  sillables,  in  what  letter  soever  they  ende,  be  it  vowel, 
diphthong  or  consonant,  if  they  be  none  suche  as  I  bave  made  men- 
tion of  in  the  rules  hère  next  before,  that  is  to  say,  ende  nat  in  e 
nor  es,  as  the  plurel  nombres  of  suche  nownes  whose  singlers  ende 
in  e:  ail  suche  wordes  shal  bave  theyr  accent  on  theyr  last  sillable, 
as  aymù ,  aymày,  aimé,  beàv,  colômh,  aaéc,  accord,  bretif,  Diév,  desdaing, 
joîy,  conuerly,  chenal,  renom,  poyssôn,  parôy,  beavcovp,  cordelier,  appren- 
tis, honorablement,  uaincù,  covrtàvlx,  bontéz;  and  the  seconde  parsons 
plureis  of  al  verbes  whiche  ever  sbulde  ende  in  ez  with  an  z,  for  a 


Exceptio  prima. 


Exceptio 
secunda. 


52  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

différence  from  theyr  singiar  nombres,  whan  they  ende  in  es  :  so  that 
of  ail  suche  vvordes  as  ende  in  es  in  sounde,  the  writtynge  of  an  s  or 
z  after  the  e  declareth  the  diversité  of  accent  ,  and  where  the  redar 
shulde  gyve  the  accent;  for  ail  that  ende  in  ez  hâve  theyr  accent  upon 
theyr  last  sillable. 

Except  from  this  rule  the  thyrde  persons  plurels  of  al  verbes  end- 
yng  in  ent,  as  àyment,  aymoyent ,  aymérent,  aymeroyent ,  aymàssent, 
and  so  of  ail  suche  other,  whiche  ail  hâve  theyr  accent  on  theyr  last 
syllable  save  one,  though  they  ende  in  t  and  that  the  n,  in  ail  suche, 
shalbe  lefte  unsounded ,  as  1  hâve  hère  afore  in  diverse  places  de- 
clared. 

Except  also  the  seconde  parsons  plurels  of  the  indefmit  tenses  of 
the  indicatif  mode  in  verbes  of  the  frenche  tong  of  what  conjuga- 
cion  so  ever  they  be,  as  parlàstez ,  conuertîstez ,  disiez,  and  so  of  al 
suche  lyke  :  whiche,  though  they  ende  in  tcz,  yet  they  bave  theyr 
accent  on  theyr  last  sillable  save  one.  And  this  to  kepe  true  accent  in 
the  frenche  tonge  I  suppose  to  be  sufEcient. 


Rerola  prima. 


Régula 
secunda. 


TO  KNOWE  WHAN  A  VOWELL  SHALBE  LONGE  IN  PRONOUNCIATION , 

AND  WHAN  NAT,  AND  TO  SHEWE 

WHAT  IS  MENT  THERBY  BY  EXAMPLE  IN  CERTAYNE  WORDES  OF  OUR  TONG. 

CAPITULUM  LXII. 

Lyke  as  we  in  our  tong  gyve  our  vowels  somtyme  so  long  pro- 
nounciation  that,  for  the  expressyng  of  suche  sounde  as  we  gyve 
them,  we  double  the  vowel  in  writtyng,  as  doth  appere  in  thèse 
wordes  «  a  baare  caape,  aleene  beere,  a  soore  boore  :  »  so  happeneth 
it  many  tymes  that  the  frenche  men  rest  upon  the  soundyng  of  theyr 
vowels  and  gyve  them ,  where  they  be  written  alone ,  suche  long  pro- 
nounciation  as  we  use  to  do ,  whan  we  double  them  in  writtyng  in 
our  tong;  for  the  declaryng  of  whiche  thyng  thre  thynges  be  to  be 
presupposed. 

Fyrst.  That  this  long  pronounciation  is  gyven  onely  unto  theyr 
vowels  whan  they  corne  alone  by  themselfe,  and  nat  whan  they  be 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  53 

joyned  to  gyther  in  diphthonges ,  for  diphthonges  shall  ever  kepe 
suche  amaner  of  soundyng  as  I  hâve  before  declared,  where  I  spake 
of  them. 

Seconde.  There  is  no  vowel  in  the  frenche  tong  whiche  of  his  Régula  lenia. 
owne  nature  is  longe  in  pronoimciation ,  save  onely  v,  whose  kynde 
of  sounde  I  hâve  afore  declared  in  his  place.  Except  it  be  the  finall 
vowelles  of  ail  indefinite  tenses ,  whether  they  be  of  one  syllable  as 
dis,  fis,  bus,  tins,  or  of  many  as  maaldis ,  forjfis ,  fays ,  corrampùs,  and 
suche  like  :  for  they  be  ever  long  in  soundyng,  in  what  place  so  ever 
they  come  in  a  sentence.  So  that  the  causes  why  any  of  the  other 
vowelles  be  longar  in  pronounciacion  at  one  tyme  that  at  an  other  be  m  : 
firste,  by  reason  that  the  vowel  fortuneth  next  unto  a  poynt  in  any 
sentence.  Seconde,  that  the  accent  of  the  worde  falleth  upon  the 
same  vowell.  And  thirdly ,  by  reason  that  eyther  a  consonant  or  ii  of 
diverse  sortes  folowe  the  same  vowel  :  so  that  al  thèse  m  thynges 
must  be  concurrant  to  cause  a  vowell  in  the  frenche  tong  to  bave 
suche  a  longe  pronounciacion,  as  I  hâve  afore  described. 

Thirde,  if  m,  n  or  r,  eylher  alone  or  joyned  with  any  other  con-  Régula  quarta. 
sonantes ,  folowe  next  after  a  wowell  or  ii  consonantes  beyng  both  of 
one  sort  commyng  so  as  I  hâve  hère  afore  described,  they  let  the 
vowell  that  he  shall  nat  be  long  in  pronounciacion,  but  folowe  the 
common  sort  of  pronounciation  like  as  they  shidde  bave  in  the  la- 
tine tonge ,  or  hke  as  we  wolde  gyve  them  in  our  tong.  And  thèse  m 
thynges  supposed,  it  is  easy  to  the  lernar  to  discerne  whiche  vowell 
shalbe  longe  in  pronounciation,  and  whiche  nat.  How  be  it  by  example 
I  shall  more  playnly  déclare  this  thynge. 

EXAMPLE  OF  SENTENCES  WHERE  A   SIIALL    BE   LONGE  IN    PRONOUNCIATION. 

In  thèse  sentences  :  cest  ang  terrible  cas.  Je  ne  le  ferdy  pas.  Il  a  abatû 
son  mcist.  Il  lui  bailla  conseil,  qu'il  y  regarddst,  and  in  ail  suche  lyke, 
in  thèse  wordes  cas,  pas,  mast  and  regardasl,  by  cause  a  cometh  nexte 
unto  the  poynt,  and  hath  a  consonant  or  two  folowyng  hym,  and 
that  the  accent  is  upon  the  same  a,  they  shalbe  sounded  as  we  wolde 


54  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

do  in  englisshe  if  they  were  written  caas,  paas,  maast,  regardaast; 

and  so  of  ail  other. 

Except  where  the  worde  endynge  in  a  hath  eyther  t  or  p  alone  fo- 
iowyng  the  same  a,  for  in  ail  sache  wordes,  bicause  the  sayd  t  or  p 
must  hâve  his  distynct  soirnde,  accordynge  as  I  hâve  in  the  generall 
rules  of  laste  syllables  declared,  the  a  shalbe  sounded  short,  like 
as  we  wolde  sounde  hym  in  our  tong,  as  in  thèse  sentences  :  //  a 
batù  son  chat.  Allons  veoir  le  combat.  Il  boyt  en  son  hanâp,  the  a  shalhe 
sounded  short.  How  be  it  hanap  is  olde  romant,  though  I  fynde  it 
used  in  Froissart. 

EXAMPLE  WHERE  E  BEYNG  THE    LAST  VOWEI-L   OF   A  WORDE    SHALBE  LONGE 

IN    PRONOUNCIATION. 

In  thèse  sentences  :  Cest  ang  grant  jeveùr  aux  déz.  Les  Romàyns  ont 
uaincus  les  Grecz.  Il  afaict  de  grans  crualtéz.  On  luy  a  oste  quatre  citez, 
e  of  thèse  wordes  dez,  grecz,  crualtéz,  citez,  by  cause  he  commeth  in 
suche  ordre  and  place  as  I  bave  before  described,  shalbe  sounded  as 
though  they  were  written  deez,  gréez,  crualleez,  citeez;  and  so  of  ail 
other. 

EXAMPLE   WHERE  E  COMYNG  IN  THE   LAST   SYLLABLE  SAVE  ONE   SHALBE   LONG 

IN    PRONOUNCIATION. 

In  thèse  sentences  :  Elle  a  une  maluâise  teste.  Cest  une  belle  béste.  Je 
leferày  a  uostre  requéste.  Cest  ung  homme  fort  honéste.  Dieu  nous  doint 
bon  uéspre.  Il  est  bon  a  déxtre  :  e  in  thèse  wordes  teste,  béste,  requéste, 
honéste,  uéspre,  déxtre  shalbe  sounded  as  thoug  they  were  written 
teeste,  beeste,  requeeste,  honeeste,  ueespre,  deextre;  and-so  in  al  suche 
like.  And  though  two  the  laste  wordes  have  r  folowynge  theyr  e,  he 
letteth  nat  the  e  to  be  long  in  sounde,  for  he  is  nat  joyned  to  the 
vowell  that  the  accent  falleth  of. 

And  note  that  in  suche  wordes  as  have  theyr  accent  on  theyr  last 
syllable  save  one,  the  accent  may  as  well  fall  upon  any  of  the  other 
vowelles  as  upon  e.  Upon  a,  as  il  est  bien  àspre.  tout  ua  en  gàst.  Upon 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  55 

i,  as  il  nest  pas  digne,  il  a  bon  tiltre.  Upon  o,  as  baille  le  a  mon  hôste.je 
sais  tout  uôstre;  in  whiche  wordes  the  sayd  a,  i  and  o,  by cause  they 
corne  in  suche  place  and  ordre  as  I  hâve  afore  described,  they  shaibe 
sounded  aaspre,  gaast,  diigne,  tiiltre,  hooste,  uoostre.  So  that  a  great 
cause  why  the  vowell  is  longe  in  pronounciation  is  bycause  that,  ac- 
cordyng  to  the  rules  above  declared,  the  consonant  next  folowynge 
hym  is  left  unsounded.  And,  by  lyke  reason,  in  wordes  of  one  syl- 
lable  where  one  consonant  onely  foloweth  the  vowell,  he  shaibe  so 
remyssely  sounded  that  in  maner  he  shall  nothyng  be  barde. 

EXAMPLE    WHERE    /    BEYNGE   THE    LAST    VOWELL    SHAL    BE    LONGE 
IN    PRONOCNCIATION. 

In  thèse  sentences  :  Plus  que  je  ne  dis.  Dieu  scait  quelle  chiére  il  fist. 
Je  làyme  comme  monfilz.  Adonc  elle  enrovgist.  Parainsi  Iheretiqae  se  con- 
aertist:  The  i  of  thèse  wordes  dis ,  jist ,  jilz ,  enrovgist,  conuertist,  shaibe 
sounded  diis,jiist,fiilz,  enrovgiist,  conaertiist.  And  so  of  ail  suche  lyke. 

EXAMPLE   WHERE    0    BEYNG    THE    LAST   VOWELL    SHAL    BE    LONGE 
IN    PRONODNCIATION. 

In  thèse  sentences  :  Apportez  moy  nng  fagot.  Que  je  parle  a  luy  troiz 
môtz.  Il  a  avide  tous  les  pôtz.  Nous  sommez  maintenant  en  avôst  :  The  o  of 
thèse  -wordes  fagot,  motz,  potz,  avost  shaibe  sounded /a^oo<,  mooiz, 
pootz,  avoost;  and  so  of  ail  suche  other.  And  this  for  the  knowledge 
whan  the  wowels  in  the  frenche  tonge  be  longe  in  pronounciation 
and  whan  nat,  I  suppose  to  be  sufhcient. 

TO  SHEWE  BY  EXAMPLB  THE  GREAT   DIFFERENCE   BETWENE  THE  WRITTYNGE 

OF  THE  FRENCHE  TONG 
AND  THE  SOUNDYNG  OF  IT  IN  REDYNG  AND  SPEKYNG. 

CAPITULUM  LXIII. 

Al  be  it  that  I  bave  in  the  chapters  conteyned  in  this  présent  boke 
sufficiently  declared  wberin  the  true  soundyng  of  the  frenche  tong 
consisteth ,  and  what  great  diflerence  there  is  betwene  the  writtynge 


56  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

of  it  after  the  observyng  of  theyr  orthographie  and  the  soundyng 
of  the  same  in  redyng  and  spekyng,  Yet  to  shewe  this  notable  diffé- 
rence to  the  lernar  more  plainly  at  the  eie,  and  to  make  a  par- 
fect  and  complet  recapitulacion ,  and  callyng  agayne  to  memorie  of 
ail  the  rules  gyven  by  me  in  this  présent  boke,  I  shall  shewe  hère 
howe  suche  auctors  as  I  estyme  to  be  most  excellent  in  the  frenche 
tonge  begynne  theyr  bokes,  as  well  suche  as  hâve  written  in  ryme  as 
they  that  hâve  written  in  prose ,  and  after  writte  the  same  sentences 
in  every  thyng,  accordyng  as  they  use  to  sounde  the  wordes  in  redyng 
and  spekyng.  And  for  the  more  playn  settyng  out  hereof ,  I  shall  fyrst 
writtfe  a  lyne  in  every  condicion  lyke  as  they  do,  and  after  immediatly 
writte  the  same  line  accoi'dynge  as  it  shulde  be  sounded  lyke  as  by 
my  rules  in  this  présent  boke  I  bave  declared.  So  that  the  often  red- 
yng of  thèse  examples  and  conferryng  of  one  lyne  to  an  other  shalbe 
to  hym  that  hath  ones  accustomed  to  rede  this  boke  a  meanes  to 
imprint  al  the  rules  contayned  in  the  same  in  fast  memory,  and  cause 
hym  to  sounde  the  frenche  tong  in  ail  maner  thynges  like  as  the 
frenchemen  do  themselfe,  where  as  the  tong  is  of  it  selfe  most  perfit. 

EXAMPLE  HOWE  PROSE  SHULDE  BE  SOUNDED  BY  THE  BEGYNNYNG 
OF  THE  QUADRILOGUE  OF  ALAIN  CHARTIER. 

A  la  ires  hanlte  et  excellente  majesté  des  princes, 
AlatrehdutoeeuzseHântomajestédeprinsos , 

a  la  très  honnoree  magnificence  des  nobles, 
alatresovnnoréomanifisénsodenôbles , 

circumspection  de  clercz  et  bonne  industrie  du  peuple  francoy s , 
sirkevnspesiovndeclérzeetbovnindevstriedevpévplofraunsoâs, 

Alayn  Chartier  humble  secrétaire  du  roy  nostre  sire, 
Alaynshartiérévmblosecretâyrodevroynôtrosiro, 

et  de  mon  tresredoubte  seigneur  monseigneur  le  régent, 
edemountreredoutéseynievrmounseynievrlerejânl, 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE. 

loingtain  imitateur  des  orateurs,  salât. 
lointévnvmilatévrdesoratévrsalévt. 


57 


En  crainte  de  Dieu,  me  humiliant  soubz  la  juste  cognoissance  de  ses  jagemens  ; 
ancrâyntodedievmevmiliântsovlajevstoconoassavnsodesejévgemàns; 

et  retournant  a  sa  miséricorde  soubz  la  poincture  de  sa  punition, 
eretournâvntasamizericôrdosovlapoyntévrodesapevnisiovn, 

came  les  haultes  dignitez  des  seigneuries  soyent  establies, 
côvmmolehéutodinitédeseynievriessôoyetetablios, 

soabz  la  diuine  et  infinie  puissance  gai  les  esleve  en  jlorisant  prospérité , 
sovladivinoeinfiniopuissâvnsôkileselieueanflorissâvnprosperité, 

et  gbrieuse  renommée  il  est  a  croire  et  tenir  Jîrmement, 
egloriévzorenovmtnéoiletacrôareetenirfirmemànt, 

que  ainsi  que  leurs  commencemens  et  leurs  croyssances, 
kainsikelevrcovmmansemànselevrcroassâvnsos, 

sont  maintenues  et  adressées  par  la  diuine  prudence , 
sounmayntenevoseadresscoparladiuinoprevddnso, 

ainsi  est  leur  fin  et  leur  determinement  par  sentence  donnée  ou  hault, 
aynsielevrfinelevrdeterminemânparsantânsodovnnéoouhaût, 

conseil  de  la  souuerayne  sapience  gui  les  aulcuns  verse  du  hault  throsne, 
covnséyde]asovuerâynosapiànsokilesovkevnuérsodevhavtr6ne, 

et  imperialle  seigneurie  en  la  basse  fosse  de  seruitude , 
eimperiâlloseynyevrioanlabàssofôssodeseruitévdo, 

et  de  magnificence  en  raine  etfaict  des  vainqueurs  vaincus , 
edemanifisansoanrevynoefaydeuaynkévruaynkélis, 

et  ceulx  obéir  par  crainte  qui  commander  soaloyent  par  aactorite. 
eseûzobeyrparcrâyntokicovmavndérsovlôyeparoutorité. 

By  this  example  appereth  evidently  that  the  différence  betwene 
the  writtyng  of  the  frenche  tong  and  soundyng  of  it  in  redyng  and 
spekyng  is  vei-y  great;  but  to  shewe  the  lernar  yet  more  playnly  in 

8 


58  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

what  places  of  this  boke  thèse  rules  be  rehersed  wherby  I  bave  de- 
clared  upon  what  occasions  ihis  great  alteracion  cometh ,  I  shall 
shew  the  lernar  howe  many  of  the  sayd  rules  be  used  in  the  seconde 
line,  and  lymyt  the  chaptres  where  I  make  mencion  of  them.  Fyrst  : 
the  seconde  line  is  written 

alatrehàatoeeazsellàntomajestédeprinsos, 

without  any  maner  distinction  betwene  worde  and  worde,  wherby 
I  déclare  the  brefnesse  that  the  frenche  tong  useth  in  soundyng  of 
theyr  wordes,  whiche  in  redynge  and  spekynge  never  cesse  or  pause, 
tyl  they  come  at  suche  worde  where  the  poynl  shulde  be  :  as  I  hâve 
declared  in  the  xlviii  chaptre,  in  the  un  rule  of  the  same. 

Second.  Ail  the  wordes  of  one  syllable  be  joyned  in  writtyng  to 
the  wordes  of  many  syllables  as  though  they  were  partes  of  them,  to 
déclare  that  there  is  no  worde  in  the  frenche  tong  of  one  syllable 
whiche  of  bis  owne  nature  hath  any  accent,  but  is  joyned  in  sounde 
to  the  next  worde  folowyng  hym  of  many  syllables,  accordyng  as  I 
hâve  declared  in  the  lvii  chaptre ,  in  the  fyrst  rule  of  the  same. 

Thirde.  The  s  of  très  is  left  unwritten  bycause  that  h  havyng  bis 
aspiration  hath  the  power  of  a  consonant,  as  I  hâve  shewed  in  the 
\xxiii  chaptre,  in  the  fyrst  rule  of  the  same. 

Fourth.  The  /  of  this  worde  hault  is  left  unwritten  to  déclare  that 
/  so  comyng  before  an  olher  consonant  is  left  with  them  unsounded, 
as  I  bave  declared  in  the  xxvi  chap.,  in  the  un  gênerai  rule  of  mean 
sillables. 

Fyft.  There  is  a  stryke  above  the  hed  of  au,  by  cause  the  accent  of 
the  worde  is  there,  accordyng  as  appereth  in  the  i.x  chaptre,  in  the 
fyrst  rule. 

Sext.  The  e  of  haulte  is  written  like  an  o,  bycause  that  e  beynge  the 
last  letter  shalbe  sounded  almost  like  an  o,  and  moche  in  the  noose, 
as  appereth  in  the  m  chaptre  and  the  v  rule  of  the  same. 

Seventh.  Why  the  t  of  et  is  left  unwritten  I  bave  shewed  in  the 
XLiiii  chaptre,  in  the  thirde  rule. 


'*# 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  59 

Eight.  Why  I  hâve  written  an  h  betwene  the  e  and  x  of  excellente 
I  hâve  shewed  in  the  viii  chaptre  and  the  seconde  rule. 

Nynth.  Why  x  is  chaunged  into  z  I  hâve  declared  in  the  xlvi  chaptre 
and  the  fyrst  rule. 

Tenth.  Why  I  hâve  tomed  the  c  of  excellente  in  to  5  I  hâve  de- 
clared in  the  xxix  chaptre,  the  fyrst  rule. 

Leventh.  Why  I  hâve  tourned  e  commynge  before  n  into  a  I  hâve 
shewed  in  the  m  chaptre  and  the  m  rule. 

Twelfeth.  Why  the  accent  is  upon  a  of  eazsellànte  I  hâve  shewed 
hère  afore  in  the  fyfte  nombre. 

Thretene.  Why  e  is  changed  into  o  I  bave  also  shewed  hère  before 
in  the  vi  nombre. 

Fourtene.  Why  the  s  of  this  worde  majesté  is  written  contrarie  to 
the  VI  generall  rules  of  meane  sillables  (in  the  xxvi  chaptre)  appereth 
in  the  xliii  chaptre,  amonge  the  wordes  begynnyng  with  m. 

Fyftene.  Why  the  last  e  of  majesté  is  lefte  unchaunged  appereth  in 
the  thirde  chaptre,  in  the  exception  from  the  fyft  rxde. 

Sixtene.  Why  the  accent  of  majesté  is  upon  the  last  e  appereth  in 
the  LX  chaptre,  in  thé  fyrst  exception. 

Seventene.  Why  the  s  of  des  is  left  unwritten  appereth  by  the  xlviii 
chaptre,  in  the  fourlh  rule. 

Eyghtene.  Why  the  accent  is  upon  i  in  princes  I  bave  shewed  hère 
before  in  the  fyft  nombre. 

Nynetene.  Why  c  of  princes  is  tourned  into  s  I  bave  before  touched 
in  the  xi  nombre. 

XX.  Why  e  is  tourned  into  o  I  bave  afore  declared  in  the  vi  nombre. 

XXL  Why  the  s  comyng  next  the  poynt  is  left  written  I  bave  afore 
shewed  in  the  xlix  chaptre,  and  howe  he  shulde  be  sounded  I  bave 
shewed  in  the  xxvii  chaptre,  in  the  thirde  rule. 

So  that  if  the  lernar  wyll  accustome  hym  to  marke  a  sentence  as  it 
is  written  in  any  auctor,  and  writte  it  with  suche  vowels  and  consonantes 
as  they  use  to  sounde  in  redyng  and  spekyng,  it  shalbe  a  very  spedy 
mean  to  come  to  the  true  and  perfect  soundyng  of  the  frenche  tonge. 

8. 


60  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

EXAMPLE  HOWE  THYNGES  WRITTEN  IN  RYME  SHCLDE  BE  SOUNDED , 
BY  THE  BEGYNNYNGE  OF  THE  EXILE  OF  ALAYNE  CHARTIER. 

For  the  true  pronounsyng  of  thynges  writlen  in  ryme,  it  is  to  be 
noted  that  the  last  wordes  of  the  lynes  shall  ever  sounde  theyr  con- 
sonantes  whiche  folowe  after  theyr  last  vowels,  accordyng  as  I  hâve 
afore  declared  in  the  xxvu  chaptre ,  whether  the  poyntes  of  the  sen- 
tences fail  upon  the  same  wordes  or  nat;  that  is  to  say,  the  redar 
shal  gyve  al  thèse  wordes  suche  sounde  as  I  hâve  shewed  that  frenche 
wordes  must  hâve  whan  they  be  red  by  themselfe  :  by  cause  that ,  by 
the  distinct  soundyng  of  suche  wordes,  the  kynde  of  ryme,  wherof 
there  is  many  sondry  sortes  used  in  the  frenche  tong,  is  clerely  dis- 
cemed  and  by  the  herer  perceyved. 

Au  diziesme  an,  de  mon  doalant  exil, 
Avdiziemavndemovndovlâvntevzil , 

Après  maint  daeil,  et  maint  mortel  péril, 
Apremayndveil.emaynmortéperil , 

Et  les  dangiers  quay  jusques  cy  passez 
Eledavngiérkayjevkesy  passez 

Dontjay  saffert  grâces  a  Dieu  assez, 
Dovnjaysevfférgrdsesadievassés , 

Na  pas  gramment  es  cronicques  lisoye 
Napagravmmântecronickolizôye 

Et  es  haulxfaictz  des  anciens  visoye 
eehavfaidesavnsiânuizôy  e 

Qui  aa  premier  noble  France  fondèrent , 
KiavpremiérnôbleFràvnsefovndéret, 

Ceulx  en  vertu  tellement  abondèrent , 
Sevzanuertévtellemântabovndéret, 

Qae  da  pays  furent  vrays  possesseurs , 
Kedepaysfévreuraypossessévrs , 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  61 

Et  lont  laisse  a  leurs  bons  successeurs, 
Elounlaysséalevrbovnsevksessévrs , 

Qui  tant  leurs  meurs  et  leurs  doctrines  creurent, 
Kitavnlevrmévrselevrdotrinecreiiret, 

Et  se  firent  honnorer  et  aymer, 
Esefiretovnnoréreaytnér, 

Craindre  et  douhter  de  ca  et  de  la  mer, 
Créyndroedovtérdesâedelamér, 

Justes  enfaictz  socourans  leurs  amys, 
Jévstosanfâisocovrâvnlevrsamys , 

Durs  aux  mauluais,  et  fiers  aux  ennemys, 
Devrsaumavuâys.efiersauzannemys, 

Ardans  d'honneur,  et  haulx  entreprenneurs 
Ardâvndovnnévr,ehavzantreprannévrs 

Regnans  par  droit,  eureux  et  glorieux, 
Renâvnpardroâtevrévzegloriévz  . 

Et  contre  tous,  fors  et  victorieux, 
Econtrelovforseuitoriévz , 

Or  ont  règne  en  grant  prospérité, 
Orovnrenéangrâvnprosperité , 

Par  maintenir  justice  et  équité, 
Parmaintenirjevstisoeekité , 

Et  ont  laisse  après  mainte  victoire, 
Eovnlaysséaprémântouitôare , 

Les  pays  en  paix,  en  haultesse,  et  en  gloyre 
Lepaysanpâyxanhâvtessoeanglôâre, 

Et  noz  pères,  qui  deuant  nous  nasguirent, 
Enopérekideuàvnovnakiret , 

En  ce  hon  temps  durèrent  et  vesguirent 
Ansobon  lande  vréreteuekiret , 


68.  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

Et  passèrent  le  cours  de  leur  aage , 
Epassérelecovrdelevraâge , 

Sears  de  leurs  corps  en  repos  de  courage, 
Sevrsdolevrcôrsanrepôdecovrâige, 

Las  nous  chetifs  en  malle  heure  nez, 
LanovshetizanmâHoévronéz , 

Aaons  este  a  naistre  destinez , 
Auôvnsetéanâytrodetinez , 

Quant  le  hault  pris  du  royalme  dechiet, 
KavnlehavpridevToyâmodeshiet , 

Et  nostre  honneur  a  grief  reproache  chiet. 
Enôtreovnnévragriereprôvsheshiet. 

ANOTHER    EXAMPLE    OF  PROSE  REHERSED  IN    TIIE  XXXI  CHAPTRE  OF  THE  FYRST  BOKE 

DES    ILLUSTRACIONS    DE  GAULE,  WHERE   JEHAN   LE  MAIRE   BRYNGETH 

IN  PALLAS    SPEKYNGE   TO   PARIS. 

Enfant  de  bonne  indole ,  et  de  très  ingénieuse  nature , 
Anfâvndebôvnnindôlo.edetresingenievzonatévro, 

lequel  je  cognois  par  la  démonstration  de  ta  phisonomie , 
lekéjeconôaparlademovnstratiôvndetafizonomfo , 

estre  flexible  a  toute  docilité,  et  a  la  compréhension  du  hault  savoir 
etroflezibleatôvtodosilité.ealocovmprehansiôvndevhavsauoir 

que  les  dieux  mesmes  ont  en  leur  espargne, 
keledievmémesovntanlevrepârgnie, 

puisque  ton  vueil  est  ores  en  balance,  ton  pie  prest  a  desmarcher, 
puiketovnuveiletôresanbalàvnse,tovnpieprelademarshér, 

Pour  tirer  ung  chemin  ou  aulire ,  et  les  yeulx  de  ta  pensée  extérieure , 
pourtirérevnshemynovôutro.elesyevzdetapanséointeriévro , 

Vacillent  en  lelection  des  choses  dijférentes  , 
vasilletanlelesiôvndeshôzedifferântos , 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  63 

prens  a  ceste  heure  tonploy  non  ejfassable, 
pransasétoévrotovnploynovneffassâble, 

imbue  le  vaisseau  de  ta  noble  ame  de  liqueur  prudente  et  vertueuse, 
imbévoleuaisseâudetanôblâmodelikévrprevdântoeuertevévze, 

et  depainctz  les  tablettes  de  ta  haulte  perspicacité  de  couleurs 
ed  epainzletabléttodetahâvtoperspicasi  tédecovlévrs , 

précieuses  et  immortelles ,  et  en  ce  faisant  séjourne  les  pupilles, 
presiévzoseimmortéllos.eansefayzâvnsejôvrnolepevpillos, 

de  ta  circomspection  discrète  ou  miroyr  de  ma  speciosite  céleste. 
detasircovnspesiôvndiscrétoovmirôardemaspesiozitéseléto. 

Nauentare  poynt  la  précieuse  galee  de  ton  eaige fleurissant 
Nauavntévropoantlapresiévsogaléôdetovneéigeflevrissâvnt 

au  vent  d'ambicion  sinistre,  et  de  gloyre  vayne  et  desmesuree , 
ovuandavmbisiôvnsinistro,edegloarovàynoedemezevréo, 

ny  en  la  tormente  de  négoces  rayneux .  Euite  leperilz  de  tirannicqae  cruaalte, 
nyanlatormântodenegôsorevynévz .  Evitoleperizdetirannickecrevavté , 

les  destroitz  dauarice  insaciable,  et  le  naafraige  inconsidéré  doffencion  de  voysins. 
ledetrôazdavarisoinsasiâblo.elenavfraigoinconsiderédoffensiôvndeuoazins. 

Ne  tabandonne  poynt  a  la  nayt  de  terrienne  amour,  et  ne  te  fie 
Netabavndônnopoântalanevytdeterriànnoam6vr,enetefie 

en  hbscurte  dignorance  mondaine, Fuy  le  gouffre  de  villaine  lubricité, 
anlobskevrtédiiiorâvnsomovndalno .  Fvylegôvffrodeuiilâynelevbrisité , 

donne  toy  garde  des  rochiers  de  cupidité  effrénée,  de  la  grave 
dôvnnotoygdrdoderoshiérsdekeypiditéeffrenéodelagrévo 

doultrecaidance ,  et  de  la  plaige  doultraige  sanguinolent. 
dovtrokvidâvnso.edelaplâigodovtrâigosankinolânt. 


64 


LESGLARCISSEMENT 


EXAMPLE  HOW  GUYLLAM  DE  LORRIS  BEGAK 
HIS  ROMANT  OF  THE  ROSE  IN  THE  OLDE 
ROMANT  TONG. 

Maintes  gens  dient  qae  en  songes 
Na  se  fables  non  et  menchonges 
Mez  on  peut  teb  songes  songier 
Qui  ne  sont  mie  menchongier 
Ains  sont  apries  bien  apurant 
Si  en  puis  bien  traire  a  garant 
Un  aucteur  qui  ot  nom  Macrobes 
Qui  ne  tint  pas  songes  à  lobes 
Ainschoys  descrist  la  aision 
Qui  aaint  au  roy  Cypion,  etc. 


EX  AMPLE  HOW  THE  SAME  BOKE  IS  NOWE 
TOURNED  INTO  THE  NEWE  FRENCHE 
T0N6. 

Maintes  gentes  dient  que  en  songes 
Mâintojandietkansôvngos 

Ne  sont  qae  fables  et  mensonges 
Nesovnkofôblesemansongos 

Mais  on  peult  telz  songes  songier 
Maysovnpevttezsôvngosovngiér 

Qae  ne  sont  mye  mensongier 
Kenesovnmyomansovngiér 

Ayns  sont  après  bien  apparant 
Aynsovntaprebienapparavnt,  etc. 


FINIS. 

Thus  ende  I  of  my  m  bokes  the  fyrst,  in  whiche  I  hâve,  as  wel  by 
rule  as  by  example,  sufficiently  deciared  howe  the  frenche  tong  in 
redyng  and  spekyng  ought  to  be  pronounsed.  In  the  often  redyng  of 
whiche  boke  if  the  lemar  be  studious,  notyng  specially  what  I  bave 
sayde  (concemyng  this  matter)  in  nay  prologue,  and  therto  exercise 
hymselfe,  accordyng  to  suche  consayles  as  I  hâve  in  the  sayd  pro- 
logue and  boke  deciared,  he  shal  undouted  attayne  to  the  right  and 
naturall  pronounciation  of  this  sayde  tonge. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  65 


THE  SECONDE  BOKE. 


In  the  frenche  tong  be  ix  partes  of  speche  ,  article,  nowne,  pronowne, 
verbe,  parliciple,  adverbe,  préposition,  conjonction  and  interjection.  Of 
whiche  v  be  declined ,  that  is  to  say  varie  their  last  letters  :  article , 
nowne,  pronowne,  verbe  and  participle.  And  the  other  iiii  be  iinde- 
clined,  that  is  to  say  remayne  unvaried  in  their  last  letters  for  ail  ma- 
ners  of  spekyng.  '  - 

OF  THE  ARTICLE. 

Articles  they  hâve  but  ii,  vng  a,  and  le  the,  whiche  be  thus  de- 
clined : 

The  masculine  singular  vng,  the  masculine  plurell  vngz. 
The  féminine  singular  me,  the  féminine  plurel  mes. 
The  masculine  singular  le,  the  masculine  plurel  les. 
The  féminine  singular  la,  the  féminine  plurel  les. 

THE  II  ACCIDENTES   BELONGYNG  TO  ARTICLES. 

So  that  articles  bave  ii  accidentes,  gender  and  nombre,  whiche  they 
alter  after  the  gender  and  nombre  of  the  substantive  that  they  belonge 
unto. 

But  howe  le  and  la  lèse  tlieyr  vowels,  comyng  next  before  adjec-     Régula  prima, 
tives  or  substantives  begynnyng  with  voweis  or  with  h  nat  havyng 
bis  aspiracion ,  I  hâve  in  the  iv  chaptre  of  the  first  boke  alredy  de- 
clared. 

And  howe  vng  is  joyned  to  féminine  substantives  begynnyng  with         Régula 
a  vowel  or  with  h  nat  havyng  bis  aspiration ,  for  to  avoyde  the  harshe 
sounde  of  two  vowels  together,  shall  hère  after  in  the  thirde  boke, 
whan  I  speke  agayne  of  the  article,  appere. 

9 


secunda 


66 


LESCLARCISSEMENT 


Divisio 
nominis. 


Descriptio 
substantivorum. 


OF  THE  NOWNE. 

Of  nownes  some  be  substantives,  of  whiche  I  wyl  fyrst  entreat,  and 
some  be  adjectives,  of  wbom  I  wyll  hère  after  speke. 

Nownes  substantives  be  suche  as  wyl  bave  one  of  the  ii  articles 
before  them,  as  seignévr,  dame,  père,  fille  be  substantives:  for  we  may 
say  vng  seignévr  a  lorde,  vne  dame  a  lady,  le  père  the  father,  la  fille 
the  daughter. 

Substantyves  hâve  vi  accidentes:  gender,  nombre,  parson,  dériva- 
tion, composicion  and  decUnation. 


THE  FYRST  ACCIDENT. 


Régula  prima. 


Régula 
secundii. 


Exceptiones. 


Genders  be  ii  :  the  masculine  gender  and  the  féminine. 

The  masculine  gender  by  reason  of  signification ,  as  Henry  Harry, 
roy  king,  and  ail  other  names  of  dignities,  offices  or  craftes  belon- 
gynge  onely  to  men. 

By  reason  of  terniination  :  for  ail  other  substantives  whose  gender 
can  nat  be  knowen  by  bis  signification ,  endyng  in  any  vowel  or  di- 
phthong,  except  e.  And  also  the  most  parte  of  substantives  endyng 
in  any  consonant  be  of  the  masculine  gender. 

Except  endyng  in  vowelles,  mercy  and  uertû;  and  in  diphlhonges ,  lay, 
peàu,foy  and  loy. 

The  femynine  gendre  by  reason  of  signification,  as  Catherine  Ka- 
theryne,  roync  queen;  and  ail  other  names  of  dignyteis,  ofTyces  or 
craftes  belongyng  onely  to  women. 

By  reason  of  termynation  :  for  the  moost  parte  of  ail  substantyves  end- 
ynge  in  e,  and  certayne  endyng  in  consonantes  be  of  the  femyne  gender. 
Régula  quarta-  Aud  notc  that  thcrc  is  no  substantyve  in  this  tonge  but  he  is  of 
the  masculyne  gendre,  or  of  the  femynine  certaynly. 

Save  that  I  fynde  sixe  used  of  the  commen  gendre  lyke  as  homo  is 
in  latyne  :  and  other  sixe  used  of  their  auctours  incertaynly,  sometyme 
as  masculynes,  sometyme  as  femynines  :  and  therfore  I  calle  theyni 
of  the  doutfull  gendre. 


Régula  tertia. 


Ëxceptiones 
dua;. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  67 

And  as  for  neutre  gendre  they  hâve  none,  resemblyng  therin  the    Régula  quinta. 
hebrevv  tonge,  whiche  also  hâve  no  mo  but  the  sayd  two  genders 
hère  expressed. 

So  that  in  maner  ail  substantyves  of  the  neutre  gendre  in  latyne  be  Régula  sexia. 
in  this  tonge  of  the  masculyne  gendre,  ail  thoughe  they  ende  in  e, 
especially  if  their  latyne  worde  ende  in  um,  as  consile,  miracle  be 
masculynes,  for  they  corne  of  consilium  and  miraculam;  and  so  in  ma- 
ner of  ail  suche  lyke.  But  thèse  thynges  shall  herafter  in  my  annota- 
tions upon  this  accydent,  in  the  thirde  booke ,  more  playnly  and  at  the 
length  appere. 


THE   SECONDE    ACCIDENT. 


Régula 
sccunda. 


Régula  tertia. 


Nombres  they  bave  two:  the  synguler  nombre  and  the  plurell.  Régula  prima. 

The  synguler  nombre  hath  as  many  sondrie  terminatyons  as  there 
be  sondrie  vowelles,  diphthonges  or  consonantes  finall  with  them  used. 

Except  of  vowelles  a  and  o  and  of  consonantes  onely  k,  for  in  thèse        Exceptio. 
thre  letters  endeth  no  substantyve  in  this  tonge. 

The  plurell  nombre  endeth  ever  in  s,  xorz,  what  soever  termyna- 
tion  the  synguler  nombre  ende  in,  as  mercy,  aigneâv,  lovp  make  for 
theyrplurels  mercjs,  aigneàvx,  loapz. 

And  al  substantives  whose  singular  nombres  ende  in  any  of  thèse  m 
letters  hâve  theyr  singular  nombre  and  plurel  ail  one ,  as  corps ,  paix 
and  nez  may  serve  indifferently  for  both  nombres. 

And  al  that  ende  in  e ,  nat  havyng  their  accent  upon  the  same  e  in    Régula  quana. 
theyr  singular  nombre ,  by  addyng  to  of  s  forme  theyr  plurels,  as  homme . 
hommes. 

And  note  that  diverse  substantives  in  this  tong  be  used  in  the  plu- 
rel nombre  onely. 

Notyng  hère  also  that,  though  the  substantives  of  this  tong  alter 
theyr  last  letters  by  reason  of  theyr  diverse  nombre  that  they  serve 
for,  accordyng  as  I  bave  hère  shewed  by  example,  yet  there  is  no 
substantive  in  the  tong  but  he  kepetb  bis  first  letters  styl,  what 
nombre  soever  he  stande  for,  save  onely  021/,  for  an  eie,  whiche  ma- 

9- 


Régula    quinta. 


Régula  sexta. 


68  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

keth  for  his  plurel  nombre  yéulx,  changyng  botli  his  firsl  and  last  let- 
ters.  But  ail  thèse  thynges  shal  in  nay  annotacions  upon  this  accident , 
in  ihe  thyrde  boke,  more  playnly  appere. 


THE  THIRDE  ACCIDENT. 


Régula  unica.  Persones  they  hâve  but  onely  the  thirde  in  eche  of  thèse  two 
nombres,  that  is  to  saye,  suche  worde  of  the  verbe  as  agreeth  with  il, 
agreeth  with  ail  substantyves  of  the  synguler  nombre;  and  suche 
worde  of  verbe  as  agreeth  with  Hz,  agreeth  with  ail  substantyves 
of  the  plurell  nombre.  As  lyke  as  they  saye  :  il  parle,  he  speketh;  ib 
parlent,  they  speke,  so  say  they:  vng  homme  parle,  a  man  speketh;  les 
hommes  parlent,  the  men  speke. 


THE    FOURTHE    ACCIDENT. 


Quœ  forniantiir        Dcrivatyon  OT  formation,  that  is  to  saye,  substantyves  somtyme  be 

a  substanlivis.       »  i      p      i  i  ri  i  -  '  i 

loiu-med  ot  other  substantyves ,  as oi pomme,  an  apipie ,  pommier,  anappie 
tre;  of  tencévr,  a  man  chyder,  tencerésse,  a  woman  chider;  of  covsturiér, 
a  tayllyour,  coastariére,  atayllom-s  wyfe  or  a  woman  tayllyour;  oHeôn, 
a  lyon,  leonceâv,  a  lytell  lyon;  of  liare,  aboke,  liarét,  a  lytell  boke;  of 
femme,  n  wornan ,  femmétte ,  a  lytell  woman;  oî  Jehan,  John,  Jehannét, 
■  yonge  or  lytell  Johan  ;  of  matyn ,  a  momyng ,  matynée,  a  momynge  tyde  ; 
of  corde,  a  corde ,  cordaige ,  store  or  plentie  of  cordes  ;  of  amy,  a  frende , 
amytye,  frendshyppe;  of  ribavlt,  a  rybaude,  rihavldàille ,  a  companyor 
plentie  of  rybaudes;  of  helistre,  a  man  beggar,  belistrésse,  a  woman 
beggar. 
Qtue  Somtyme  they  be  fourmed  of  adjectyves,  as  of  bon,  good,  bonté, 

a  jecivis.      goodnesse;  oi  covrte,  shorte,  covrtàvlt,  a  courtail,  a  horse. 
Qn«a  verbis.         Somtyme  they  be  foxu-med  of  verbes,  as  of  parlôye,  I  dyde  speke, 
^  parlévr,  a  man  spekar  and  parlement  a  spekyng;  of  engendrér,\o  begette, 
engendrévre ,  a  begettynge. 

THE    V    ACCIDENT. 

Composytion ,  for  where  as  dyvers  substantyves  be  symple ,  that  is 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  69 

to  saye,  be  nat  compounde  witli  any  other  wordes  as,  homme,  femme 
and  suche  lyke,  niany  in  the  tong  be  compounde,  some  of  two  wordes 
unparfyte ,  as  dymdnche;  some  of  two  wordes  of  whiche  the  first  onelye 
isunparfyte,  as  licôl;  some  of  two  parfyte  wordes,  as  beaupére,  savf 
condvyl  ;  some  be  expressed  by  thre  wordes  of  whiche  the  myddle  is 
a  preposytion,  as  becq  defavlcôn. 


THE    SIXTE    ACCIDENT. 


Declynation  in  substantyves  is  none  other  thyng  but  thexpressyng 
what  différence  there  is  bytwene  the  termynations  of  the  synguler 
nombre  and  the  plureil ,  by  addyng  of  an  artycle  or  an  adjectyve ,  and 
an  artycle  of  suche  gendre  and  nombre  as  the  substanty ve  requyreth  ; 
for  cases  in  substantyves  the  frenche  tong  hath  none ,  as  vng  bon  homme, 
vne  bonne  femme;  les  bons  hommes,  les  bonnes  femmes. 

And  note  that  suche  gendre  and  nombre  as  the  substantyve  is  of ,  Régula  prima, 
suche  lyke  gendre  and  nombre  shall  the  article,  adjective,  pronowne 
and  participle  passyve  be  of  :  so  that  in  the  well  knowynge  of  the 
gendre  of  the  substantyve ,  whose  gendre  ail  thèse  four  partes  of  speche 
must  folowe ,  and  in  the  true  formacion  of  the  plureil  nombres  of 
the  sayde  fyve  partes  of  speche  ont  of  their  syngulers  resteth  no 
small  parte  of  congruife  and  certayne  of  knowledge  howe  to  kepe  true 
orthography  in  this  tonge.  And  therfore  of  ail  thèse  thynges  I  shall 
in  the  thirde  boke ,  in  their  places ,  more  at  length  entreate. 

OF  THE  NOWNE  ADJECTIVE. 

Nownes  adjectyves  be  suche  in  this  tong  as  maye  bave  with  us  er      Descriptio 
and  est  added  to  their  endes,  whan  we  make  comparyson  in  our 
tong;  as  blanc,  noyr,  blev  be  adjectyves  in  frenche,  for  we  saye: 
white ,  whyter,  whitest  ;  blacke^  blacker,  blackest  ;  blewe ,  blewer, 
blewest. 

Adjectyves  bave  sevyn  accidentes  :  gendre,  nombre,  agreyng  with 
their  substantyves,  comparation,  declynacion,  deryvation  and  order. 


adjectivomin. 


70 


LESCLARCISSEMENT 


THE  FIRST  ACCIDENT. 


Exceptio. 


Reguia 

secunda. 

Reguia  tertia. 


Reguia  prima.  Gendei's  be  two  :  the  masculine  gendre,  whiche  hath  as  many 
sondrie  terminations  as  iheii"  substanlives  hâve. 

Save  that  in  a,  o,  oy,  b,  k,  p  and  z  endeth  no  masculyne  adjec- 
tyve  in  this  tonge. 

The  femyne  gendre  endeth  ever  in  e. 

So  that  ail  adjectives  whose  masculyn  gendre  endeth  in  e,  hâve 
their  mascidynes  and  femynines  ail  one  ;  as  of  thèse  mascidyne  ad- 
jectives blanc  white,  tardif  slovte ,  be  formed  thèse  femynines  blanche, 
tardifve.  And  thèse  adjectyves,  large,  triste ,  sobre ,  and  ail  suche  lyke, 
remayne  ever  unchamiged,  what  soever  gendre  iheir  substantyve 
be  of.  But  howe  ail  other  femyne  adjectyves  be  formed  out  of  their 
masculynes  I  shall  herafter  in  my  annotations  upon  this  accident ,  in 
the  thirde  boke,  déclare. 


THE  SECONDE  ACCIDENT. 


Reguia  prima.  Nombres  be  two,  the  singuler  nombre,  as  hardj,  beàv,  layt  :  the 
plurell  nombre,  as  hardys,  beàvx,  laytz. 

So  that  in  what  terminacion  soever  their  synguler  nombres  ende 
in,  their  plurell  nombres  ende  ever  in  s,  x  or  z,  lyke  as  their  subs- 
tantyves  do.  And  ail  adjectives  endyng  in  e  in  theyr  synguler  nombre, 
by  addyng  to  of  s  form  their  plurelles. 

And  aU  that  ende  in  s  or  in  a;  in  their  synguler  nombres,  ende  in 
the  same  letters  without  any  chaungyng  in  their  plurell  nombres  ;  and 
that  none  ende  in  z  I  bave  hère  before  shewed  in  the  lirste  accident, 
as  gros,  hontévx ,  joyévx ,  and  ail  suche  lyke,  without  any  chaungyng 
serve  indifferently  for  bothe  the  nombres.  But  howe  every  plurell 
nombre  is  formed  out  of  his  synguler  I  shall  in  my  annotacions  upon 
this  accident,  in  the  thirde  boke,  more  playnly  déclare. 


Régula 
secunda. 


Régula  tertia. 


THE  THIRDE  ACCIDENT. 

Reguia  unica.         Agreynge  with  their  substantyves  for  suche  gender  and  nombre  as 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  Tl" 

the  substantyve  is,  suche  lykegender  and  nombre  shall  the  adjectyve 
be  of:  as  vng  bon  homme,  une  bonne  femme;  les  bons  hommes,  les  bonnes 
femmes.  But  what  congi-uite  they  use  bitwene  their  substantives  and 
adjectyves,  and  wbal  adjectyves  in  theyr  masculyne  terminalions  wyll 
be  joyned  with  femyne  substantyves,  and  also  howe  the  masculyne 
gendre  conceyveth  the  femine,  shall  herafter  in  the  thirde  boke,  in 
this  place,  more  plainly  apere. 


THE   FOURTHE   ACCIDENT. 


Gomparation.  The  posityve  tliat  is  ever  the  adjectives  selle,   as     Régula  prima. 
blanc,  noyr,fort;  the  comparatyve  addeth  to  bis  posityve  plus,  without 
any  chaungyng  of  the  adjectyves  selfe,  for  any  expressyng  of  compa- 
ratyon,  as  ^/«i  blanc,  plus  noyr,  plus  fort. 

The  superlatyve  addeth  to  bis  comparatyve  one  of  thèse  sixe  Régula 
wordes  :  le,  mon,  ton,  son,  nostre,  vostre,  leur,  of  suche  gendre  and 
nombre  as  the  adjective  representeth ,  without  also  any  chaungyng  of 
the  adjectyves  selfe,  by  reason  that  he  standeth  for  the  superlatyve 
degré;  as,  le  plus  blanc,  le  plus  noyr,  le  plus  fort;  mon  plus  blanc,  ma 
plus  blanche,  mes  plus  blancz,  mes  plus  blanches;  and  so  of  ail  other 
adjectyves  in  their  tong. 

And  note  that  the  superlatyve  degré  in  this  tong  is  never  expressed  Régula  lertia. 
but  by  the  addyng  of  one  of  thèse  sixe  wordes  onely  to  plus,  so  that 
nul  plus  blanc,  vng  plus  blanc,  deux  plus  blancz,  riens  plus  blanc  and 
ail  suche  lyke  be  comparatyves  and  no  superlatyves.  By  reason 
wherof  appereth  that,  in  this  thynge,  our  tong  is  moche  more  parfyte 
and  more  resembleth  the  latyne  tonge ,  for  we  saye  :  white,  whiter, 
vvhytest:  blacke,  blacker,  blackest:  stronge,  stronger,  strongest,  ex- 
pressyng tbe  degrees  of  comparyson  by  addyng  of  certayne  letters  to 
thende  of  our  adjectyves. 

Except  froni  this  rule  bon,  whose  comparatyve  is  meillévr;  but  his 
superlatyve  addelh  one  of  the  sixe  wordes  ip  meillévr,  as  le  meillévr, 
mon  meillévr  :  Maludys ,  whose  comparatyve  is  pire,  and  for  his  super- 
latyve he  addeth  to  pire  one  of  thèse  sixe  wordes,  as  mon  pire,  ton 


Kxceptiones. 


72  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

pire,  etc.  But  I  fynde  also  oftymes  used  plus  malvâys  and  le  plus  mal- 
vâys,  after  the  commen  rule.  Grant  also  hath  for  his  comparatyve 
greignévr,  and  le  greignévr  for  his  superlatyve  :  how  beit  I  fynde  of- 
tymes used  plus  grant  and  le  plus  grant.  Of  whiche  sorte  is  also  petit, 
whose  comparatyve  I  fynde  môyndre  and  his  superlatyve  le  môyndre;  but 
for  the  most  parte  they  use  plus  petit  and  le  plus  petit,  after  the  com- 
men rule.  And  note  that  so  often  as  they  wyll  extende  or  dyminysshe 
the  qualyte  of  any  thynge,  without  makyng  of  comparyson  therof  to 
another,  they  use  to  add  thèse  wordes  before  their  adjectyves,  trop, 
fort,  moult,  ires,  peu,  guàyres,  gôvtte  and  suche  lyke;  as  trop  bon  to 
good,fort  bon  very  good,  moult  bon  moche  good,  très  bon  right  good, 
peu  bon  smally  good,  guàyres  bon  but  a  lytell  good,  etc.  But  thèse 
thynges  shall  in  the  thirde  boke,  in  this  place,  more  playnly  appere. 


THE  V  ACCIDENT. 


Régula 
secunda. 


Régula  prima.  Declynacion  as  tlîus  :  the  masculyn  singuler  blanc,  the  masculyne 

phuell  blancz  :  the  femynine  synguler  blanche,  the  femynine  plurell 
blànchez  :  whiche  lyke  declination  serveth  in  his  degrees  of  compa- 
rision,  as  plus  blanc,  plus  blancz;  plus  blanche,  plus  blànchez;  le  plus  blanc, 
le  plus  blancz;  le  plus  blanche,  le  plus  blànchez. 

So  that  every  nowne  adjective  in  this  tong  hath  un  distinct  wordes 
whiche  he  altereth  after  the  gender  and  nombre  of  the  substantyve 
that  they  be  joyned  withall. 

Excepiio prima.  Except  adjectyves  whose  masculines  singulars  ende  in  s  ot  x  :  for 
they  bave  but  m  distinct  wordes,  by  cause  theyr  singular  and  plurell, 
in  the  masculin  gender,  ende  both  alike. 

And  ail  adjectives  whose  masculin  syngular  endeth  in  e  :  for  ail 
suche  bave  but  ii  distinct  wordes,  for  so  moche  as  theyr  masculyne 
and  femine  singular  be  both  one ,  and  to  forme  theyr  plurels  they  adde 
but  onely  s  to  theyr  singular,  as  by  my  rules  hère  afore,  in  the  fyrst 
and  seconde  accident,  declared,  doth  appere. 

Exceptio  terlia.  Except  also  these  II  comparatives  meillévr  and  greignévr,  whiche 
without  any  changyng  serve  for  both  the  genders  where,  after  my  ge- 


Exceptio 
secunda. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  73 

neral  rule,  theyr  féminines  shuide  ende  in  e.  But  thèse  thynges  shall 
hereafter  in  myn  annotations  upon  this  accident,  in  the  thyrde  boke, 
more  playnely  appere. 


THE  VI   ACCIDENT. 


Dérivation  or  formation  of  adjectyves,  tbat  is  to  saye,  adjectyves 
somtyme  be  formed  of  substantyves,  as  of  barbe,  barbu,  oîeâve,  eavéux. 

Somtyme  of  participles  of  the  présent  tense,  as  of  honovrânt,  ho- 
novrâble. 

Somtyme  of  latine  adjectives  endynge  in  icas,  as  oi  magnijlcas,  ma- 
gnificq. 

Somtyme  of  adjectives  in  latine  endyng  in  iuus ,  as  of  sensitiaus, 
sensitif. 

Sometyme  of  other  frenche  adjectives,  as  oi grande,  grandét. 

Somtyme  of  theyr  nownes  numeralles,  as  of  deux,  deuxiesme. 

Somtyme  of  latine  adjectives  andynge  in  inus,  as  of  cristallinus , 
cristallyn. 

Sometyme  of  latine  adjectyves  endynge  in  i7i5,  &so( juaenilis,juaenil. 

Somtyme  of  latine  adjectives  endynge  in  abilis,  as  of  affabilis,  af- 
fable. 

Somtyme  of  adjectyves  endyng  in  aïis,  as  of  animalis,  animal. 

But  thèse  thynges  and  also  howe  of  divers  latine  adjectives  endyng 
in  dus  and  dis  be  formed  adjectyves  endyng  in  t,  as  wbere  the  latins 
say  frigidas ,  grandis,  they  say/royl,  grant,  shall  hère  after  in  my  an- 
notacions  upon  this  accident  more  playnly  appere. 


Quœ 
a  substantivis. 


Àb  adjectivis 
in  icus. 


Ab  adjectiv'n 
iiunieraiibus. 

Ab  adjectivis 
in  inus, 

in  ilis, 
in  abilit. 


in  alis. 
Régula. 


THE  vu  ACCIDENT, 


Order  betwene  the  substantyve  and  the  adjectyve  contrary  to  our 
tong  :  for  where  as  we  say  a  whyte  horse,  a  blacke  horse,  a  whyte 
cappe,  a  rounde  cappe,  a  long  gowne,  a  short  gowne,  they  say  ung 
cheval  blanc,  ung  cheval  noyr,  ung  bonét  blanc,  ung  bonét  ront,  une  robe 
longue,  une  robe  courte.  But  hère  of  I  shall  more  speke  in  the  thvrde 
boke,  in  this  place. 


Régula. 


10 


74 


LESCLARCISSEMENT 


OF  THE  PRONOWNE. 

Descriptio  Pronowiies  be  suche  as,  standynge  in  the  stede  of  substantives,  may 

goveme  verbes  to  be  of  lyke  nombre  and  parson  with  them,  as  je,  tu 
and  il  be  pronownes,  for  we  may  say  :  je  parle,  ta  parles,  il  parle. 


Divisio 
pronominum. 


THE  DIVISION  OF  PRONOWNES. 

Of  pronownes  some  be  primitives,  some  be  derivatives,  some  be 
interrogatyves,  some  be  relatyves,  and  some  be  demonstratyves  :  unto 
whiche  I  joyne,  by  cause  of  lykenesse  in  nature,  parti lyves,  distribu- 
tyves  and  numeralles  :  for  ail  that  be  conteyned  under  any  of  thèse 
sortes  may  stande  in  the  stede  of  substantives  and  governe  verbes  to 
be  of  suche  lyke  nombre  and  parsone  as  they  be.  Except  pronownes 
derivatyves  whiche  folowe  rather  the  nature  of  adjectyves  and  must 
nedes  bave  some  substantyve  to  be  joyned  unto.  But  of  thèse  diverse 
sortes  of  pronownes  howe  many  sondry  wordes  be  contayned  under 
eche  of  them,  and  what  they  signifie  in  englisshe,  and  also  what  ac- 
cidentes belonge  unto  them,  shal  hère  after  in  this  présent  chaptre 
appere  in  theyr  ordre. 

HOWE  MANY  BE  PRIMITIVES. 

Primitives  be  viii  :  je  I;  ta  thou;  il  he;  elle  she;  len,  Ion  or  on  a 
man,  betokenyng  a  parson  uncertayne;  se  hym  or  her;  noa^  we;  aoas 
you;  Hz  they  men;  elles  they  women,  and  se  them  men  or  women. 

HOWE  MANY  BE  DERIVATIVES. 

Derivatives  be  xii  :  mon  myne;  ton  thyne;  son  bis;  nôstre  our;  uôsire 
your;  leur  theyr,  with  the  adjectives  derived  of  them  :  le  myén  myn 
owne;  le  tyén  thyne  ovrae;  le  syén  bis  owne;  le  nôstre  our  owne;  le 
uôstre  your  owne;  le  levr  theyr  owne. 

HOWE  MANY  BE  INTEUROGATYVES. 

Interrogatives  be  m  :  qui  who ,  quel  what  maner,  and  que  what. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  75 

HOWE  MANY  BE  RELATYVES. 

Relatives  be  ii  :  qui  whiche,  and  le  quel  the  whiche. 

HOWE  MANY  BE  DEMONSTRATIVES. 

Démonstratives  simple  is  onely  ce,  whiche  signyfieth  in  cm'  tong 
somtyme  this,  somtyme  that,  somtyme  they  and  somtyme  it,  ac- 
cordyng  as  the  sentence  lequireth. 

Compoundes  of  him  be  vi  :  cecy  this  hère,  cela  that  hère,  cil  or 
celuy  havyng  qui  folowynge  hym ,  as  cil  qui  or  celuy  qui  he  that  ;  mÊ 

without  qui  he,  or  this  same  :  and  of  hym  ycelay  this  selfe  same,  ces- 
tuy  this  same  :  and  of  hym  ycestuy  this  selfe  same. 

HOWE    MANY    DE    PARTITIVES    AND    DISTRIBUTIVES. 

Pai'titives  and  distribulives  be  thèse  :  avlcàn  any  man  or  some  man; 
quelcûn  some  man  or  some  body  ;  chascùn  every  man  or  eche  ;  nessûny 
no  body  or  no  man;  nul  no  or  none ,  and  of  hym  nullvy  no  body;  tout 
ail,  and  of  hym  treslout  ail  to  gether  or  al  hoUy;  tel  suche,  and  of 
hym  avtél  suche  an  other,  and  ytél  suche  selfe  ;  àvltre  other,  and  of 
hym  avllrvy  an  other  body;  quelque  some;  quicônques  who  soever; 
maynt  many;  plusieurs  many. 

WHICHE    BE    NUMERALLES. 

ISumeralles,  as  vng,  deux,  troys,  quàttre,  cinq,  six,  sept,  hvyt,  nevj, 
dix,  onze,  dôvze,  tréyze,  quatorze,  quinze,  seize,  dixetsépt,  dixethvyt, 
dixeinévf,  vingt,  trente,  quarante,  cinquante,  etc.  But  of  thèse  in  the 
thirde  boke,  in  this  place,  I  shall  atthe  length  entreate. 

And  note  that,  thoughe  it  ofte  happen  that  a  substantyve  beynge  Régula. 
nominatyve  case  to  a  verbe  hath  no  mo  wordes  before  hym  but  one 
of  the  two  artycles,  or  one  of  the  pronownes  derivatyves,  or  one  of 
thèse  partityves,  dystributyves  or  numeralles,  yet,  if  he  bave  an  ad- 
jectyve,  he  must  nedes  also  bave  one  of  thèse  wordes  to;  as  though 
I  maye  saye  le  màistre,  mon  màistre,  chascùn  mâisîre ,  troys  mâistres, 

10. 


16  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

and  than  adde  a  verbe,  I  can  nat  saye  bon  màistre ,  saige  màistre,  but 
I  must  nedes  also  bave  one  of  tbese  wordes  comynge  before  tbe  ad- 
jectyve,  whiche  order  is  never  broken,  nother  in  tbe  frencbe  tonge 
nor  yet  in  ours.  In  so  mocbe  tbat  if  a  préposition  also  corne  before 
a  substantyve  bavyng  any  of  tbese  wordes  before  hym,  tbe  préposi- 
tion must  ever  corne  fardest  from  tbe  substantyve,  rs par  nul  mal  en- 
gin by  none  yvell  crafte  ;  pour  mon  bon  màistre  or  my  good  maister, 
wbicbe  order  is  ever  kept  on  botbe  tbe  tonges. 

Pronownes  primityves  bave  viii  accidentes  :  nombre,  person,  go- 
vernyng  of  tbe  verbe,  gender,  declynacion  witb  dyversite  of  cases , 
order  contrarie  to  oure  tonge,  doublynge  wban  tbe  acte  of  tbe  verbe 
retournetb  to  tbe  doer  agayne,  and  composition  witb  mesmes. 


THE     FIRST    ACCIDENT. 


Nombres  be  twayne ,  the  singular  and  tbe  pku-ell.  Of  tbe  singuler 
nombre  be  \uije,  tu,  il,  elle,  len,  Ion,  on  and  se;  of  tbe  pbirell  nombre 
be  the  resydue  nous,  vous,  Hz ,  elles  and  se. 


THE    SECONDE    ACCIDENT. 


Persons  be  tbre  in  ecbe  of  tbese  two  nombres  :  tbe  first  person 
singuleryc,  tbe  seconde  tu,  tbe  tbirde  person  il,  elle,  len.  Ion,  on  and 
se.  Tbe  first  person  plurell  nous,  the  seconde  vous,  the  tbirde  Hz,  elles 
and  se. 

THE    THIRDE    ACCIDENT- 

Governyng  of  tbe  verbe.  For  suche  nombre  and  persone  as  tbe  pro- 
nowne  is  of,  suche  lyke  nombre  and  persone  shall  the  verbe  be  of. 
As,  to ye  serveth  parlerày;  to  tu,  parleras;  to  il,  elle,  len,  Ion,  or  on, 
parlera ,  and  so  in  lykewise  of  the  pbirell  nombre  :  to  nous  serveth  par- 
lerons; to  vous,  parlerez;  to  Hz  or  elles,  parleront. 

TIIi:    FOURTH    ACCIDENT. 

Dyversite  of  gendre  is  expressed  onely  in  pronownes  of  the  thirdé 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  77 

persone,  as  i7  he ,  elle  she,  Hz  they  men,  elles  they  women  :  ail  the 
resydue  may  serve  indyfferently  for  both  gendres,  and  expresse  as 
well  maies  as  females, 

THE    V    ACCIDENT. 

Declynation  with  diversyte  of  cases ,  for  thoughe  ail  the  resydue  of 
iheir  partes  declynable  reniayne  unchaunged,  wheder  they  corne  be- 
fore  verbes  of  after  verbes,  or  after  any  other  of  the  partes  that  be 
undeclynable ,  thèse  pronownes  primilyves  bave  a  worde  which  ser- 
veth  whan  they  governe  a  verbe,  and  Iwo,  somtyme  distincte,  whan 
theybe  governed  of  verbes,  and  a  fourth  whan  they  folowe  after  any 
of  the  other  partes  that  be  undeclyned.  Let  us  therfore  call  the  firste 
the  nominatyve  case  that  governeth  the  verbe  :  the  seconde,  the  ac- 
cusatyve  case  governed  of  some  verbes;  the  thirde,  the  datyve  case 
governed  of  some  other  verbes  :  and  the  fourth ,  the  oblyque  case 
governed  ofall  other  partes;  whiche  supposed,  howe  they  be  declined 
shall  hereafter  consequently  appere. 

HOWE    THESE    PRIMITWES    BE    OECLYNED. 

The  nominatyve  case  ye,  the  accusatyve  and  datyve  me  me,  the 
oblyque  case  moy  me. 

The  nominatyve  case  ta,  the  accusatyve  and  datyve  te,  the  oblyque 
case  toy  the. 

The  nominatyve  masculyne  and  synguler  il,  ihe  accusatyve  case  le 
hym,  the  dative  by  reason  of  some  verbes  Ivy  him,  the  oblyque  case 
Ivy  him. 

The  nominatyve  case  femyne  and  synguler  elle,  the  accusatyve  case 
la  her,  the  datyve  case  by  reason  of  some  verbes  Ivy  her,  the  oblyque 
case  elle  her. 

The  nominatyve  case  of  se,  in  bis  synguler  nombre,  wanteth  :  the  ac- 
cusatyve case  5e  hym  or  her,  the  oblyque  case  soy  hym  or  her,  whiche 
is  used  whan  the  acte  of  the  verbe  retourneth  to  the  doer  agayne. 

And  as  for  len,  Ion,  and  on,  «ois and  vovs  remayne  undeclyned,  and,         Régula. 
without  any  changyng,  serve  for  ail  maner  of  spekyng,  wherby  apereth 


78  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

thaï ,  sythe  we  hâve  in  our  tonge  we ,  whiche  serveth  for  the  nominatyve 
case,  and  us,  whiche  serveth  for  an  accusatyve  case  or  obiyque  case, 
as  we  love ,  he  loveth  us;  for  us.  In  this  worde  our  tong  is  more  parfyte. 

The  nominatyve  case  raasculyne  and  plureil  Hz;  the  accusatyve 
case  les  ihem ,  the  datyve  case,  by  reason  of  some  verbes,  levr  theni , 
the  obiyque  case  cvlx  ihem. 

The  nominatyve  case  feniyn  and  plureil  elles ,  thaccusatyve  case  les 
them,  the  datyve  case,  by  reason  of  some  verbes,  levr  them,  the 
obiyque  case  elles. 

The  nominatyve  case  also  oï  se,  in  bis  plureil  nombre  wanteth  ;  the 
accusatyve  case  se  them,  men  or  women,  the  obiyque  soy  them,  men 
or  women,  whiche  also  is  never  used  but  whan  the  acte  of  the  verbe 
retourneth  to  the  doer  agayne. 

But  whan  thèse  cases  shalbe  used  and  whan  riat,  I  shall  in  my  an- 
notacions  upon  this  accident,  in  the  tbirde  boke,  at  the  lenglb  déclare. 
For  in  the  true  usynge  of  thèse  cases  restetli  a  great  parte  of  the  con- 
gruyte  of  this  tonge. 


rUE     SIX'IE    ACCIDENT. 


Order  contrarie  lo  our  tonge;  for  where  as  the  accusatyve  cases 
of  our  pronownes  folowe  our  verbes  of  whiche  they  be  govemed ,  as 
lie  loveth  me,  I  love  ihe,  he  loveth  us,  we  love  them,  in  the  frenche 
tonge,  the  accusatyves  of  iheir  pronownes  primityves  must  corne  ever 
nexte  before  their  verbes,  so  that  they  say  :  il  me  àymc,  je  te  àyme , 
il  nous  àyme,  novs  les  aymùns,  and  so  of  ail  other;  whiclie  order  with 
them  is  never  broken. 
Régula.  But  howe  the  accusatyve  cases  of  thèse  pronownes  primityves  end- 

yng  in  e  or  a  lèse  nat  onely  their  e  in  soundyng,  but  also  in  writyng, 
and  joyne  their  consonantes  to  the  letter  of  the  verbe  that  they  come 
before  if  he  begyn  with  a  vowell,  I  bave  before  in  the  first  boke, 
in  the  lv  chapiter  ail  redy  declared;  so  that,  thoughe  I  bave  written 
or  shall  hereafter  write  il  me  àyme,  je  le  àymc,  and  suche  like  dis- 
tinctely  to  shewe  the  lernar  howe  thèse  accusatyve  cases  come  be^. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  79 

fore  their  verbes,  they  be  ever  written  il  màyme,  je  tàyme ,  il  làyme, 
and  so  forthe  of  ail  other  verbes,  as  I  bave  before  in  the  sayd  lv  cha- 
piter  at  the  length  declared. 


THE    SEVENTH    ACCIDENT. 


Doublyng ,  whan  the  acte  of  the  verbe  returneth  to  te  doer 
agayne.  For,  thoughe  we  saye  I  dye,  thou  dyest,  he  dyeth  :  they 
saye  je  me  mévrs,  tu  te  mèvrs,  il  se  mévrt,  puttyng  for  the  most  parte 
the  accusatyve  case  of  the  pronowne  before  the  verbe,  more  than 
we  use  in  our  tong  in  the  same  sentence;  whiche  thyng  they  use  in 
maner  thorowe  ail  the  modes,  tenses,  nombres  and  persons  of  ail 
suche  verbes  in  the  frenche  tonge  as  I  call  meanes,  iike  as  shall  he- 
rafter  appere  by  the  conjugatyng  of  them.  But  whiche  verbes  in  the 
frenche  tonge  be  mère  meanes,  or  whiche  maye  be  used  as  meanes, 
and  whiche  nat,  shall  herafter  more  playnly  appere. 

THE    EIGHT    ACCIDENT. 

Composition  or  rather  apposytion  of  this  worde  mésmes  to  the  no- 
minatyve  cases  but  especially  to  the  oblyque  cases  of  thèse  pronownes 
as^e  mésmes  I  myselfe;  moy  mésmes  my  selfe;  tu  mésmes  thou  thy  selfe; 
il  mésmes  he  hymseife;  Ivy  mésmes  hym  selfe;  and  so  of  the  resydue  : 
elles  mésmes,  soy  mésmes,  novs  mésmes,  uovs  mésmes,  Hz  mésmes,  elles 
mésmes,  levr  mésmes,  evlx  mésmes ,  elles  mésmes. 

OF  THE  PRONOWNES  DERIVATYVES. 

The  pronownes  derivatyves  bave  tre  accidentes,  gendre,  nombre, 
declinatyon,  by  whiche  their  gendre  and  nombre  is  expressed,  and 
resolucyon  in  to  their  primityves. 

THE    DECLYNYNG    OF    THE    PRONOWNES    DERIVATYVES    EXPRESSING    III 
OF    THEYR    ACCIDENTES. 

The  masculine  singular  mon,  the  féminine  singular  ma. 
The  masculine  and  féminine  plureil  mes. 


80  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

The  masculine  singular  ton,  the  féminine  singular  ta. 

The  masculine  and  féminine  plurell  tes. 

The  masculine  singular  son,  the  féminine  singular  sa. 

The  masculine  and  féminine  plurell  ses. 

The  masculine  and  féminine  singular  nôstre,  the  masculine  and 
féminine  plurell  noz. 

The  masculine  and  féminine  singular  uôstre,  the  mas.  and  fem. 
plu.  uoz. 

The  masculine  and  féminine  sing.  leur,  the  mas.  and  fem.  pi.  leurs. 
Régula.  And  note  that  if  a  féminine  substantive  or  bis  adjective  begyn  with 

a  vowel  or  with  h ,  nat  havyng  his  aspiration ,  they  use  nat  before 
them  ma,  ta,  sa,  but  mon,  ton,  son,  for  the  avoydynge  of  the  harshe 
sounde  of  ii  vowels  together,  as  I  shal  in  the  thirde  boke  more 
playnly  déclare. 

THE    IIII   ACCIDENT. 

Resolvyng  into  theyr  primitives.  For  where  as  we  say  :  he  hurteth 
my  hande;  I  eut  my  fynger;  she  dyd  put  out  her  eie;  they  say  :  he 
me  hurteth  the  hande;  I  me  eut  the  fynger;  she  her  dyd  put  out  the  eie. 
But  hereof  I  shal  in  tins  place,  in  the  thyrde  boke,  more  at  the  length 
intreat  :  in  this  place  I  thinke  sufficient  to  wame  the  lernar  hereof, 
by  cause  the  kinde  of  spekyng  is  moche  différent  from  our  tong. 

And  the  adjectives  that  be  formed  of  them  be  thus  declyned. 

Le  mien,  la  mienne;  les  miens,  les  miennes. 

Le  tien,  la  tienne;  les  tiens,  les  tiennes. 

Le  sien,  la  sienne;  les  siens,  les  siennes. 

Le  nôstre,  la  nôstre;  les  noz;  le  uôstre,  la  uôstre,  les  uoz. 

Le  leur,  la  leur,  les  leurs  :  so  that,  in  this  signification,  the  article 
le  is  ever  put  before  thèse  adjectives ,  of  suche ,  gender  and  nombre 
as  the  adjective  requireth. 

THE   DECLINYNG  OF  THE   TRONOWNES   INTERROGATIVES. 

Of  the  pronownes  interrogatives  qui  remayneth  undeclyned,  for 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  81 

al  maner  of  spekyng,  though  that  this  worde  «  who  »  in  ourtong  hath 
an  oblique  «  whom.  »  Quel  is  thus  declyned  :  the  masculine  singular 
quel,  the  féminine  singular  quelle. 

The  masculine  plurel  quelz,  the  féminine  plurell  quelles. 

Que  also  remayneth  undeclined ,  save  that  he  hath  an  oblique  case 
quoy. 

And  note   that  qui  and  que  be  never  used  but  in  the  singular        Régula, 
nombre  only. 

THE    DECLY.NYNG    OF   THE    PRONOWNES    RELATVVES. 

Of  the  pronownes  relatives  qui,  without  any  declination  or  chang- 
yng,  serveth  indifferently  for  ail  genders  and  nombres  ;  le  quel  is  thus 
declyned  le  quel,  la  quelle,  les  quelz,  les  quelles,  that  is  to  say,  lyke 
quel  the  interrogative ,  addyng  to  this  article  le. 

But  whan  we  shal  use  qui,  and  whan  quel  with  the  article  before 
hym,  shall  in  the  thirde  boke,  in  this  place,  playnely  appere. 

THE   DECLYNYNG  OF  THE  PRONOWNES  DEMONSTRATIVES. 

Of  the  pronownes  démonstratives  ce  is  thus  declyned. 

The  masculine  singular  where  the  substantive  or  adjective  begyn- 
neth  with  a  consonant  ce  :  where  they  begyn  with  a  vowel  or  with 
h  nat  havyng  bis  aspiration  cesl.  The  masculine  plurell  ces;  the  fémi- 
nine singular  ceste;  the  féminine  plurell  céstes.  But  this  thyng  shall 
in  the  thyrde  boke  more  playnly  appere. 

THE  DECLYNYNG  OF  HIS  COMPOUNDES. 

The  masculine  singular  cecy,  the  masculine  plurel  cescf. 
The  féminine  singular  cestecy,  the  féminine  plurel  cescj. 
The  masculine  singular  cela,  the  masculine  plurel  ceslà. 
The  féminine  singvdar  cestelà,  the  féminine  plurel  ceslà. 
The  masculine  singular  cil  or  celvy  (whiche  I  fynde  used  indiffe- 
rently), the  masculine  plurel  cevlx. 

The  féminine  singular  celle,  the  féminine  plurel  celles. 

11 


82  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

The  masculyne  singular  ycelvy,  the  masculine  plurel  ycévlx. 
The  féminine  singular  y  celle,  the  féminine  plurel  y  celles. 
And  as  for  cestvf  and  ycestvj  remayne  undeclyned  and  serve  but 
for  the  singular  nombre  onely. 

THE  DECLINYNG  OF  THE  PARTITIVES  AND  DISTBIBUTIVES. 

The  masculine  singular  avlcûn,  the  masculine  plurell  avlcàns. 

The  féminine  singular  avlcùne,  the  féminine  plurel  avlcûnes. 

The  masculine  singular  quelcùn,  the  féminine  singular  quelcàne, 
the  plurel  nombre  wanteth. 

The  masculine  singular  chascùn,  the  masculine  plurel  chascùns. 

The  féminine  singular  chascùne,  the  féminine  plurel  chascùnes. 

The  masculine  singular  nessùng,  the  masculine  plurel  nessùngz. 

The  féminine  singular  nessàne,  the  féminine  plurel  nessûnes. 

The  masculine  singular  nul,  the  masculine  plurel  nulz. 

The  féminine  singular  ««//e,  the  féminine  plurel  nulles,  but  nullvy 
remayneth  undeclyned. 

The  masculine  singular  tovt,  the  masculine  plurel  lovs. 

The  féminine  singular  tôvte,  the  féminine  plurel  tôvtes.  Whiche 
lyke  declination  serveth  to  trestôut. 

The  mascidine  singular  tel,  the  masculine  plurel  telz,  and  of  some 
auctors  I  fynde  used  tiéalx. 

The  féminine  singular  lélle,  the  féminine  plurel  telles.  Whiche 
lyke  maner  of  declination  serveth  to  avtél  and  ytél. 

The  masculine  and  féminine  singular  àvltre,  the  mascuHne  and  fé- 
minine plurel  àvltres  :  but  avltrvy  remayneth  undeclyned. 

The  masculine  and  féminine  singular  quelque,  the  masculine  and 
féminine  plurell  quelques. 

The  mascidine  singular  quelconques ,  the  masculine  plurel  quelz- 
cônques. 

The  féminine  singular  9ae//ecôn(/He5,  the  femm.  TpiuTelquellescônques. 

The  masculine  singiUar  maynt,  the  masculine  plurell  maynts. 

The  féminine  singular  màynte,  the  féminine  plurel  màyntes. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  83 

And  as  for  plusieurs  remayneth  undeclyned. 

And  howe  of  the  numerals  may  be  formed  certayne  adjectives  end- 
yng  in  esme,  as  of  vng  vniésine,  devx  devsiésme,  troys  troysiésme,  quàttre 
quatriésme,  I  hâve  afore  touched  in  the  vi  accident  of  adjectives,  and 
shal  at  the  length  of  ail  thynges ,  aswel  belongyng  to  the  use  of  nom- 
bres as  to  the  same  partitives  and  distributives ,  in  the  thyrde  boke, 
in  this  place,  sufficiently  intreat. 

OF  THE  VERBE. 

Verbes  be  suche  as  of  theyr  owne  nature  betoken  doyng  or  suf-       Descriptio 
feryng,  and  havyng  joyned  unto  them  any  of  the  pronownes  primi- 
tives, may  make  a  perfit  reason,  as^e  àyme  I  love  :  ta  parles  thou  spe- 
kest  :  il  court  he  ronneth  :  je  svis  batiï  I  am  beaten  :  ta  es  regardé  thou 
art  behelde  :  il  plévt  it  raynneth. 

Of  verbes  some  be  actyves,  some  be  meanes,  and  some  be  pas-     Divisio  verbi. 
syves  ;  and  agayne  some  be  parsonal,  and  some  be  imparsonals. 

Verbes  actives  be  suche  as  betoken  some  dede  to  passe  from  the      Activa  quae. 
doar,  as  je  bas,  I  béate  -.je  regarde,  1  beholde. 

Verbes  meanes  be  suche  as  signifie  no  dede  to  passe   from  the      Media  qu». 
doer  without  forth,  but  expresse  the  acte  to  retourne  to  the  doar 
agayne,  as  je  me  mevrs  I  dye  -.je  me  maruàille  I  marvayle. 

Verbes  passyves  be  suche  as  betoken  sufFernynge,  as  je  svis  batà,      Passivaqu». 
I  am  beaten  :  je  suis  regardé  I  am  behelde. 

Verbes  personalles  be  suche  as  in  every  of  theyr  tenses  bave  as    Personalia  quœ. 
many  sondrye  parsones  in  both  the  nombres,  as  shall  appere  after 
that  je  parle  hath. 

Verbes  imparsonalles  be  suche  as  through  al  theyr  tenses  bave      impersonalia 
but  the  thyrde  parson  singular  onely. 

Verbes  actives  parsonals  bave  x  accidentes,  mode,  tens,  circumlo- 
cutyng  of  the  pretertenses,  nombre,  parson,  conjugation,  formation, 
composition,  addynge  of  sillabical  adjections  in  affirmation  and  néga- 
tion and  order  différent  from  our  tong  in  interrogations. 


1 1 . 


84  LESCLARCISSEMENT 


THE    FYRST    ACCIDENT. - 


Modes  ihey  hâve  vu,  the  indicative  mode  whiche  they  use  whan 
they  shewe  or  teil  a  thyng  to  be  done,  as  je  parle  I  speke. 

The  subjunctive  mode  whiche  they  ever  use  folowyng  an  other 
verbe,  and  addyng  this  worde  que  before  hym,  as  uovléz  uovs  que  je 
parle,  wyl  you  that  I  speke. 

The  potenciall  mode  by  whiche  they  use  lo  expresse  wyll  or  myght 
to  do  a  dede,  asjeparlerôye,  I  wolde,  shulde  or  myght  speke. 

The  imperatyve  mode  whiche  they  use  whan  they  commande  a 
dede  to  be  done,  as  parle  speke. 

The  optative  mode  whiche  they  use  whan  they  wisshe  a  dede  to 
be  done,  a.s  bien  parle  il,  wel  speke  he  or  well  myght  he  speke. 

The  condicionai  mode  whiche  they  use  whan  they  expresse  condi- 
cion  if  a  dede  be  to  be  done,  as  sy  je  parle,  if  I  speke. 

The  infinitive  mode  whiche  they  use  whan  we  use  to  put  to  be- 
fore a  verbe,  as  parler  io  speke. 


THE   SECONDE   ACCIDENT. 


Tenses  or  tymes  they  hâve  in  every  of  thèse  modes,  in  some  mo 
and  in  some  fewer. 

The  indicatyve  mode  hath  sixe  tenses.  The  présent  tens,  as  je  parle 
I  speke.  The  prêter  imperfit  tens,  asye  parlôye  1  dyd  speke.  The  in- 
diffinite  tens,  as  je  parlày,  I  spake.  The  preterperfit  tens,  as  je  ay 
parlé  I  bave  spoken.  The  preterplusperht  tens,  asjavôye  parlé  I  had 
spoken.  The  future  tens,  as  je  parlerày  l  shall  speke. 

The  subjunctyve  mode  hath  fyve  tenses.  The  présent  tense,  as  que 
je  parle  that  I  speke.  The  indiffinite  tens,  as  que  je  parlasse,  that  I 
wolde  speke,  shulde  speke  or  myght  speke,  wolde  bave  spoken, 
shulde  bave  spoken,  or  myght  bave  spoken  or  had  spoken  :  whiche 
dyversites  of  signification  is  ever  lymytted  by  the  verbe  that  goeth 
before  que,  by  whom  may  easely  be  gathered  for  whiche  of  thèse  en- 
glysshes  the  frenche  indiffinite  tens  serveth. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  85 

The  preterparfil  tens,  as  (jue  je  àye  parlé  that  I  hâve  spoken.  * 

The  preterpiusperfit  tens,  as  que  je  évsse  parlé  ihat  I  had  spoken. 

The  future  tens,  as  (jue  je  avrày  parlé  that  I  shall  hâve  spoken. 

The  potenciall  mode  hath  two  tenses  :  whiche,  al  be  it  that  they 
signifie  rather  a  maner  and  an  affection  in  doyng  of  a  dede  than 
any  directe  tyme ,  yet  let  us  call  je  parlerôye  I  wolde  speke ,  shulde 
speke,  or  myght  speke,  the  présent  tense  :  and^e  avrôye  parlé,  I  shulde 
hâve  spoken ,  wolde  hâve  spoken  or  myght  hâve  spoken ,  the  prêter 
parfit  tens. 

The  imperative  mode  hath  ii  tenses,  whiche  lie  boroweth  of  the 
other  modes  hère  afore  l'ehersed.  His  présent  tens  boroweth  his  par- 
sones  of  the  same  tenses  in  the  indicative  and  subjunctive  mode,  as 
parle  speke.  The  future  tens,  whiche  boroweth  al  his  parsons  of  the 
présent  tens  of  the  subjunctive  mode,  as  que  je  parle  let  me  speke. 

The  optative  mode  boroweth  also  his  ii  tenses  of  the  siibjunctive  : 
the  présent  tens,  as  bien  parlé  il  well  speke  he  or  wel  myght  he  speke; 
the  indiffinit  tens,  as  bien  parldst  il  well  myght  he  bave  spoken  or 
shuld  bave  spoken. 

The  condicional  mode  boroveth  al  the  tenses  of  the  indicative  mode, 
the  subjunctive  mode  and  the  potencial  mode,  save  only  the  pré- 
sent tens  of  the  subjunctive  mode  ;  and  to  hymselfe  propre  he  hath 
no  tens  in  this  tong,  as  sy  je  parle,  si  je  parlôye,  sy  je  parlày,  sy  jay 
parlé,  sy  jauôye  parlé,  si  je  parlerdy,  sy  je  parlasse,  sy  jâye  parlé,  si 
j  évsse  parlé,  si  je  avrày  parlé,  si  je  parlerôye,  si  je  avrôye  parlé. 

The  infinitive  mode  hath  ii  tenses  :  the  présent  tens  as  parler  to 
speke  :  the  preterparfit  tens,  as  aaoyr  parlé  to  bave  spoken. 

And  note  that,  though  vve  use  indifferently  in  our  tong  «  I  dyd         Régula. 
speke  or  I  speke,  «  in  the  frenche  tong,  betwene  the  preterperfit  tens 
and  the  indiffmite  tens  there  is  a  great  différence,  as  I  shal  more 
playnely  in  the  thyrde  boke,  in  this  place,  déclare. 


86  LESCLARCISSEMENT 


THE    THYRDE    ACCIDENT. 


Circumlocutyng  of  al  the  preterlenses  ;  for  ail  the  preterperfit 
tenses  and  preterplusperfit  tenses  of  al  verbes  actives  in  the  frenche 
long  and  the  future  tens  of  al  subjunctive  modes  be  circumlocuted 
with  the  tenses  of  je  ay  and  the  participle  prétérit,  like  as  by  the 
same  tenses  o{  je  parle  I  hâve  hère  gyven  example. 
Régula.  And  note  that  the  participle  prétérit  after  the  tenses  oï  je  ay  re- 

mayneth  for  the  most  part  unchanged,  what  soever  nombre  or  par- 
son  the  tenses  of  ^e  ay  represent,  as  by  the  examples  of  ail  the  m  con- 
jugations  hère  after  playnly  shal  appere.  But  of  this  thyng  I  shal  bave 
better  occasion  to  speke  hei-e  after,  and  specially  in  the  thyrde  boke, 
in  the  chapter  of  participles. 

TUE    FOURTU    ACCIDENT. 

Nombres  be  ii  in  eche  of  thèse  tenses,  except  the  tenses  of  the 


nfinitive  mode,  the  singular  nombre  and  the  plurell. 


THE    FÏFT    ACCIDENT. 


Parsons  in  eche  of  thèse  ii  nombres  be  m ,  the  first  singular  whiche 
serveth  only  forye  :  the  seconde  singular  whiche  serveth  only  for  ta  : 
the  thirde,  whiche  serveth  for  ail  other  pronownes  partitives,  dis- 
tributives  and  numerals,  and  ail  substantives ,  whan  he  speke  but  of 
one. 

The  fyrst  parson  plurell  whiche  serveth  onely  for  novs  :  the  se- 
conde plurel   whiche  serveth  onely  for  uovs  :  the  thyrde  parson  plu- 
rel  whiche  serveth  for  ail  other  pronownes  partityves,  distributyves, 
and  numerals,  and  also  ail  substantyves,  whan  we  speke  of  many. 
Régula.  And  note  that  eche  of  the  tenses ,  in  every  of  the  sayde  modes,  hath 

in  distinct  wordes  in  bis  singular  nombre  and  m  in  bis  plurell  to  serve 
,j,  to  the  wordes  hère  afore  rehersed  :  save,  as  I  bave  sayde,  that  the 

infinitive  mode  hath  neyther  nombre  nor  parson ,  and  that  the  pré- 
sent tens  of  the  imperatyve  mode  wanteth  bis  first  parson  singular. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  87 

The  présent  and  indiffinit  tenses  of  the  optative  mode  is  most  co- 
monly  used  in  the  ihyrde  parsones  onely,  howe  be  it  they  may  hâve 
al  theyr  nombres  and  parsones. 


THE    VI    ACCIDENT. 


Conjugations  be  m.  The  fyrst  conjugation,  through  al  bis  conju- 
gatyng,  is  ever  of  many  sillables,  and  hath  bis  présent  tens  and  par- 
ticiple  prétérit  endyng  in  e  beyng  ail  one  in  wrytting  and  differynge 
onely  in  accent,  and  bis  infinitive  mode  endyng  ever  in  er,  al  m 
wordes  beyng  of  eqiiall  syllables,  as  je  parle ,  jay  parlé ,  parler. 

And  note  that  of  this  conjugation  be  mo  than  balfe  of  the  verbes         Régula. 
parsonals  in  the  frenche  tonge.  The  seconde  conjugation  is  ever  also 
of  many  sillables,  and  hath  bis  présent  tens  endyng  in  is ,  bis  parti- 
ciple  prétérit  in  y,  and  bis  infmityve  mode  in  yr,  ail  m  wordes  beyng 
of  equal  sillables.,  asye  conuerlis,  jay  conuerty,  conaertfr. 

And  thèse  for  the  most  part  be  circumlocuted  in  our  tong  with  «  I         Régula. 
make  »  or  «  I  waxe,  »  b.s  je  blanchis  I  make  or  waxe  whyte  :  je  noyrcis  I 
make  or  waxe  blacke  :  and  so  in  maner  of  al  other  colours  hiay  be 
formed  a  verbe  of  this  conjugation, 

The  thyrde  conjugation  hath  bis  présent  tens  in  maner  ever  endyng 
in  s ,  sometyme  of  one  syllable ,  as  je  bas  I  béate  :  je  tens  I  bende  : 
je  romps  I  breke  :  je  mets  I  put;  sometyme  of  many  syllables,  and 
suche  for  the  most  part  be  compoundes  of  other  verbes  of  this  con- 
jugation that  be  of  one  syllable ,  as  je  combàs  I  fygbt  :  jenténs  I  un- 
derstande  :  je  corromps  I  corrupte  :  jentreméts  I  meddyll  ;  whose  in- 
diffinite  tenses  ende  ever  also  in  s  havynge  before  s  eyther  j,  in,  ev, 
or  V,  as  jefs,  je  prins,  je  recévs,  je  bévs,  sometyme  of  one  syllable  , 
sometyme  of  many.  And  theyr  participles  prétérit  ende  ever  in  s,  t, 
V  or  y,  as  jay  prins,  jay  dit,  jay  batu,  jay  recév,  jay  dormf,  sometyme 
of  one  syllable ,  sometyme  of  many.  Theyr  infinité  modes  ende  eyther 
in  re  or  in  yr,  ever  of  many  syllables,  as  bàtre ,  tendre,  corrompre, 
mettre ,  dormfr. 

An  approbacion  of  al  thèse  rules  bereafore  rebersed  by  tbexemple         Régula. 


88  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

of  je  parle,  je  conuertis  a.nd  je  fais,  whose  conjugatynge  tbrough  al 
their  modes,  tenses,  nombres,  and  parsons,  shallhere,  accordyng 
to  the  sayd  ruies,  consequently  appere. 

THE  FYRST  CONJUGATION. 

OF    THE     INDICATIVE     MODE. 

THE    PRESENT    TENS. 

I  speke.  Je  parle  tu  parles  il  parle,  novs  parlons  uovs  parlez  Hz  parlent. 

THE    PRETER    IMPARFIT    TENS. 

I  dyd  speke.  Je  parlôye  tu  parloys  il  parlôyt,  novs  parlions  uous  parliez  Hz  parlaient. 

THE    INDIFFINIT    TENS. 

I  spake.  Je  parlày  tu  parlas  il  parla,  novs  parlàsmes  uous  parlàstez  ils  parlèrent. 

THE  PRETER  PARFIT  TENS. 

ihave.spoken.         Jay  parlé  tu  as  parlé  il  a  parlé,  novs  auons  parlé  uous  avez  parlé  Hz 
ont  parlé. 

THE  PRETER  PLUPERFIT  TENS. 

I  had  spoken.         Jauôye  parlé  tu  aaoys  parlé  il  aaôyt  parlé,  novs  auiôns  parlé  uous  auiez 
parlé  Hz  auôyent  parlé. 

THE    FUTURE    TENS. 

ishall  speke.  Je  parlerày  tu  parleras  il  parlera,  novs  parlerons  uous  parlerez  Hz 

parleront. 

OF    THE    SUBJONCTYVE     MODE. 
THE    PRESENT    TENS. 

Thati  speke.  Que  je  parle  que  tu  parles  qu'il  parle,  que  novs  parlions  que  uous  par- 

liez quilz  parlent. 

THE    INDIFFINIT    TENS. 

Thaï  I  spake.  Que  je  parlasse  que  tu  parlasses  quH  parlàst,  que  novs  parlissions  que 

uous  parlissiéz  quilz  parlassent. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  89 


THE    PRETEH    PEfiFIT    TENS. 


Que  je  àye  parlé  que  tu  dyes  parlé  quil  ayt  parlé,  que  novs  ayons  parlé  That 

,  i«        •!  I,  I  have  spoken. 

que  nous  ayez  parle  quilz  ayent  parle. 


THE    PRETERPLCPARFIT    TEXS. 


Que  je  évsse  parlé  que  tu  évsses  parlé  quil  evsl  parlé,  que  novs  evssiôns  TLat 

I  /  •  '  I ,        •!      ,  .  I ,  I  had  spoken. 

parte  que  uous  evssiez  parle  quitz  eussent  parle. 

THE    FUTURE    TENS. 

Que  je  avrây  parlé  que  tu  avrds  parlé  quil  avrà  parlé,  que  novs  avrôns  That 

parlé  que  uous  avréz  parlé  quilz  avrônt  parlé.  spoken. 

OF    THE     POTENCIALL    MODE. 
THE    PRESENT    TENS. 

Je  parlerôye  tu  parlerôys  il  parlerôyt,  nous  parlerions  uous  parleriez  Hz    i  shulde  speke. 
parlerôyent. 

THE  PRETER  PERFIT  TENS. 

Je  avrôye  parlé  tu  avrôys  parlé  il  avrôyt  parlé ,  nous  avriôns  parlé  uous     l  shulde  have 
avriéz  parlé  Hz  avràyent  parlé.  ''''°  *"' 

OF    THE    IMPERATIVE    MODE. 
TUE    PRESENT    TENS. 

Parlé  or  parlé  tu,  parlé  il,  parlons  or  parlons  nous,  parlez  or  parlez         Speke. 
uous,  parlent  OT  parlent  Hz. 

THE    FUTURE    TENS. 

Que  je  parle  que  tu  parles  quil  parle,  que  nous  parlions  que  uous  par-     Letme  speke. 
liez  quilz  parlent. 

OF    THE    OPTATIVE    MODE. 
THE    PRESENT    TENS. 

Bien  parlé  je  bien  parles  tu  bien  parle  il,  bien  parlions  nous  bien  parliez        Wei  may 
uous  bien  parlent  Hz.  "P*  *' 


90 


LESCLARCISSEMENT 


THE    INDIFFINITE    TENS. 


Wel  myght 
I  speke. 


If  I  spekc. 


Bien  parlasse  je  bien  parlasses  ta  bien  parlàst  il ,  bien  parlissions  nous 
bien  partissiez  uovs  bien  parlassent  Hz. 

The  signe  of  the  condicional  mode  used  before  the  présent  lens 
of  the  indicative  mode ,  as 

Si  je  parle  si  tu  parles  sil  parle,  si  nous  parlons  si  vous  parlez  silz 
parlent,  and  so  in  lyke  wyse  usyng  si  Lefore  ail  the  nombres  and 
parsons  of  ail  the  tenses  of  the  indicative  mode,  subjunctive  mode  , 
except  his  présent  tens,  and  ail  the  tenses  of  the  potencial  mode, 
accordyng  as  the  englisshe  shall  require,  and  as  I  hâve  afore  re- 
hersed. 


OK     THE     INFINITIVE     MODE. 

To  speke.     ^      The  présent  tens  parler,  the  preterparfit  tens  avoyr  parlé. 

THE  SECONDE  CONJUGATION. 

OF    THE    INDICATIVE    MODE. 
THE    PRESENT    TENS. 

I  convert.  Je  conuertîs  tu  conuertys  il  conuertit,  nous  conuertissuns  uous  conuertis- 

sés  Hz  conuertissént. 


THE    PRETERPARFIT    TENS. 


I  dyd  convert.         Je  conuerlissôye  ta  conuertissôys  il  conaertissôyt,  nous  conuertissiôns  uous 
conuertissiéz  Hz  conuertissôyent. 


THE    INDIFEINIT    TENS. 


I  converted.  Je  conuertis  tu  conuertys  il  conuertit,  nous  conuertismes  nous  conuertistes 

Hz  conuertirent . 


THE    PRETER    PARFIT    TE.\S. 


I  have  Jay  conuerty  ta  as  conaerty  il  a  conaertf,  nous  auôns  conuerty  uous  aaéz 

converted.  ,  ■,  , 

conuerty  Hz  ont  conuerty. 


f 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  91 


THE  PRETER  PLUPARFIT  TENS. 


Jauùye  conuertj  tu  auôys  conuerty  il  auôyt  convertj,  nous  auiôns  con-         \  had 

•  /  ,    .  j  ,  converted. 

verty  uousaaiez  conuerty  ils  auoyent  conuerty. 


THE    FUTURE    TENS. 


Je  conuertirây  tu  conuertirâs  il  conuertirà,  nous  conuertirôns  uous  con-   i  sball  couvert. 
uertirés  Hz  conuertirônt. 


OF    THE    SDBJUNCTIVE    MODE. 
THE    PRESENT    TENS. 


Que  je  conaertye  que  tu  comiertfes  quil  conuertye,  que  nous  conuertyôns    That  l  convert. 
que  uous  conuertyéz  quilz  conuertyent. 


THE    INDIfriNIT    TENS. 


Que  je  conuertisse  que  tu  conuertisses  quil  conuertist,  que  nous  conuer-  Thaï 

.     .,  .     . ,  .,  .,         .  I  converted. 

tissions  que  uous  conuertissiez  quilz  conuertissent. 

THE  PRETER  PARFIT  TENS. 

Que  je  dye  conuerty  que  tu  àyes  conuerty  quil  ayt  conuerty,  que  nous      That  l  hâve 
ayons  conuerty  que  uous  ayez  conuerty  quilz  àyent  conuertj. 

THE    PRETERPLUPERFIT    TENS. 

Quejévsse  conuerty  que  ta  évsses  conuerty  quil  evst  conuerty,  que  nous      That  i  had 
evssiôns  conuerty  que  uous  evssiez  conuerty  quilz  évssent  conuertjr. 

THE    FUTURE    TENS. 

Que  javrày  conuerty  que  tu  avràs  conuerty  quil  avrà  conuertjr,  que  nous  That 

avrôns  conuerty  que  uous  àvrez  conuerty  quilz  avrônt  conuertj.  converted*.* 

OF    THE    POTENCIAL    MODE. 
THE    PRESENT    TENS. 

Je  conuertirôye  tu  conuerlirôys  il  conuertirôyt,  nous  conuertiriôns  uous        i  shulde 
conuertiriez  Hz  conuertirây enl.  conver . 

13. 


92 


LËSCLARCISSEMENT 


I  sliulde  liave 
convertcd. 


Convert. 


Let  me  convert. 


Wel  may 

I  convert. 


Wel  mygfat 
I  convert. 


To  convert. 
Régula. 


THE    PRETEnPEF.FIT    TENS. 

Javrôye  conuertf  ta  avrôis  conuerty  il  avràjl  conaerty,  nous  avriôns 
conaerty  voas  avriez  conaerty  Hz  avrôyent  conuerty. 

0¥    THE    IMPERATIVE    MODE. 

THE    PRESENT    TENS. 

Conuertys  or  conaertys  tu,  conuertye  or  conuertfe  il,  conuertissôns  or 
conuertissôns'nous ,  conuertissez  or  conuerthsez  uoas,  conuertient  or  con- 
uertîent  Hz. 

THE    FUTURE    TENS. 

Que  je  conuertje  que  ta  conuerty  es  quil  conuertye,  que  nous  conuer- 
tiôns  que  uous  conuertyez  quilz  conuertyent. 

OF    THE  OPTAJIVE    MODE. 
*>  THE    PRESENT    TENS. 

Bien  conuertye  je  bien  conuerties  tu  bien  conuertye  il,  bien  conuer- 
tyôns  nous  bien  conuertyez  aous  bien  conuertyent  Hz. 

THE    INDIFFINIT    TENS. 

Bien  conaertisse  je,  bien  conuertisses  ta,  bien  conuertist  il,  bien  con- 
uertissiôns  nous,  bien  conaertissiez  nous,  bien  conuertissent  Hz. 

The  use  of  si  before  the  lenses  I  hâve  afore  shewed  in  the  conju- 
gatyng  of  je  parle. 

OF    THE    INFINITIVE    MODE. 

The  présent  tens  conaertyr,  the  preterperfit  tens  auàyr  conuerty. 

And  note  that  after  thexemple  of  thèse  ii  verbes  the  lernar  may 
know  howe  to  conjugale  mo  than  ni  partes  of  nii  of  the  verbes  ac- 
tives parsonal  in  the  frenche  tong  :  and  that  a  great  deale  more  cer- 
taynly  than  the  verbes  of  the  Greke  or  Latin  tong  may  be  lerned  by 
any  exemples  that  be  gyven  of  them.  For  the  frenche  tonge  useth  ne- 
ver  augmentation  neyther  chronical  nor  sillabical  in  theyr  fyrst  sil- 
lables  as  the  Grekes  use  to  do  through  ail  theyr  prétérit  tenses ,  nor 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  93 

mutation  from  one  vowell  to  another  by  reason  of  composicion,  like 
as  the  Latins  do  :  nor,  in  the  mean  siilables,  any  changyng  of  conso- 
nantes  other  than  the  présent  tons  hath ,  as  the  Grekes  moche  use  : 
nor  sondrie  terminations  of  the  prétérit  tenses  lyke  as  the  Latins  use  ; 
for  the  fyrst  and  mean  siilables  of  ail  verbes  of  thèse  ii  conjugations 
remayne  ever  unchanged,  save  that  I  fynde  sixe  verbes  whiche  hav- 
yng  in  the  m  parsons  of  theyr  singular  nombre,  in  theyr  présent 
tenses,  this  diphthong  ev,  change  it  through  ail  the  residue  of  theyr 
conjugatynge  into  ov,  as  I  shall  hère  after  in  this  boke  touche,  and 
in  my  thyrde  boke  at  the  length  déclare.  So  that  havynge  any  parson 
of  a  verbe  of  eyther  of  thèse  ii  conjugations,  if  the  lernar  can  perfitly 
thèse  two  exemples,  he  may  easely  fynde  out  the  first  parson  of  the 
présent  tense  of  the  indicatyve  mode  and  than  conjugate  theym  through 
al  theyr  modes,  tenses,  nombres  and  parsons  by  addyng  of  suche 
terminations  to  the  sayde  fyrst  parson  as  he  fyndeth  added  to  in  /e 
parle,  and  je  conuertys.    ■ 

OF  THE  THYKDE  CONJUGATION. 

In  verbes  of  theyr  thyrde  conjugation  I  fynde  a  litell  more  difficul- 
tie  :  howe  be  it,  by  certayne  generall  rules  of  this  conjugation  also  to 
brynge  the  lernar  to  a  certaynte,  x  rules  be  to  be  noted. 

TEN  GENERAL  RULES  TO  INSTRUCT  THE  LERNAR  HOWE  HE  MAY  BE  SLRE 

TO  CONJUGATE  ALL  VERBES  ACTIVES  PARSONALS  OF  THE  THYRDE 

CONJUGATION  IN  THIS  TONG. 

Fyrst  of  the  présent  tens  of  the  indicative  mode  the  fyrst  and  se-  Régula  prima. 
conde  parsons  singular  be  ever  lyke  endyng  in  s,  and  the  thyrde  par- 
son singular  is  formed  of  them  by  changyng  s  into  t:  so  that,  havyng 
the  first  parson  singular  of  this  tense ,  this  rule  serveth  for  the  other 
two  parsons.  But  in  the  thre  parsons  plurel  of  the  same  tens  I  fynde 
no  generall  certaynte  in  the  vowelles  and  consonantes  that  they  put 
before  ons,  ez  and  ent  :  howbeit,  for  the  most  parte,  the  seconde  and 


94  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

thirde  persons  plurell  kepe  ever  the  same  vowelles  and  consonantes 
before  es  and  ent  that  the  first  persone  plurell  hath  before  ons. 

Example  where  the  letters  of  the  thre  persons  plurell  before  their 
small  terminations  be  dyfferent  :  nous  faisons,  uovs /dictez,  Hz  font.  Noas 
disons ,  uovs  dictez ,  Hz  disent.  Novs  bevuôns,  uovs  bevuéz,  Hz  bôyvent. 

Example  where  the  sayde  letters  be  lyke:  novs  prennôns,  uovs  pren- 
néz,  Hz  prennent.  Novs  mettons,  uovs  mettez,  Hz  mettent.  Nous  mordons, 
uovs  mordez,  Hz  mordent.  So  that,  for  the  most  parte,  it  shall  suffice  if 
I  hereafter,  in  the  table  of  verbes,  expresse  the  first  persons  singuler 
and  plurell  of  this  tense  onely.  Howbeit  somtyme  it  shall  be  nedefull 
to  sette  forth  as  well  the  first  persone  singuler  as  ail  the  thre  per- 
sons plurell  distinctly,  for  so  moche  as  I  can  nat  conteyne  thèse  said 
persons  under  any  generall  rule  certayne. 
Kcguia  Seconde.  The  fyrst  parson  singular  of  the  prêter  imperfit  tens  of 

the  indicatyve  mode  is  ever  foi-med  of  the  fyrst  parson  plurell  of  the 
présent  tens  of  the  same  mode,  by  changyng  of  ons  into  oye,  as  oïfay- 
sôns  is  ïormed.  faisôye ,  of  disons  disôye,  of  bevuôns  bevùye,  oî  prennôns 
prennôye,  and  ail  suche  be  conjugate  lyke  parlôye  or  convertissôye.  So 
that  havyng  the  fyrst  parson  singular  of  this  tens,  the  other  parsones 
may  easely  be  conjugate  by  example  of  the  other  conjugations. 
Régula  tertia.  Thyrde.  Of  the  indiflfinite  tense  of  this  mode  the  fyrst  and  seconde 

parsones  singular  be  ever  lyke  endyng  in  5,  as  I  bave  afore  touched; 
and  the  thyrde  parson  singular  is  formed  of  them  by  changyng  of  s 
into  t,  havyng  before  s  and  /  eyther  y,  v,  ev  or  in ,  as  I  bave  aiso  afore 
declared  :  and  bis  m  parsons  plurell  ende  in  smes,  stez  and  rent,  like 
as  the  same  parsons  do  in  the  fyrst  and  seconde  conjugations,  havyng 
ever  before  the  sayd  terminations  the  vowel  or  diphthong  of  theyr 
singular  nombre,  if  there  come  a  vowel  or  diphthong  immediatly  be- 
fore theyr  5;  if  there  come  an  n  before  s  than  they  adde  to  d  before 
rent,  as  je  dys,  tu  dys,  H  dit,  novs  dismes,  uovs  distez,  Hz  dirent.  Je  fis, 
tu  fys,  H  fit,  novs  fismes,  uovsfistez,  Hz  firent.  Je  bus,  tu  bus,  H  bat, 
novs  bûsmes,  uovs  bùstez,  Hz  burent.  Je  decévs,  tu  decévs,  il  decévt,  novs 
decévsmes,  uovs  decévstes,  Hz  decévrent.  Je  prins,  tu  prins,  H  print,  novs 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  95 

prinsmcs,  uovs  prînslez,  Us  prindrent.  So  that  onely  the  fyrst  parson  sin- 
gular  of  this  lens  is  uncertayne,  but,  that  ones  had,  the  lernar  may  be 
certayn  by  this  rule  to  forme  the  resiclue  of  al  his  parsons  in  both 
nombres. 

And  note  that  often  tymes  it  happenneth  that  the  singular  nombre  of        Régula. 
this  tense  is  lyke  the  singular  nombre  of  the  présent  tense  in  the  same 
mode,  specially  in  the  seconde  conjugation,  as  appereth  by^e  conaertys. 

Fourtl).  Syns  al  the  preterparfit  and  pluparfit  tenses  of  al  modes  Régula  quarta. 
and  also  the  future  tens  of  every  subjunctive  mode  of  ai  verbes  ac- 
tives parsonals  be  circumlocuted  with  the  tenses  of  ye  ay  and  the  par- 
ticiple  prétérit,  as  1  afore  declared  and  shewed  by  example  oi je  parle 
And  je  conuertis,  in  al  thèse  tenses  is  no  maner  difficulté;  but,  the  par- 
ticiple  prétérit  ones  had,  the  lemar  may  conjugate  ail  thèse  tenses  by 
thexemple  of  the  other  ii  conjugations,  as  by  cause  the  participle  pré- 
térit o{  je  fais  \s  faict,  I  must  say  jay  f aie t,  jaiiôye  faict,  jdye  faict, 
jévsse  faict,  je  avrdy  faict,  javrôye  faict,  auoyr  faict,  puttyng  suche 
and  as  many  tenses  of  je  ay  before  faict  as  I  bave  donc  before  parlé 
and  conaertj'. 

Fyft.  Onely  tlie  fyrst  parson  singular  of  the  future  tens  in  this  Régula  quinta. 
mode  is  imcertayne,  but,  that  ones  knowen,  he  may  certaynly  be  con- 
jugate by  thexemple  of  Je  parlerây,je  conuertyrày ,  as  ferày ,  feras ,  fera, 
ferons ,  ferez ,  feront  :  and  lyke  as  o(je  parlerày  is  formed  parleràye,  so 
of  the  fyrst  parsone  singular  of  this  tense  is  ever  formed  the  fyrst 
parson  syngular  of  the  présent  tens  of  the  potencial  mode  :  whiche 
parson  ones  knowen,  al  his  other  parsons  may  easely  be  conjugate  by 
exemple  of  parterùye  as  of  ferây  is  formed  ferôye  by  changyng  of  ray 
into  roye,  and  conjugale  ferôye,  ferôys,  ferôyt,  ferions,  feriez,  ferôyent; 
of  prendrày,  prendrôye,  prendrôys,  prendrôyt,  prendrions,  prendriez, 
prendrôyent;  and  so  of  al  other. 

Sixt.  The  fyrst  and  thyrde  parsons  singular  of  the  présent  tens  of     Régula  scxta. 
the  subjunctive  mode  be  ever  like  endynge  in  e,  and  the  seconde 
parson  syngular  addeth  to  s.  The  fyrst  and  seconde  parsons  plurell 
change  e  of  the  fyrst  parson  singidar  into  ions  and  iez.  The  thyrde 


96  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

parson  pliirell  addeth  nt  to  the  fyrst  parson  singular.  So  that  onely 
the  fyrst  parson  singular  of  this  tense  is  uncertayne  :  whiche  ones 
hadde,  hovve  the  residue  shulde  be  formed  I  hâve  shewed  the  1er- 
nar  in  this  rule,  as  if  he  ones  knowe  that  the  fyrst  parson  singular 
of  thistens  is  que  je  face,  he  may  knowe  by  my  rule  that  he  maketh 
que  tu  faces,  quilfâce,  que  novsfaciôns,  que  uovs  faciéz,  quilz  fâcent, 
and  in  likewyse,  que  je  die,  que  tu  dies,  quil  die,  que  novs  diôns,  que 
uovs  diéz,  quilz  dient,  puttynge  no  consonant  before  ions  and  iez,  ex- 
cept  the  fyrst  parson  singular  bave  one,  as  que  je  préigne,  que  tu 
préignes,  quil  préigne,  que  novs preignons,  que  uovs preignéz,  quilz préignent. 

Régula septima.  Seventh.  By  the  addynge  of  thèse  sixe  terminations  se,  ses,  t,  siôns, 
siéz,  sent,  to  the  fyrst  parson  singular  of  the  indifQnit  tens  in  the  in- 
dicatyve  mode,  the  lernar  shal  forme  the  same  tens  in  the  subjunc- 
tive  mode,  in  ail  his  nombres  and  parsons,  as  of  ye  fis  is  formed  je 
fisse,  tu  fisses,  ilfist,  novs  fissions ,  uovs  fissiez,  Hz  fissent.  And  in  like 
wyse  of^e  recévs,  is  formed  ye  recévsse,  tu  recévsses,  il  recévst,  novs 
recevssiùns,  uovs  recevssiéz,  Hz  recévssent  :  and  oî  je  prins,  je  prinsse, 
tu  prinsses,  il  prinst,  novs  prinssiôns,  uovs  prinssiéz,  Hz  prinssent:  and  of 
je  tins,  je  tinsse,  ta  tinsses,  il  tinst,  novs  tinssions,  uovs  tinssiez,  Hz  tins- 
sent, kepynge  ever,  in  this  tens,  before  the  terminations,  the  vowell  of 
the  same  tense  in  the  indicatyve  mode  and  n  also ,  if  the  sayde  tense 
hâve  n. 

Régula  octava.  Eyght.  Of  the  présent  tens  of  the  imperative  mode  the  thirde 
parsons  singidar  and  plurel  be  ever  lyke  the  same  parsons  in  like 
tens  of  the  subjunctyve  mode,  and  the  fyrst  and  seconde  parsons  plu- 
rell  be  ever  lyke  the  same  parsons  of  like  tens  in  the  indicative  mode, 
so  that  onely  the  seconde  parson  singular  is  uncertayne.  Howe  be  it, 
for  the  most  part,  the  seconde  parson  singular  of  this  tens  is  like  the 
same  parson  of  the  présent  tens  in  the  indicatyve  mode  :  so  that  so 
often  as  the  seconde  parsone  singular  of  this  tens  is  like  the  same 
parson  of  the  présent  tens  in  the  indicatyve  mode,  1  shall,  in  the 
table  of  verbes,  leave  this  parsone  unrehersed,  remyttyng  the  lernar 
to  this  generall  rule  ;  and,  whan  he  differreth  from  the  sayd  seconde 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  97 

parson,  I  shal  expresse  hym  in  the  table  of  verbes  next  before  the 
infinitive  mode.  But  of  this  thyng  I  shall  in  my  annotacions  upon  this 
VIII  rule,  in  my  thirde  boke,  intreat  more  at  length.  So  that  after  the 
lernar  knowe  ones  that  the  seconde  parson  singidar  of  this  tense  is 
fay,  he  may  be  sure,  by  this  rule,  that  he  is  thus  conjugate/aj, /âce, 
faysons ,  faictéz ,  fàceni  :  And  in  like  wyse  dy,  dye,  disons,  dictez,  dfenf; 
pren,  préigne,  prennôns,  prennéz,  préignent. 

Nynth.  the  future  tense  of  the  imperative  mode  and  the  présent  Régula  nona. 
tens  of  the  optatyve  mode  be  ever  like  to  the  présent  tense  of  the 
subjunctive  mode;  and  the  undiffinite  tense  of  the  optatyve  mode  is 
lyke  the  same  tens  in  the  subjunctive  mode.  And  the  condicional 
mode ,  in  this  conjugation  ,  is  used  before  suche  and  so  many  tenses 
as  he  is  in  the  other  ii  conjugations  without  any  maner  change. 

Tenth.  the  présent  tens  of  the  infinitivemode  is  ever  also  uncertayne.    Régula  décima. 

APPROBATIONS    AND    APPLYENG    OF    THESE    TEN    GENERAL    RULES 
BY  THE   CONJUGATYNGE  OF  JE  PAYS. 

OF    THE    INDICATIVE    MODE. 
THE    PRESENT    TENS. 

Je  fais,  ta  fais,  il  fait,  novs  faisons,  aovs  faictéz,  Hz  font.  In  whiche 
tens  the  fyrst  parsone  singular  and  ail  the  m  parsons  plurei  be  un- 
certayne; andhowe  the  seconde  andthyrde  parsons  singular  be  formed 
appereth  in  the  fyrst  of  the  ten  generall  rules. 

THE    PRETER    IMPERFIT    TENSE. 

Jefaisôye,  tufaisôys,  ilfaisôyt,  novs  faisions ,  aovs  faisiez,  ilzfaisôyent. 
Whose  fyrst  parson  singular  is  formed  oi faisons,  whiche  is  the  first 
parson  plurei  of  the  présent  tense,  by  changyng  of  ons  into  oye.  And 
theother  parsons  be  varled  like  parlôye  or  conaertissôye ,  havyng  before 
oye,  oys,  oyt,  ions,  iéz,  ôyent,  the  vowel  or  consonant  that  commeth 
before  ons  in  the  sayd  fyrst  parson  plurei,  as  I  bave  declared  in  the 
seconde  of  the  x  generall  rules. 

i3 


98  LESCLARCISSEMENT 


THE    INDIFFINITE    TENSE. 


Je  fis  fia  fis,  il  fit,  novs  fisnies ,  uovsfistez,  Hz  firent.  Whose  fyrst  par- 
son  singular  only  is  uncertayne,  whlche  ones  knowen,  howe  the  re- 
sidue  of  bis  parsons  shiilde  be  formed  I  bave  siiffîciently  declared  in 
tbe  thyrde  of  tbe  x  generall  rules. 


THE  PRETER  PERFIT  TENSE. 


Jayfaict,  tu  asfaict,  il  a  f aie t,  novs  auônsfaict,  uovs  auézfaict,  Hz 
ontfaict.  Varyenge  onely  tbe  tenses  of^e  ay  and  kepyng  styll  tbe  par- 
ticiple  uncbanged,  as  I  bave,  in  tbe  fourlb  of  tbe  x  gênerai  rules  and 
also  in  tbe  rule  of  the  tbyrde  accident  of  verbes  actives  parsonal,  de- 
clared. 


THE    PRETERPLUSPERFIT    TENSE. 


Jauôye  faict ,  tu  auôysfaict,  il  auôytfaict,  novs  auiànsfaict,  aovs  aaiéz 
faicl,  Hz  auôyent  faict  y  accordyng  to  tbe  sayd  foiirtb  rule. 


THE     FUTURE    TENSE. 


Jeferày,  tu  feras,  il  fera,  novs  ferons,  uovs  ferez,  Hz  feront.  Wbose 
fyrst  parsone  singular  only  is  uncertayne,  wbicbe  ones  knowen,  ail 
tbe  otber  parsons  be  formed  lyke  parlerây,  puttyng  in  tbe  stede  of  ray 
Ibr  tbe  otber  parsons  ras,  ra,  rons,  rez  and  ront,  witb  sucbe  vowels 
and  consonantes  as  corne  before  ray  in  tbe  fyrst  parson  singular,  ac- 
cordyng as  I  bave  declared  in  tbe  fyft  of  tbe  x  gênerai  rules. 


OF    THE    SUBJUNGTYVE    MODE. 
THE    PRESENT    TENS. 


Que  je  face,  que  lu  faces,  (juilfàce,  que  novs  faciôns,  que  uovsfaciéZi 
quilz  fàcent.  Wbose  fyrst  parson  singular  onely  is  uncertayne,  wbicbe 
ones  knowen ,  bowe  the  residue  of  bis  parsons  sbulde  be  formed  I 
bave  sufficiently  declared  in  tbe  vi  of  tbe  x  gênerai  rules,  puttyng  ever 
before  es,  ions,  iéz  and  ent  sucbe  vowels  and  consonantes  as  come 
before  e  in  tbe  sayd  fyrst  parson  syngular. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANÇOISE.  99 


THE    INDÎFINITE    TENS. 


Que  je  fisse,  que  tu  fisses,  qu'il  fist,  que  novs  fissions ,  que  uovs  fissiez  t- 
quilz  fissent.  Whose  first  parson  singular  howe  he  is  ever  formed  of 
the  first  parson  singular  of  the  indiffinite  tense  of  the  indicative,  and 
to  suche  vowel  as  cometli  before  s  in  the  indicative  mode  addeth  se, 
ses,  st,  siôns  ,  siéz ,  sent,  I  hâve  in  the  vu  of  the  x  gênerai  rules  playnly 
declared. 


THE  PRETER  PERFIT  TENS. 


Que  jAye  faict ,  que  tu  àyesfaict,  quil  àyefaict,  que  novs  ayons  faict , 
que  uovs  ayez  faict,  qailz  àyent  faict,  conjugate  accordyng  as  I  hâve  in 
the  fourth  of  the  x  gênerai  rules  playnly  declared. 


THE    PHETERPLtJSPEHFlT    TENSE. 


Que  je  évsse  faict,  que  tu  évsses  faict,  quil  evst  faict,  que  novs  evssiôns 
faict,  que  uovs  evssiéz  faict ,  quilz  cvssent faict,  conjugate  accordyng  as 
in  the  sayde  fourth  rule  I  hâve  declared. 


THE    FDTLRE    TENSE. 


Que  je  avrày  faict,  que  tu  avrds  faict,  quil  avrà  faict,  que  novs  avrons 
faict,  que  uovs  avréz  faict,  quilz  avrônt  faict,  conjugate  accordynge  as 
I  hâve  in  the  sayd  fourth  rule  declared. 


OF    THE    POTENCIAL    MODE. 
THE    PRESENT    TENS. 


Jeferôye,  tuferoys,  il  feràyt,  novs  ferions,  uovs  feriez,  ilzferôyent, 
whose  fyrst  parson  singular  is  formed  of  the  fyrst  parson  singular  of 
the  future  tens  in  the  indicative  mode,  by  changyng  of  ray  into  roye; 
and  howe  he  kepeth  the  same  letter  before  rôye,  roys,  royt,  rions, 
riez,  rayent  that  the  sayde  future  hath  before  ray,  I  hâve  declared  in 
the  fyft  of  the  ten  generall  rules. 


i3. 


100  LESCLARCISSEMENT 


THE    PRETERPERFIT    TENSE. 


Javràje  faict ,  tu  avrôysfaict,  il  avrôytfaict,  nous  avriàns  faict ,  uovs 
avriéz  faict,  Hz  avrôy eut  faict,  conjugale  accordyng  as  I  hâve  in  the 
sayd  fourth  ruie  declared. 


OF    THE    IMPERATIVE    MODE. 
THE    PRESENT    TENSE. 


Fay  or  fay  tu,  face  or  face  il,  faysôns  or  faysùiis  novs,  faictéz  or 
faictéz  uovs,fàcent  or  fàcenl  Hz.  Whose  seconde  parson  singular  onely 
Is  uncertayne ,  and  the  thyrde  parsones  singuiar  and  plurell  lyke  the 
sanie  parsones  of  the  présent  tense  of  the  subjunctive  mode,  and  the 
fyrst  and  seconde  parson  phirell,  lyke  the  same  parsons  of  the  pré- 
sent tense  of  the  indlcatyve  mode ,  accordyng  as  I  hâve  in  the  eyght 
of  the  X  generall  rules  sufficiently  declared. 


THE    FUTDRE    TENSE. 

Que  je  face ,  que  tufâces,  quilfàce,  que  novs  facions ,  que  uovs  faciéz , 
quilzfâcent,  lyke  the  présent  tense  of  the  subjunctive  mode,  differyng 
only  in  signification  :  for,  in  the  one,  que  je  face  signifieth  that  I  do; 
and  in  the  other  :  let  me  do ,  accordyng  as  I  bave  in  the  nynth  of  the  x 
gênerai  rules  afore  declared. 

OF    THE    OPTATIVE    MODE. 
THE    PRESENT    TENSE. 

Bien  face  je ,  bien  faces  ta,  bien  face  il,  bien  facions  novs,  bien  faciéz 
uovs,  bien  fàcent  Hz,  in  ail  thyng  like  the  same  tense  of  the  subjunc- 
tive mode,  accordyng  as  I  hâve  touchedinthe  nynth  of  the  x  gênerai 
rules. 

THE    INDIFFINITE    TENSE- 

Bien  fisse  je,  bien  fisses  ta,  bien  fist  il,  bien  fissions  novs,  bien  fissiez 
uovs,  bien  fissent  Hz,  in  ail  thyng  like  the  same  tense  of  the  subjunc- 
tive mode,  accordynge  to  the  sayd  nynth  rule. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  101 

OF    THE    POTENTIALL    iMODE. 
THE    PRESENT    TENSE    LYKE    THE    PRESENT    OK    THE    INDICATIVE. 

Sijefays,  si  tafays,  silfait,  si  novs faisons ,  si  uovs  faictéz,  silzfont. 
And  so  sijefaisàye,  sijejys,  sijayfaict,  si  jauôye  faict ,  sijeferày,  si 
je  fisse,  si  jàye  faict,  si  je  évsse  faict,  si  javrây  faict,  sijeferôye,  sijav- 
rôye faict,  accordynge  as  the  englysshe  requireth,  puttynge  si  before 
ail  the  nombres  and  persons  of  the  sayd  tenses,  lyke  as  I  hâve  donc 
hère,  in  the  présent  tense  of  the  indicative  mode,  so  as  I  bave  declared 
in  the  nyntb  of  the  x  gênerai  rules. 

OF    THE    INFINITIVE    MODE. 
THE    PRESENT    TENSE. 

Faire ,  wiche  is  uncertayne ,  accordyng  as  I  dyd  in  the  x  rule 
touche. 

THE    PRETER    PIrRFIT    TENSË. 

Aaoyr faict,  accordyng  as  I  shewed  in  the  fourth  of  the  x  gênerai    Régula  prima. 
rules. 

So  that  by  thèse  x  gênerai  rules  and  applyeng  of  them ,  as  for 
exemple  to  the  conjugatyng  oî  je  fais,  appereth  that  in  some  verbes 
of  tbis  thirde  conjugation ,  there  be  vni  of  theyr  parsons ,  besides 
theyr  participle  prétérit  and  infinitive  mode,  whiche  can  nat  be 
brought  under  any  gênerai  rule  certayne.  But  for  to  conjugate  the 
most  part  of  ail  suche  verbes  as  be  conteyned  under  tbis  conjugation, 
it  shal  suffice  if  the  lernar  may  knowe  onely  v  of  theyr  parsons  besides 
theyr  said  participle  prétérit  and  infinitive  mode.  So  that,  thèse  vu 
wordes  or  at  the  most  x  ones  Icnowen,  the  lernar  may,  by  the  helpe 
of  thèse  said  x  gênerai  rules,  conjugate  every  verbe  of  tbis  conjuga- 
tion completely  through  the  residue  of  tbis  modes,  tenses,  nombres 
and  parsons,  like  as  I  bave  hère  done  je  fais.  Wherfore  in  this  thyng 
also  to  bryng  the  lernar  unto  a  certaynte,  in  the  table  of  verbes 
whiche  shalbe  in  the  thyrde  boke ,  so  often  as  any  verbe  of  this  con- 


■■*- 


Régula 
secunda. 


Recula  tertia. 


Régula   quarta. 


102  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

jugation  shal  afler  the  order  of  a  6' c  fortune  to  corne  in  place,  I  shal 
reherse  thèse  sayd  vu  wordes  or  x  at  the  most,  as  I  hâve  hère,  in 
the  said  x  gênerai  rules,  made  niencion  of  them  for  the  residue  of 
theyr  hole  conjugatyng;  remittyng  the  lernar  to  my  sayd  generall 
rules,  whiche  vvell  studied  I  am  certayne  shalbe  sufificient. 

And  note  that  there  is  none  of  the  sayd  x  gênerai  rules  so  univer- 
sally  certayne  but  that  some  fewe  exceptions  I  fynde  agaynst  them , 
as  shal  in  my  thyrde  boke,  whan  the  sayd  x  rules  come  in  place,  to 
be  spoken  of,  more  playnely  appere,  but  they  be  very  fewe.  And  so 
often  as  any  verbe  of  this  conjugation  shal  fortune  to  come  in  ques- 
tion ,  if  the  lernar  do  resort  to  the  table  of  verbes,  he  shal  there  fynde 
al  suche  exceptions  as  far  as  concerneth  to  that  verbe  set  oui  in  or- 
der. But,  to  be  certayne  of  this  thyng  through  al  the  verbes  of  the 
tong,  let  the  lernar  resort  to  myn  annotations  upon  thèse  x  generall 
rules  in  the  thyrde  boke,  and  he  shall  there  clerely  be  satisfied  of 
al  thyng  that  concerneth  the  perfection  of  the  tonge  in  this  behaife. 

Note  also  that  thèse  m  conjugations  be  so  utterly  distinct  amonge 
them  selfe  that  there  is  no  verbe  that  hath  his  tenses  sometyme  like 
one  of  them  and  somtyme  lyke  an  other,  save  onely  je  ménge  I  eate , 
whiche  through  al  his  other  tenses  beyng  conjugale  like  je  parle , 
maketh  for  his  indiffinit  tenses  ye  mengàs,  whiche  I  fynde  writteny'e 
mengévs,  and  que  je  mengùsse  or  mengévsse  conjugale  like  the  thyrde 
conjugation,  where,  if  he  folowed  the  rule,  he  shulde  make  je  mengày 
or  je  mangeày,  and  je  mengàsse  ormengeàsse;  and  je  meaccôrs,  whiche 
in  his  présent  tenses  of  the  indicative  mode  and  imperative  mode 
foloweth  the  thirde  conjugation  ;  in  al  his  other  tenses  he  is  conjugale 
like  je  me  fie,  &nd  je  parle.  And  a  fewe  other  wherof  I  shal  make  men- 
tion in  my  thyrde  boke,  in  my  annotations  upon  this  note. 

Note  also  that,  as  far  as  I  bave  hitherto  noted,  there  is  no  verbe 
active  parsonai  in  this  tong  but  he  hath  as  many  sondry  modes, 
tenses,  nombres  and  parsons  as  je  parle,  je  conaertys  a.nd  je  fais  bave, 
excepte  je  sévis  l  am  wont,  andjensevelys  I  buried  :  whiche  howe  many 
modes  and  tenses  they  hâve  1  shall  hère  expresse. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  103 

OF  THE  INDICATIVE  MODE. 
THE    PRESENT    TENSE. 

Je  sevh,  tu  sevls.  il  sevlt,  nous  savions,  vous  saviez,  Hz  sevlent.  lam  wont. 

THE    PRETER    PERFIT    TENSE. 

Je  savlàye  forined  of  savions  after  the  seconde  of  the  x  gênerai  rules.      i  was  wont. 

THE    INDIFFINITE    TENSE. 

Je  sovlàs,  lu  sovlàs,  il  sovlùt,  novs  sovlùsmes,  vovs  sovlustéz,  ils  sov-      Iwaswont. 
lurent. 

THE  INKINITYVE   MODE. 

Savlôyr. 

And  mo  tenses,  nombres  or  parsons  this  verbe  hatb  nat;  so  that  for     To  be  wonte. 
I  bave  be  wont,  I  bad  be  wont,  and  I  sbalbe  wont,  they  say  jay  aprins 
or  jay  acovstamé ,  jaaôye  aprins,  and  so  forth  in  otber  modes,  borow- 
ynge  tbe  tenses  of  je  ay  and  tbese  participles  aprins  or  acovstamé. 

OF  THE  INDICATYVE  AND  SUBJUNCTIVE  MODES. 
THE    INDIFFINITE    TENSE. 

Je  enseuelis,  ta  enseuelis,  il  enseuelit,  novs  enseuelismes ,  uovs  enseue-        iburied. 
listez,  Hz  enseuelirent.  Que  jenseuelisse ,  que  tu  enseuelissis. 

THE    PHETERPEHFIT    AND    Pl.USPEBFIT    TENSES    THHOUG     ALI.    THE    MODES. 

^s  jay  ensevcly,  jaaôye  enseaely,  que  jàye  enseaely,  que  jévsse  ense-    l  hâve  or  haddt 
uely,  que  javray  enseaely,  javroye  enseaely. 

THE  JNFINITIVE  MODE.  Toburie. 

Ensevelir. 

So  tbat  for  the  other  tenses  they  use  the  tenses  of  ^c  enterre, 
whiche  is  of  tbe  fyrst  conjugation. 

And  therfore  of  ail  tbe  verbes  actives  personall  I  cali  onely  tbese 
twayne  in  the  frencbe  tong  verbes  defectives. 

Note  also  that  tbe  mean  sillables  of  verbes,  natwithstandyng  theyr     Régula quima. 


Régula  sexta. 


104  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

conjugalyng,  remayne  ever  unchanged,  save  that  certayne  verbes  of 
the  fyrst  conjugation  change  ev  of  theyr  présent  tens  into  ov,  like  as 
I  hâve  afore  touched,  as^e  plèvre,  je  dcmévre,  je  trévue ;  nous  plovrùns, 
nous  demovrôns,  nous  trovuons,  and  so  kepyng  ov  through  ail  theyr 
conjugatyng  beside.  Except  also  certayne  verbes  of  the  thyrde  conju- 
gation whiche  in  some  tenses  bave  a,  and  in  some  e,  as  ye  apérs, 
je  apparôye,  j apparus,  jay  apparu,  je  apperày,  que  jappére,  and  fewe 
lyke,  of  whiche  in  the  thyrde  boke  I  wyl  speke  in  this  place  more 
at  length. 

Note  also  that  for  so  moche  as  thèse  m  verbes  je  aevlx  I  wil ,  je 
puis  I  may,  and^e  doits  I  owe,  come  often  in  use  in  this  tong,  and 
that  in  the  formation  of  some  of  theyr  parsons  they  do  alter  from 
the  X  gênerai  rules,  and  farthermore  want  somtyme  of  theyr  parsons, 
and  somtyme  a  hole  mode,  like  as  the  verbes  defectives  in  this  tong 
do,  I  thinke  it  necessarie  to  shewe  hère  in  this  place  howe  thèse 
sayd  III  verbes  be  conjugate,  where  it  shalbe  requisit,  conjugatyng 
tliem  at  the  length,  and  where  as  they  folowe  the  sayd  x  gênerai 
rules,  to  remit  the  lernar  to  them. 


OF    THE    INDICATIVE    MODE. 


I  wy». 

I  dyd  wyl. 
I  wolde. 

I  hâve  wyld. 
I  sha)  wil. 


Je  uveil  or  je  aevlx,  ta  uevlx,  il  aevlt,  novs  uovlôns,  uovs  aovléz, 
Hz  uévllent. 

Je  uovlàye,  formed  of  uovlôns,  conjugate  lyke  parlôye. 

Je  uovlûs,  ta  uovlàs,  il  uovlàt,  novs  uovlùsmes,  uovs  uovlustéz,  Hz 
uov  lurent. 

Jay  uovlu,  jauôye  aovlû ,  lyke  jay  parlé  jauôye  parlé. 

Je  uovldrày,  tu  uovldràs,  etc.  kepyng  d  before  the  terminations  of 
this  tense. 


OF    THE    SCBJCNCTIVE    MODE. 


That  I  wyll.  Que  je  uveille,  que  tu  uveilles,  qu'il  uveîlle,  que  novs  uveillôns,  etc. 

Thaiiwylled.         Que  je  uovlsisse ,  whiche,   if  be   folowed  the  rule,  shulde   make 

uovlùsse,  conjugate  uovhisses,  uovlsist,  uovlsissiôns ,  uovlsissiéz,  uovlsissent. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRAKCOYSE.  105 

Que  jàye  aovlû,  etc.  que  jévsse  uovlà  etc.  que  javrày  uovlà  etc.  lyke      Thatihave 
as  m  other  verbes. 

OF  THE  POTENCIAL  MODE. 

Je  uovldrôye  formed  of  uovldrày,  conjugate  lyke  parlerôye,  javrôye        i  wolde. 
uovlû,  etc.  , 

OF  THE  IMPERATIVE  MODE. 

Uevlx,  uveille,  uovlôns,  uovléz,  uveillent.  Wyll. 

Que  je  uveille,  que  lu  uveilles,  qu'il  uveille,  que  novs  uveilliôns,  que     Let  me  wiH. 
aovs  uveilliéz,  qu'ils  uveillent. 

OF  THE  OPTATIVE  MODE. 

Diev  uveille,  uovlsist  Dieu,  used  onely  in  the  thyrde  parsones  sin-       God  wyl. 

gular.  Wolde  to  God. 

And  of  the  condicional  mode  is  no  difficulté. 

THE    INFINITIVE    MODE. 

Uovloir  and  auoyr  uovlà.  To  wyl. 

OF  THE  indicative  MODE. 

Je  puys  or  je  pevlx,  tu  puys,  il  pevlt,  novs  povôns,  nous  povéz,  Hz         i  may. 
pévuent. 

Je  povôye,  etc.  je  pevs,  tu  pevs,  il  pevt,  nous  peusmes,  uous  pevstéz,       idydmow, 

,  ormyght. 

ils  pevrent. 

Jay  pev,  etc.  jauôye  peu,  etc.  je  povrrdy,  etc.  ihavemowe. 


OF  the  subjcnctyve  mode. 

THE  PRESENT  TENS  (wanteth). 

The  indiffinite  shulde  make  je  pévsse,  and  so  Alayn  Chartier  and        i  myght, 
Frossart  useth  theym  :  but  I  fynde  more  in  use  je  puysse,  tu  puysses,  myght. 

ilpuist  or  pufsse,  etc.  que  je  aye  pev,  etc.  que  j  eusse  pev ,  etc.  que  javrày 
pev,  etc. 

OF  THE  POTENTIALL  MODE. 

Je  pourrùye,  etc.  je  avrôye  pev,  etc.  Ishuide  mowe. 

i4 


106  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

THE  IMPERATIVE  MODE   (wanteth). 

OF  THE  OPTATIVE  MODE. 

THE    PRESENT    TENSE    (wanteth). 
THE    INDIFFINITE. 

Welmighti.  Bien  puisse  je,  bien  puisses  ta,  bien  paisse  il,  bien  puissions  novs,  etc. 

THE  INFINITIVE  MODE. 

To  mowe.  Povuoyr  and  auoyr  pev. 

OF  THE  INDICATIVE  MODE. 

lowe.  Je  doybs,  tu  doybs,  il  doybt,  novs  deaàns,  aovs  deuéz,  ils  dôyuent. 

I  ought.  Je  deuôye,  etc.  je  devs,  ta  devs,  il  devt,  novs  dévsmes,  aovs  déustez, 

ils  devrent. 

Jay  dev,  etc.  jaaôye  dev. 
I  shal  owe.  Je  deuerày,  tu  deueràs,  etc. 

OF  THE  SUBJONCTIVE  MODE. 

Thaï  I  owe.  Que  je  dôye,  que  tadôyes,  qu'il  dôye,  que  novs  doyiôns,  que  aovs  doyiéz, 

qu'ils  dôyent. 
Thati  ought  Que  je  dévsse,  que  tu  dévsses,  quil  devst,  que  novs  devssiôns,  etc. 

Que  jàye  dev,  etc.  que  jévsse  dev,  etc.  que  javrày  dev,  que  tu  avràs 
dev,  etc. 

OF  THE  POTENCIAL  MODE. 

ishuideowe.         Je  deaerôye ,  tu  deaerôys,  etc.  javrôye  dev,  tu  avrôys  dev,  etc.... 

THE  IMPERATIVE  MODE  AND  OPTATIVE. 

Come  seldome  or  never  in  use.  If  they  do,  howe  they  be  formed 
appereth  in  the  x  generall  rides. 

THE  INFINITIVE  MODE. 

To  owe.  Debuoyr  and  auoyr  dev. 

Régula sepiima.  Nole  also  that  generally  through  eut  al  this  tong  ail  maner  verbes, 
whether  they  be  actives  or  meanes,  kepe  through  altheyr  modes,  tenses, 
nombres  and  parsons,  one  selfe  letter  at  theyr  begynnyng,  howe  so 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  107 

ever  theyr  latter  terminations  be  varied ,  for  expressyng  of  theyr  di- 
verse modes,  tenses  and  parsons.  So  that  the  selfe  letter  ihat  the  fyrst 
parsone  of  the  présent  tense  in  the  indicative  mode  hath,  the  selfe 
letter  is  kept  through  out  al  his  conjugatyng.  Except  onely  m ,  je  ay 
I  hâve  ;  je  men  uas  I  go  ;  and  je  svis  I  am ,  of  whiche  howe  je  ay  alte- 
reth  his  fyrst  letter  a  into  o  and  e,  shallhere  by  his  conjugatynge  ap- 
pere,  differryng  to  speke  of  the  other  twayne,  tyll  I  shall  come  to 
speke  of  verbes  meanes  and  verbes  passives  in  this  tong. 

THE  CONJUGATYNG  OF  JE  ^K  I  HAVE. 

Je  ay,  ta  as,  il  a,  novs  auôns,  uovs  aaéz,  Hz  ont.  i  hâve. 

Je  auôye,  tu  auôys,  il  aaôyt,  novs  aaiôns,  aovs  auiéz,  Hz  auôyent.  i  had. 

Je  evs,  ta  evs,  il  evt,  novs  évsmes,  uovs  évstez,  Hz  évrent.  i  had. 

Jay  ev,  ta  as  eu,  il  a  ev,  etc.,  je  auôye  ev,  ta  auôys  ev,  il  aaôyt  ev,  etc.  i  bave  had. 

Je  avrày,  tu  avràs,  il  avrà,  novs  avrôns,  aovs  avréz,  Hz  avrônt.        •  ishalhave. 

Que  je  âye,  que  tu  àyes,  quil  ayt  or  quil  àye  (for  I  fynde  both  in  That  F  hâve. 
use),  que  novs  ayons,  que  uovs  ayez,  qailz  àyent. 

Que  jévsse,  que  ta  évsses,  quil  evst,  que  novs  evssiôns,  que  uovs  evs-  That  i  had. 
siéz,  qailz  évssent. 

Que  j àye  ev,  que  tu  àyes  ev,  quil  ayt  ev,  etc.,  que  je  évsse  ev,  que  tu  Thatlshai 

;  •/        t  i  ■  '  1  t  •!  '  have  had. 

evsses  ev,  qail  evst  ev,  etc.  que  je  avray  ev,  que  ta  avras  ev,  qau  avra 
ev,  etc. 

Je  avrôye,  tu  avrôys,  il  avrôyt,  novs  avriôns,  aovs  avriéz,  Hz  avrôyent.      i  shuldhave. 

Que  je  avrôye  ev,  que  tu  avrôys  ev,  etc. 

Ay  tu,  ayt  il,  auôns,  auéz,  àyent.  Have. 

Que  je  àye,  que  ta  àyes,  quil  ayt,  que  novs  ayons,  que  uovs  ayez,     Letmehave. 
quilz  àyent. 

Bien  àye,  bien  àyes,   bien  ayt  or  bien  àye,  etc.  bien  évsse,   bien      Wel  myght 
eusses,  etc.  '  '"'^''■ 

Si  je  ay,  si  je  auôye,  si  je  evs,  si  jay  ev,  etc.  iflhave. 

Auofr,  aaojr  eu.  To  have. 

Note   also  that,  though  the  Latins  have  many  other  sortes  of    Régula  octava. 
verbes  personnalles,  besydes  actives,  as  neuters,  déponentes,  com- 

i4. 


108  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

mons,  neutre,  passives  and  suche  other,  in  this  tong  I  comprehende 
al  maner  verbes  personals  under  the  verbe  active  or  the  meane  :  and 
yet  ail  theyr  meane  verbes  foiowe  one  of  thèse  m  conjugations ,  as 
shall  hère  after  immediatly  appere.  For  ail  theyr  verbes  passives  be 
circumlocuted  with  the  tenses  of  ^e  svis,  and  theyr  participle  prété- 
rit (whiche  I  therfore  may  also  call  passyve)  havyng  no  maner  con- 
jugation  propre  unto  themselfe ,  like  as  the  prêter  perfit  and  plusper- 
fit  tenses,  with  the  futm-e  of  the  subjunctive  mode  of  al  theyr  verbes 
actives  be  circumlocuted  with  the  tenses  of  ye  ay  and  the  same  par- 
ticiple, and  hâve  unto  them  no  conjugatyng  propre,  as  the  other 
tenses  bave.  So  that  havyng  well  thèse  iii  verbes, ye  parle,  je  conuer- 
tys,je  fais  and  the  x  gênerai  rules  hère  afore  rehersed,  the  iernar 
may  be  sure  howe  to  conjugate  ail  the  verbes  personnalles  of  this 
tonge  wherof  I  bave  nat  hère  made  expresse  mencion;  for  eyther 
they  be  comprehended  under  the  fyrst  and  seconde  conjugations, 
and  than  thexamples  of  je  parle  and  je  conuertp  is  sufEcient  to  con- 
jugate them  by:  orels  they  be  comprehended  under  the  thyrde  con- 
jugation,  and  than  havyng  vu  wordes  or  at  the  most  x  wordes  that 
be  uncertayne,  whiche  the  lerner  shalbe  sure  to  fynde  out  in  the 
table  of  verbes,  thèse  sayd  x  gênerai  rules  and  example  of  je  fays 
shall  sufficiently  helpe  hym  in  ail  them  :  for  if  any  verbe  happen  in 
some  one  parsone  or  tense  to  be  excepted,  whiche  be  very  fewe,  I 
shal  in  the  sayd  table,  whan  I  reherce  the  sayd  vu  or  x  wordes, 
make  there  of  also  expresse  mention  at  length ,  and  nowe  to  speke  of  the 
residue  of  the  x  accidentes  belongyng  to  verbes  actives  parsonalles. 


THE    vu   ACCIDENT. 


Formation.  For  somtyme  verbes  be  formed  of  substantyves,  as  of 
mérite  mériter,  of  mur  emmurer,  terre  enterrer,  of  pôvldre  empovldrér,  of 
chemyn  cheminer,  of  bras  embrasser,  and  suche  lyke.  Some  be  formed 
of  adjectives,  as  of  blanche  blanchjr,  nofre  noyrcfr,  rôvge  rovgir,  gâvne 
gavnîr,  dôvlce  adovlcyr,  meisgre  ameisgrir. 
Régula  prima.         And  notc  that,  for  the  most  part,  ail  suche  in  oiu"  tong  be  circum- 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  109 

locuted  with  «  I  make  »  or  «  I  wax  »  and  our  adjective,  as  blanchyrï  make 
or  waxe  whyte  :  Noyrcîrlmake  orwaxe  blacke,  as  I  hâve  afore  touched 
whan  I  shewed  that  al  suche  verbes  were  of  the  seconde  conjugation, 
Some  be  formed  of  adverbes,  as  of  près  approvchér,  of  loyng  es- 
loyngnér. 


THE  VIII  ACCIDENT. 


Composition.  For  some  be  symple  and  nat  compounde  of  any  other 
worde,  as  dyre,  faire,  mettre,  aeoyr,  ovyr,  seôyr,  dormfr,  and  suche  iike. 
Some  be  compoimde  with  an  imperfit  worde  whiche  by  hymselfe 
signifieth  nothyng  in  the  frenche  tong  and  yet  greatly  altreth  the 
verbe  from  bis  signification  whan  he  is  a  simple,  as  mes  and  for; 
whiche  in  our  tong  we  also  use,  save  that  we  call  mes  mys,  as  dire 
is  to  say,  mesdire  to  myssay  '.faire  to  do,  mesfaire  to  mysdo;  not  that 
before  ail  verbes  we  maye  put  mes,  but  where  soever  he  is  thus  used, 
he  thus  altreth  the  signification  of  the  simple; /or,  as  faire  to  do,  for- 
faire  to  forfait  or  fordo;  clorre  to  schutte , /orc/orre  to  schutte  ont  or 
forschut. 

And  note  that  thèse  sortes  of  composicion  be  more  used  in  the         Régula. 
Romant  of  the  Rose  and  of  Alayn  Chartier  than  they  be  of  suche  as 
hâve  written  syth  theyr  tyme. 

Some  be  compounde  of  substantives  comynge  before  them,  as 
mayntenyr  to  mayntayne.  Some  be  compounde  of  adjectives  com- 
mynge  before  them.  Some  be  compounde  of  preposicions  commynge 
before  them,  as  entendre,  soabzméttre ,  povraeoir,  contredire.  As  for  ins- 
tavrér,  conclàrre,  attendre,  substituer  be  holbly  taken  out  of  the  latin 
tong,  and  ai  suche  hâve  ever  hke  signification  in  this  tong  as  they 
bave  in  latin. 

Some  be  compounde  of  adverbes  commynge  before  them ,  as  mal- 
dire to  curse,  bienuiegnér  to  welcome. 

THE  IX   ACCIDENT. 

Addyng  of  syllabicall  adjections  in  affirmation  and  négation. 


110  LESCLARCISSEMENT 


IN    AFFIRMATION. 


For  often  tymes  they  put  en  next  before  theyr  verbes,  whan  they 
affirme  a  thyng  to  be  done,  whan  he  signifieth  nothyng,  but  onely  is 
as  a  signe  of  affirmation  used  rather  to  make  the  sentence  more  fuUe 
in  soimde  to  the  eare  than  for  any  nécessite.  And  yet  before  some 
verbes  they  use  hym  twyse  for  the  sayd  consyderation ,  as  :  uovs  en 
avréz,  nen  parlez  plus,  il  sen  est  en  cille,  il  sen  est  en  fovy,  and  suche 
lyke,  where  the  sence  is  alone  if  I  leave  en  out  and  say  :  aovs  avréz, 
ne  parlez  plus,  il  sest  allé,  il  sestfovy. 


IN    NEGACION. 


For,  where  as  they  put  ne  before  theyr  verbes,  so  often  as  they 
expresse  négation ,  like  as  we  use  «  nat  »  in  our  tong  aftec  oiu"  verbes. 
They  put  also  after  theyr  verbes  pas,  poynt  or  mye,  whiche  of  theym- 
selfe  signifye  nothyng,  but  onely  be  as  signes  of  négation. 
Régula.  Howe  be  it,  it  is  nat  in  the  spekars  pleasure  to  use  one  of  the 

sayd  III  wordes  or  nat,  lyke  as  it  is  of  en  in  theyr  affirmations,  for  in 
maner  there  is  no  verbe  that  hath  ne  afore  hym,  but  he  must  hâve 
eyther  pas,  poynt  or  mye  after  hym. 

And  note  that  betwene  pas  and  poynt  is  no  maner  différence,  but 
it  is  in  the  spekars  or  writtars  élection  whether  he  wyll  use  the  one 
or  the  other,  but  as  for  mfe  is  an  olde  Rommant  worde  and  nowe 
out  of  use  where  the  ryght  frenche  is  spoken. 


THE    X    ACCIDENT. 


Order.  Différent  from  our  tonge  in  interrogations;  for  where  as 
we,  whan  we  aske  a  question  of  a  nowne  substantive,  whether  he 
betoken  a  propre  name  or  nat,  use  in  maner  ever  to  put  the  sayd  sub- 
stantive as  the  last  worde  of  the  interrogation,  as  :  whyther  goeth  the 
king?  Where  is  Charles?  Is  my  gowne  clene.»*  Hâve  you  sadled  my 
horse  ?  In  the  frenche  tonge  they  name  the  substantyve  fyrst  and 
demande  theyr  question  of  hym  afterwarde,  as  le  roy  ou  sen  ua  il? 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  111 

Charles  ou  est  il?  Ma  robe  est-elle  nette?  Mon  cheval  lavez  aovs  selle? 
And  though  this  order  be  sometyme  broken,  the  surer  way  is,  for 
savyng  the  right  grâce  of  the  tong,  to  use  suche  order  in  questions 
demaunded  by  substantives  as  I  bave  hère  shewed.  How  be  it  in 
questions  demaunded  by  pronownes,  the  pronowne  in  the  frenche 
sentence  is  ever  the  last  worde,  whether  he  be  se  in  our  tong  or  nat, 
as  :  whither  go  you?  Ou  allez  uous?  Whan  shal  he  corne  ?  Quant  uien- 
drâ  il  ?  Where  dwell  they  ?  Ou  demévrent  Hz  ?  Howe  be  it  they  say  for 
is  he  come  ?  est  il  uenà  ?  Ant  therfore  more  certaynly  I  differ  to  speke 
of  this  malter  tyl  I  shall  come  in  the  thyrde  boke  in  this  place. 

OF  THE  VERBES  MEANES. 

Whiche  be  verbes  meanes,  in  this  tong,  I  bave  in  a  generalte  al  re- 
dy  declared,  imto  whom  1  bave  gyven  this  name  for  ii  causes.  One  for 
so  moche  as  determynatly  they  betoken  neytlier  action  nor  passion, 
for,  where  as  the  doar  and  sufferer  ought  to  be  distinct  parsons,  the 
acte  of  thèse  verbes  retourneth  ever  to  the  doar  agayne.  An  other  for, 
where  as  of  every  veriie  whiche  signifieth  an  acte  to  be  done  without 
forth  may  be  circumlocuted  a  passive  with  the  tenses  oî  je  svis  and 
theyr  participle  prétérit,  whiche  shal  in  dede  betoken  sufferyng  by 
the  act  of  some  parson  without  forth ,  in  suche  verbes  as  be  meanes 
we  can  nat  do  so.  But  thèse  thynges  shal  in  the  thirde  boke  in  this 
place  more  playnly  appere.  Howe  be  it  some  thynge  more  playnely 
hère  to  shewe  the  lemar  howe  he  shall  knowe  suche  verbes  as  in  the 
frenche  tong  be  used  as  meanes. 

In  maner  generally  ail  suche  verbes  as  signifie  a  parsone  to  do         Régula. 
an  acte  eyther  with  bis  mynde,  hole  body  or  any  part  therof,  of 
whiche  the  dede  retourneth  to  the  doar  selfe  agayne,  and  betoken 
none  acte  to  passe  from  hym  without  forth ,  al  suche  verbes  in  this 
tong  be  used  as  meanes. 

EXAMPLE  OF  SUCHE  VERBES  AS  SIGNIFIE  THE  ACTES  OF  THE  MYNDE. 

I  marvayle,  I  wonder,  I  trust,  I  dispaire,  I  rejoyce,  I  take  though. 


112  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

I  doubt,  I  agrée,  I  consent,  I  complayne,  I  waxe  angrye,  I  waxe  sorie, 
I  waxe  prowde,  and  in  maner  ail  suche  verbes  as  signifie  any  passion 
of  pleasure  or  displeasure  to  the  mynde. 

EXAMPLE  OF  SUCHE  VERBES  AS  SIGNIFIE  THE  ACTES  OF  THE  HOLE  BODV. 

I  lye  dovme ,  I  aryse ,  I  bowe  downe ,  I  stande  up ,  I  go ,  I  walke , 
I  move ,  I  flye  away,  I  dye ,  I  ryse  from  dethe ,  and  in  maner  al  suche 
verbes  as  signifie  the  hole  body  to  be  in  occupacion ,  and  the  acte  ta- 
keth  bis  effect  in  the  body  selfe. 

EXAMPLE  OF  SUCHE  VERBES  AS  SIGNIFIE  THE  PARTICULAR  ACTES 
OF  THE  PARTES  OF  ON  ES  BODY. 

I  mocke ,  I  laugh ,  I  syt  downe ,  I  leane ,  I  knele ,  I  holde  my  peace , 
I  crye  out,  Ifi^owne,  and  suche  lyke.  Whiche  verbes  greatly  differ 
from  I  see,  I  heere,  I  feele,  I  smell,  I  bandel,  I  pusshe,  I  stryke,  I 
beholde,  I  call,  and  suche  other,  though  thèse  actes  be  also  donc 
with  the  partes  of  ones  body.  For  the  fyrst  signifie  none  acte  to  passe 
from  the  doar  without  forth,  and  the  other  betoken  that  there  is 
some  other  thyng  that  is  seen,  herd,  felt,  smelled,  handled,  pus- 
shed,  stryken,  behelde  or  called.  But  for  so  moche  as  this  rule  is 
nat  so  utteiiy  gênerai,  but  that  I  fynde  exceptions  in  al  thèse  sayd 
III  sortes  of  verbes  :  for  I  fyndy'e  pénce,  je  songe,  je  monte,  je  descéns 
and  certayne  other  whiche,  thoughe  they  signifie  the  actes  of  the 
mynde  or  body  and  betoken  no  dede  without  forth ,  yet  they  be  ever 
used  in  this  tonge  as  actives.  And  farther  more  that,  where  as  we 
hâve  one  worde,  the  frenchemen  use  circumlocution  and  somtyme 
contrary,  where  we  use  circumlocution,  the  frenchemen  bave  one 
onely  worde,  as  where  we  say  «  I  stande,  »  they  say^e  me  tiens  debout: 
and  where  we  say  «  I  holde  my  peace ,  »  they  say  :  je  me  iays. 

To  brynge  the  lernar  out  of  ail  maner  doubtes  whiche  verbes  in 
this  tong,  besydes  them  that  I  bave  hère  rehersed,  be  used  as  meanes 
and  whiche  nat,  and  also  whiche  be  circumlocuted  and  whiche  be 
expressed  by  one  onely  worde,  I  shall  more  playnely  déclare  this 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  113 

thynge  in  the  thyrde  boke  in  this  place ,  but  specially  in  the  table  of 
verbes,  where  after  the  order  of  a,  b,  c,  so  often  as  any  verbe  of 
our  tong  shall  fortune  to  corne  in  place,  it  sball  appere  in  the  frenche 
verbe  nat  onely  what  conjugation  he  is  of,  but  also  wbether  he  be 
used  in  theyr  tong  as  a  meane  or  nat,  and  wbether  he  be  circumlo- 
cuted  in  our  tong  or  in  theyrs ,  orels  be  expressed  in  both  the  tonges 
or  in  one  of  them  by  one  onely  worde. 

Verbes  meanes  bave  xi  accidentes ,  of  whiche  ix  be  suche  and  the 
selfe  same  that  verbes  actives  bave,  that  is  to  say,  mode,  tense, 
nombre,  parson,  conjugation,  formation,  composicion,  addynge  of 
syllabicall  adjections  and  order  différent  from  our  tong  in  interro- 
gations. 

In  the  thyrde  accident,  that  is  to  say,  circumlocutynge  of  the  prê- 
ter tenses  they  difFer  moche  from  verbes  actives  :  for  where  as  verbes 
actives  circumlocute  theyr  preterperfit  and  plus  perfit  tenses  throughe 
ail  theyr  modes,  and  the  future  tense  of  the  subjunctive  mode,  with 
the  tenses  oïje  ay  and  the  participle  prétérit ,  ail  verbes  meanes  cir- 
cumlocute ail  the  same  tenses  with  the  tenses  of  Je  sais,  and  the  same 
participle  with  a  farther  différence  also.  For  where  as  the  participle 
prétérit,  joyned  to  the  tenses  oîje  ay,  remayneth  in  maner  ever  un- 
changed,  as  I  bave  afore  in  the  fyrst  note  of  the  thyrde  accident  be- 
longynge  to  verbes  actives  alredy  declared,  whan  he  is  joyned  to  the 
tenses  oi je  suis,  he  altretli  bis  gender  and  nombre,  accordyng  to  the 
gender  and  nombre  of  the  nominatyve  case  that  governeth  the  sayd 
tenses  oije  sais. 

And  note  that,  though  the  tenses  o(je  sais  beof  farre  différent  si-         Régula, 
gnification  from  the  tenses  of  je  ay,  yet  so  often  as  any  of  his  tenses 
is  put  before  a  participle  of  a  meane  verbe ,  they  bave  the  selfe  same 
signification  that  the  tenses  of  jfe  ay  bave,  as  shal  hère  after  in  theyr 
conjugatynge  playnely  appere. 

The  XI  accident,  by  whiche  also  they  differ  from  verbes  actives,  is 
doublyng  of  the  pronowne ,  for  in  token  that  the  act  of  ail  suche  verbes 
retorneth  to  the  doar  agayne,  they  put  for  the  most  part  before  every 


114  LESCLARGISSEMENT 

of  theyr  fyrst  and  seconde  parsons  the  accusative  case  of  the  pro- 
nowne  that  governeth  them,  and  before  ihe  thyrde  parsons  as  well 
singular  as  plurel  se,  what  soever  pronowne  or  substantive  be  nomi- 
natife  case  to  any  suche  verbe  :  whiche  thyng  playnely  by  example  to 
déclare  unto  tbe  lernar  I  shali  bere  immediatly  conjugale  yV  me  fie, 
je  meeshahfs,  and  je  menfufs. 
Régula.  Notyng  first  that,  though  I  double  the  pronowne  before  every 

parson  of  them  for  exemple,  I  fynde  them  many  tymes  used  withoiit 
any  suche  doublyng  and  in  ail  thynges  lyke  actives,  especially  in 
theyr  fyrst  and  seconde  parsons  :  but  in  theyr  thyrde  parsons  of  both 
the  nombres  I  fynde  them  very  seldome  used  without  se  before  them, 
as  I  shal  in  the  thyrde  boke  in  this  place  more  playnely  déclare. 

THE  CONJUGATVNG  OR  JE  ME  FIE.  WHOSE  FINAL  TERMfNATIONS  ARE 

CHANGE  D  AFTER  JE  PARLE, 

AND  ARE  LYKE  THE  FIRST  CONJUGATION  OF  VERBES  ACTYVES. 


I  trust. 


I  dyd  trust. 


I  trasted. 


1  hâve  trasted. 


1  hâve  trusted. 


OF    THE    INDICATIVE    MODE. 
THE    PRESENT    TENSE. 


Je  me  fie,  tu  te  fies,  il  se  fie,  novs  novs  fions,  uovs  uovs  fiez,  Hz  se 
fient. 


THE    PRETER    IMPERFITE    TENSE. 


Je  me  fiôye,  ta  te  fiôyes,  ilsefiàyt,  novs  novs  fijàns ,  uovs  uovsfijéz,  Hz 
sefiàyent. 

THE    INDIFPINITE    TENSE. 

Je  mefdy,  ta  tefiàs,  ilsefià,  novs  novsfiàsmes,  uovs  uovsfiastéz,  Hz 
se  fièrent. 

THE    PRETER    PERFITE    TENSE    MASCULINE. 

Je  me  suis  fie,  tu  ten  es  fie,  il  sen  est  fie,  novs  novs  sommes  fiez,  uovs 
uovs  estez  fiez,  Hz  sen  sont  fiez. 

THE  PRETER  PERFIT  TENSE  FEMININE. 

Je  me  suis  fiée,  tu  ten  es  fiée,  elle  sen  est  fiée,  novs  novs  sommes  fiées, 
uovs  uovs  estez  fiées,  elles  sen  sont  fiées. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  115 

And  note  that  the  preterperfit  and  the  preterplusperfit  tenses  of  Régula. 
al  meane  verbes,  and  the  future  tense  of  the  subjunctive  mode  varye 
theyr  participle,  accordynge  as  I  bave  afore  shewed  by  rule,  and  hère 
declared  by  example  :  and  therfore  in  the  other  tenses,  by  cause  of 
brevite ,  1  wyl  shew  onely  howe  the  fyrst  parsons  alter  theyr  gender 
and  nombre. 


THE    PRETEK    PLUSPERFIT    TENSE. 


Je  mestôyefie,  tu  testôyesfie,  il  sestùytfîe,  novs  novs  estions  fiéz,  uovs    i  hadde  tmsted. 
uovs  estiez  fiez,  Hz  sestàyent  fiéz.  Je  mestôye  fiée ,  novs  novs  estions  fiéez. 


THE    FUTURE    TENSE. 


Je  mefierày,  tu  te  fieras,  il  se  fiera,  novs  novs  fierons,  uovs  uovs  fierez,      isbal  trust. 
Hz  se  fieront. 


OF    THE    SUBJUNCTYVE    MODE. 
THE    PRESENT    TENSE. 


Que  je  méfie,  que  tu  te  fies,  quil  se  fie,  que  novs  novsfijôns,  que  uovs      Tbati  trust. 
uovs  fijéz,  quilz  se  fient. 


THE    INDIFFINITE    TENSE. 


Que  je  méfiasse,  que  tu  te  fiasses,  quil  sefiâst,  que  novs  novs  fijssiôns ,    Tbat  l  trusted, 

«.     .,  .,  -,  ,  ,  shulde.wolde 

que  uovs  uovs  jijssiez ,  quilz  se  fiassent.  or  myght  trust. 

THE    PRETER    PERFIT    TENSE    MASCULINE    AND    FEMININE. 

Que  je  me  sôyefie,  que  tu  te  sôyesfie,  quil  se  soytfie,  que  novs  novs      Thati  hâve 
soyons  fiéz,  que  uovs  uovs  soyez  fiéz,  quilz  se  soyent  fiéz.  Que  je  me  sôye 
fiée,  etc. 

THE  PRETER  PLUSPERFIT  TENSE  MASCULINE  AND  FEMININE. 

Que  je  me  fusse  fie,  que  tu  te  fusses  fie,  quil  se  fustfie,  que  novs  novs       ThatI  had 
fussions  fiéz,  que  uovs  uovs  fussiez  fUz ,  quilz  se  fussent  fiéz.  Que  je  me         '"^"''^  ' 
fasse  fiée,  etc. 


i5. 


116  LESCLARCISSEMENT 


OF    THE    POTENCIAL    MODE. 
THE    PRESENT    TENSE. 


I  shulde  trust.         Je  me  fierôye,  tu  te  fieroys,  il  se  fieràyt,  novs  novs  fierions ,  uovs  uovs 
fieriez,  Hz  sejieràyent. 

THE    PRETERPERFIT    TENSE    MASCULINE    AND    FEMININE. 

I  shulde  hâve         Je  me  seràyefie,  tu  te  seràysfie,  il  se  serôytfie,  novs  novs  serions  fiéz, 
uovs  uovs  seriez  fiez,  Hz  se  seroyentfièz.  Je  me  serôyefiée,  etc. 

OF    THE    IMPERATIVE    MODE. 
THE    PRESENT    TENSE. 

Trust  thon.  Te  fie  toy ,  se  fie  il,  novs  fions  novs,  uovs  fiéz  uovs,  se  fient  Hz. 

THE    FUTURE    TENSE. 

Let  me  trust.  Que  je  méfie,  que  tu  te  fies,  quilsefie,  que  novs  novs  fiions,  que  uovs 

uovs  fiiez,  quilz  se  fient. 

OF  THE  OPTATIVE  MODE. 
THE    PRESENT    TENSE. 

Wel  may  Bien  me  fie  je,  bien  te  fies  tu,  bien  se  fie  il,  bien  nous  fiions  novs,  bien 

uovs  fiiez  uovs,  bien  se  fient  Hz. 

THE    INDIFFINITE    TENSE. 

Weli  myght  Bien  me  fiasse  je,  bien  te  fiasses  tu,  bien  se  fiàst  il,  bien  novsfiissiàns 


I  trust. 


novs,  bien  uovs  fissiez  uovs,  bien  se  fiassent  Hz. 


OF  THE  CONDICIONAL  MODE. 
THE    PRESENT    TENSE. 

If  I  trust.  Si  je  méfie,  si  tu  te  fies,  sil  se  fie,  si  novs  novs  fions,  si  uovs  uovs  fiéz, 

s'ilz  se  fient.  And  so  of  the  other  tenses,  and  as  many  as  si  may  be 
joyned  unto  in  je  parle. 

OF  THE   INFINITIVE  MODE. 

For  to  trust.  The  présent  tense  pour  méfier,  for  to  trust;  pour  mavofrfie,  for  to 

hâve  trusted. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  117 

THE  CONJUGATYiNG  OF  JE  ME  ESBAHYS, 

WHOSE  FINAL  TERMINATIOxNS  ARE  CHANGED  AFTER  JE  CONVERTYS 

AND  ARE  LIKE  THE  SECONDE  CONJUGATION  OF  VERBES  ACTYVES. 

OF  THE  INDICATIVE  MODE. 

THE    PRESENT    TENSE. 

Je  me  esbahjs,  tu  te  esbahys,  il  se  esbahyt,  novs  novs  esbahissôns ,  uovs       i  wonder. 
uovs  esbahisséz,  Hz  se  esbahissent. 

THE    PRETER   IMPEHFIT    TENSE. 

Je  men  esbahissôye ,  tu  te  esbahissôys,  il  se  esbahissôyt,  novs  novs  esba-     i  did  wonder. 
hissions,  uovs  uovs  esbahissiéz,  Hz  se  esbahissoyent. 

THE    INDIFFINITE    TENSE. 

Je  men  esbahfs,  tu  ten  esbahys,  il  se  esbahyt,  novs  novs  esbahismes ,  uovs      i  wondred. 
uovs  esbahistéz,  Hz  se  esbahirent. 

THE    PRETER    PERFIT    TENSE    MASCULINE    AND    FEMININE. 

Je  me  suis  esbahy,  tu  tes  esbahf,   il  sest  esbahf,  novs  novs  sommes  es-    i  hâve  wondred. 
bahfz,  uous  uovs  estez  esbahyz,  Hz  se  sont  esbahjz.  Je  me  suis  esbahye,  etc. 

THE  PRETER  PLtSPERFIT  TENSE  MASC.  AND  FEMINE. 

Je  mestôye  esbahy,  tu  testôyes  esbahy,  il  sestôyt  esbahy ,  novs  novs  estions    l  had  wondred. 
esbahyz,  uovs  uovs  estiez  esbahfz,  ils  sestoyent  esbahjs.  Je  mestôye  esba- 
hye, etc. 

THE    FUTURE    TENSE. 

Je  men  esbahirày,  tu  tesbahiràs,  il  se  esbahirà,  novs  novs  esbahirons,     ishalwondre. 
uovs  uovs  esbahiréz,  Hz  se  esbahirônt. 

OF  THE  SUBJDNCTIVE  MODE. 
TBE    PRESENT    TENSE. 

Que  je  mesbahje,  que  tu  tesbahfes,  quil  sesbahfe,  que  novs  novs  esba-    That  l  wonder. 
hiôns,  que  uovs  uovs  esbahjez,  quilz  se  esbahyent. 


118 


LESCLARCISSEMENT 


Thall  wondred. 


That  I  bave 
wondred. 


That  I  had 
wondred. 


That  1  shall 
hâve    wondred. 


I  shuide 
wonder. 


I  «hulde  hâve 
wondred. 


Wondre. 


Let  me  wondre. 


TUE    INDIFFINITE    TENSE. 

Que  je  nien  esbahisse,  que  tu  tesbalihses,  quil  seshahist,  que  novs  novs 
esbahissiôns ,  que  uovs  uovs  esbahissiéz,  quitz  sesbahjssent. 

THE    PRETEBPERFIT    TENSE,    MASC.    AND    FEMINE. 

Que  je  me  sôye  esbahjf,  que  tu  te  sôyes  esbahy,  quil  se  soyt  esbahy,  que 
novs  novs  soyons  esbahys,  que  uovs  uovs  soyez  esbahy z,  quilz  se  sôyent  es- 
bahy z.  Que  je  me  sôye  esbahfe ,  etc. 

THE    PRETERPLUSPEHFITE    TENSE,    MASCULINE    AND    FEMINE. 

Que  je  me  fusse  esbahy,  que  tu  te  fusses  esbahf,  quil  sefust  esbahy,  que 
novs  novs  fussions  esbahys,  que  uovs  uovs  fussiez  esbahy  z,  quilz  se  fussent 
esbahyz.  Que  je  me  fusse  esbahje,  etc. 

THE    FUTORE    TENSE    MASC.    AND    FEMINE. 

Que  je  me  serày  esbahf,  que  tu  te  seras  esbahy,  quil  se  sera  esbahy,  que 
novs  novs  serons  esbahfz,  que  uovs  uovs  serez  esbahfz ,  quilz  se  seront  esba- 
hjz.  Que  je  me  serày  esbahy e,  etc. 

OF   THE    POTENTIAL  MODE. 
THE    PRESENT    TENSE. 

Je  me  esbahyrôye,  tu  te  esbahiràys,  il  se  esbahyrôyt,  novs  novs  esbahy- 
rions,  uovs  uovs  esbahiriéz,  Hz  se  esbahy  rayent. 

THE  PRETER  PERFIT  TENSE  MASCULINE  AND  FEMINE. 

Je  me  serày  e  csbahf,  tu  te  serày  s  eshahj,  il  se  serày  t  esbahy,  novs  novs 
seriàns  esbahys,  uovs  uovs  seriez  esbahys,  Hz  se  seroyent  esbahys.  Je  me  se- 
rôye  esbahye,  etc. 

OF  THE  IMPARATïVE   MODE. 
THE    PRESENT    TENSE. 

Te  esbahis  toy,  se  esbahye  il,  novs  esbahissàns  nous,  uovs  esbahisséz 
uovs,  sesbahihent  Hz. 

Que  je  me  esbahye,  tu  te  esbahyes,  il  se  esbahfe,  que  novs  novs  esbahyons , 
uovs  uovs  esbahyez,  Hz  se  esbahfent. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  119 

OF  THE  OPTATYVE  MODE. 

THE    PRESENT    TENS. 

Bien  me  eshahje  je,  bien  te  esbahies  tu,  bien  se  esbahie  il,  bien  novs      Weli  maye 
esbahyons  nous,  bien  uovs  esbahiéz  uovs,  bien  se  esbahyent  Hz. 

THE    INDIFFINIT    TENS. 

Bien  me  esbahysseje,  bien  te  esbahisses  tu,  bien  se  esbahyst  H,  bien  novs      Well  migiit 
esbahyssôns  novs,  bien  uovs  esbahysséz  uovs,  bien  se  esbahyssênt  Hz. 

THE  CONDICIONALL  MODE. 
THE    PRESENT  TENS. 

Si  je  mesbahys,  si  tu  tesbahys,  sil  sesbahyst,  si  novs  novs  esbahissôns,      Yfiwondre. 
si  uovs  uovs  esbahissez,  silz  sesbahfssent ,  and  se  forthe  of  the  other 
lenses. 

OF  THE  INFINITYVE  MODE. 
THE    PRESENT    AND    PRETERPARFITENS. 

Pour  mesbahjfr  lo  wondre,  pour  mestre  esbahj  for  to  hâve  wondred.     For  to  wondre. 

THE  CONJUGATYNG  OF  JE  MEN  FUYS, 

WHOSE  FINALL  TERMYNATIONS  BE  CHAUNGED  AFTER  JK  PAYS.  AND  IS 

LYKE  THE  THIRDE  CONJUGATION  OF  VERBES  ACTYVES. 

OF  THE  INDICATYVE  MODE. 
THE    PRESENTENS. 

Je  menfvys  (1  flye),  tu  tenfuys,  il  senfvyt,  novs  novs  fuyons,  uovs  uovs  i  nye. 

fvyéz,  Hz  senfvyent. 

THE    PRETER    lUPARFITENS. 

Je  menfuyôye,  tu  tenfuyùys,  il  senfuyôyt,  novs  novsfuyyôns,  uovs  uovs       idyd  fiye. 
fuyyéz,  Hz  sen  fuyôyent. 

THE    INDIFFINIT    TENS. 

Je  menfvys,  tu  tenfvys,  H  senfvyt,  novs  novsfvysmes,  uovs  uovs  fvystez,         i  fledde. 
Hz  sen  fvyrent. 


120  LESCLARCISSEMENT 


THE    PRETERPABFITENS    M  ASC.    AND    FEMY. 


iliavefled.  Je  mcTi  svisfvy,  tu  ten  esfvy,  ilsenestfvy,  novs  novs  sommes  fvyz ,  uovs 

uovs  estez  fvyz,  Hz  sert  sontfvyz.  Je  men  suisfvye,  etc. 


THE    PRETERPLUSPARFITENS    MASC.    AND  FEMY. 


I  hadfled.  Je  mestôyejvf,  tu  testôysfvy,  il  sestôytfvy,  novs  novs  estions  fvyz ,  uovs 

uovs  estiez  fvyz,  Hz  sestôyentfvyz.  Je  mestôye  fvye ,  etc. 


THE    FUTURTENS. 


ishaHflye.  Je  menfvyrày,  tu  tenfvyràs,  il  sen  fvyrà,  novs  novsfvyrôns,  uovs  uovs 

fvyréz,  Hz  senfvyrônt. 


OF  THE  SUBJDNCTÏVE  MODE. 


THE    PRESENTENS. 


Thatiflye.  Que  je  men  fvye,  que  tu  tenfvyes,  quil  sen  fvye,  que  novs  novs  fuyions, 

que  uovs  uovs  fvyéz ,  quilz  senfvyent. 


THE    INDIFFINIT    Tï;NS. 


That  I  fled.  Que  je  men  fvfsse ,  tu  tenfvysses,  ilsenfvyst,  novs  novs  fvyssiôns ,  uovs 

uovs  fvyssiéz ,  Hz  sen  fùyssent. 


THE  PRETERPARFIT  TENS  MASC.  AND  FEMY. 


Tha.tihave  Q^e  je  me  soyefvy,  tu  te  sôyesfvy,  il  se  soytfvy,  novs  novs  soyons  fùys. 


fledde. 


Hoa5  nous  soyez  fvys,  Hz  se  sôyentfvys. 


THE    PHETERPLUSPARFIT    TENS. 


That  I  Lad  Que  je  menfûssc  fvy,  tu  ten  fusses  fùy,  H  sen  fust  fvy,  que  novs  novs 

fvissiôns  fàyz,  uovs  uovs  fuissiez  fvyz,  ils  se  fuissent  fùy  z. 


THE    FUTURE     TENSE. 


That  I  shal  Je  me  serây  fvy,  tu  te  seras  fùy,  il  se  sera  fvy,  nous  nous  serons  fùys, 

hâve  fledde.  ,      ,.,..        ..  ,    ^  y.. 

UOVS  uovs  serez  jvyz,  iiz  se  seront Jvyz. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  121 


OF  THE   POTENCIALL  MODE. 
THE    PRESENTENS. 


Je  menfvyroye,  tu  tenfvyrôys,  il  sen  fvyrôyt ,  novs  novs  fvyrions ,  uoiis      l  shiHde  fly. 
nous  fvyriéz,  Hz  sen  fvy rayent. 

THE     PRETERPARFITENS. 

Je  me  serôyefvy,  ta  te  serôysjvy,  il  seserôytjvy,  nous  nous  serions  fvjs,.    i  shulde  hâve 
nous  uoas  seriez  jvf s ,  Hz  se  seràyentfvjz. 

OF   THE    IMPERATÏVE    MODE. 
THE    PRESENTENS. 

Ten  fvf  toi,  sen  fvje  il,    novs  fvyàns   novs,    uovs  fvyéz  nous,  sen  Flye. 

fvyent  Hz. 

THE    FUTDRETENS. 

Que  je  men  fvfe,  tu  tenfvjes,  il  sen  fvy  e,  que  nous  nous  fvyàns,  uovs      Lct  me  flye. 
uovs  fvyéz,  Hz  sen  fvyent. 

OF    THE    OPTATYVE    MODE. 
THE    PRESENTENS. 

Bien  me  fvye  je,  bien  tefvyes  tu,  bien  senfvye  il,  bien  nous  fvyàns  nous,       Well  maye 
bien  uovs  fvy  iéz  uovs,  bien  senfvjent  Hz.  ^* 

THE    INDIPFINITTENS. 

Bien  men  fvy sse ,  bien  tenfvysses,  bien  sen  fvyst,  bien  nous  fvyssiàns      Well  miglu 
nous,  bien  uovs  fvyssiéz  uovs,  bien  senfvyssent  Hz.  ^^^   *  ' 

OF  THE   CONDICIONALL  MODE. 
THE    PRESENTENS. 

Si  je  men  Jvfs,  si  tu  ten  fvys,  sil  sen  Jvf  t,  si  nous  nous  fvyons,  si  uovs        Yfiflye. 
uous  fvyéz,  silz  sen  fbjfent,  etc. 

OF    THE    INFINITYVE    MODK. 
THE    PRESENTENS    AND    PRETERPARF. 

Pour  me  fvfr,  pour  méstre  fvy.  To  iiye. 


122  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

Régula.  And  note  that  suche  maner  of  conjugatyng  as  I  hâve  liere  shewed, 

that  the  frenche  tong  useth  in  their  meanes,  suche  lyke  maner  of 
conjugatyng  use  they  of  ail  verbes  actyves,  whiche,  of  their  owne  na- 
ture, shulde  slgnify  an  acte  to  passe  from  the  doar  without  forthe,  so 
often  as  they  wyll  signify  the  same  acte  to  retourne  to  the  doar 
agayne  :  vvhich  maner  of  reciprocation  we  expresse  in  our  tong  by 
puttyng  of  thèse  wordes  after  our  verbes  actives  «  my  self,  thy  self, 
'  his  or  her  self,  our  self,  your  self,  their  selfe  »;  as  I  couvert  is  a  verbe 
actyve  signifyeng  thacte  of  convertyng  to  passe  from  the  doar,  and 
that  there  is  some  body  without  forthe  that  is  converted,  but  if  I 
wyll  adde  any  of  thèse  wordes  after  the  verbe  and  signifie  that  the 
acte  of  convertyng  retourneth  to  the  doar  agayne,  I  must  use  me,  te, 
se,  novs,  uovs,  and  se  before  the  parsons  of  the  frenche  verbe,  as  for 
I  couvert  my  selfe,  thou  convertest  thy  selfe,  he  converteth  hym  selfe 
or  she  herselfe,  we  couvert  ourselfe,  you  couvert  your  selfe,  they 
couvert  theem  selfe,  they  saye  Je  me  conaertys,  ta  te  conuertys,  il  se 
conuertyt,  elle  se  conuertyt,  novs  novs  comiertissôns ,  uovs  uovs  conuertisséz , 
Hz  se  conuertîssent  :  and  so  thorowe  ail  the  other  modes ,  tenses ,  nombres 
and  parsons  of^e  conuertys,  lyke  as  I  bave  gyven  exemple  of  Je  mesbahys. 

Régula.  And  though,  whan  they  use  a  verbe  active  in  the  active  sens,  they 

circumlocute  his  prétérit  tens  with  the  tenses  of  jr'e  ay,  and  the  par- 
ticiple,  as  dothe  afore  appere  by  the  said  /e  conaertys,  and  the  other 
two  verbes  actyves,  yet  so  ofte  as  we  sliall  use  any  verbe  actyve  in 
this  sens,  we  shal  circumlocute  the  sayd  prétérit  tenses  with  the 
tenses  of  je  suis,  and  the  participle  in  every  ihyng,  as  I  bave  afore 
declared  that  verbes  meanes  do.  So  that  for  I  bave  converted  my 
selfe,  I  had  converted  my  selfe,  that  I  bave  converted  my  selfe,  that 
I  had  converted  my  selfe,  that  I  shall  hâve  converted  my  selfe,  I 
shuide  bave  converted  my  selfe,  they  saye  je  me  suis  conuer(y,je  mes- 
tôye  conuerty,  que  je  me  sàye  conuerly,  que  je  me  fisse  conuerly,  que  je 
me  serày  conuerty,  je  me  serôye  conuerty;  usyng  the  participle  after  the 
tenses  of  je  suis,  in  ail  thynges,  accordyng  as  l  bave  before  shewe.d 
that  they  do  in  verbes  meanes. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  123 

Note  also  that,  amongest  suche  verbes  as,  of  their  owne  nature,  be 
verye  meanes ,  I  fynde  none  that  be  anormale ,  save  onely  je  men 
uas,  as  I  bave  afore  toucbed,  whicbe  I  wyll  also  conjugate,  as  I  bave 
done  the  otber  verbes  meanes,  nat  that  bis  parsones  be  never  used 
without  doublynge  of  the  pronowne ,  but  by  cause  that,  for  the  moost 
parte  tbey  be  so  used,  for  the  more  certayntie  howe  this  verbe 
sbuide  also  be  used  referryng  the  lemar  to  this  place  in  the  thirde 
boke. 

THE  CONJUGATÏNG  OF  JE  MEN  VAS.  THOROWE  ÀLL  HIS  MODES, 
TENSES,  NOMBRES  AND  PARSONS. 

Je  men  aas,  tu  ten  uas,  il  sert  ua,  novs  novs  allons,  uovs  uovs  allez, 
Hz  sen  uont. 

Je  men  allàye,  tu  ten  alloys,  il  sen  allôyt,  novs  novs  allions,  nous  uovs 
alliez,  Hz  sen  allôyent. 

Je  men  allày,  tu  ten  allas,  il  sen  alla,  novs  novs  allàsmes,  uovs  uovs 
allàstez,  Hz  sen  allèrent. 

Je  men  suis  en  allé,  tu  ten  es  en  allé,  il  sen  est  en  allé,  novs  novs 
sommes  allez,  uovs  uovs  estez  allez,  Hz  sen  sont  en  allez. 

Je  mestôye  allé,  tu  testôys  allé,  il  sestàyt  allé,  novs  novs  estions  allez, 
uovs  uovs  estiez  allez,  Hz  sestôyent  allez. 

Je  men  yrày,  tu  ten  yrâs ,  il  sen  yrâ ,  novs  novs  yrôns ,  uovs  uovs  yréz , 
Hz  sen  yrént. 

Que  je  uàyse  or  que  je  men  aille,  que  tu  uôyses  or  que  tu  ten  ailles, 
quil  sen  uôyse  or  quil  sen  aille,  que  novs  novs  aillions,  que  uovs  uovs 
ailliez,  quilz  sen  uôysent  or  quilz  sen  aillent. 

Que  je  men  allasse,  que  tu  ten  allasses,  quil  sen  allâst,  que  novs  novs 
allissiôns,  que  uovs  uovs  allissiéz,  quilz  sen  allassent. 

Que  je  me  sôye  allé,  que  ta  te  sôyes  allé,  quil  se  soyt  en  allé,  que 
novs  novs  soyons  allez,  que  uovs  uovs  soyez  allez,  quilz  se  soient  allez.   . 

Que  je  me  fusse  allé,  tu  te  fusses  allé,  il  se  fust  en  allé,  novs  novs 
fuissions  allez,  uovs  uovs  fuissiez  allez,  Hz  se  fuissent  allez. 

Que  je  me  serày  allé,  tu  te  seras  allé,  il  se  sera  allé,  novs  novs  serons 
allez,  uovs  uovs  serés  allez,  Hz  se  seront  allez. 

16. 


Régula. 


r  go. 
I  (lyd  go. 
I  wenl. 
I  hâve  gone. 
1  had  goue. 
I  shail  go. 
That  I  go. 

That  1  went. 


That  I  havc 
gone. 

That  I  had 

gone. 

That  I  shal 
hâve  gone. 


124  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

ishuldego.  Je  men  yrôye,  tu  ten  yràyes,  il  sen  yrôyt,  novs  novs  yriôns,  uovs  uovs 

y  riez,  Hz  sen  y  rayent. 
I  shuide  hâve         Je  me  serôye  allé,  tu  te  serôys  allé,  il  se  serait  allé,  novs  novs  serions 
allez,  uovs  uovs  seriez  allez,  Hz  se  serôyent  allez. 
Go.  Va,  aille  il,  allons  nous,  allez  uovs,  sen  aillent  Hz. 

Let  me  go.  Que  je  men  aille,  que  tu  ten  ailles,  quil  sen  aille,  que  novs  novs  ail- 

lions, uovs  uovs  ailliez,  Hz  sen  aillent. 
Wellmayelgo.         Bien  aille  je,  bien  ailles  tu,  bien  aille  il,  bien  aillions  novs,  bien  ailliez 

uovs,  bien  aillent  Hz. 
Wellmi^htloo.         Q^c  bien  allasse  je,  bien  allasses  tu,  bien  allàst  H,  bien  allissiôns  novs, 
bien  allissiéz  uovs,  bien  allassent  Hz. 
Yfigo.  S^  j^  ™^"  "<^*j  *'  t^  t^^  ««*>  *'^  *^"  Ha,  si  novs  novs  allons,  si  uovs 

uovs  allez,  sHz  sen  uont,  etc. 
To  go.  Aller,  éstre  allé. 

Regala.  And  note  that,  where  as  I  hâve  afore  some  pai-sons  of  this  verbe 

added  en  twyse,  and  afore  some  but  ones,  and  for  some  other  lefte 
hym  out,  I  this  hâve  donc  onely  to  warne  the  lernar  that  ail  thèse 
thre  maners  of  spekynge  they  use,  differrynge  to  certifie  hym  in  this 
behalfe  tyll  I  shall  corne  to  my  annotacyons  upon  the  ix  accident  of 
verbes  actyves  parsonals,  in  the  thirde  boke. 

OF  THE  VERBE  PASSYVE. 

Verbes  passyves  be  suche  as  of  their  owne  nature  betoken  suffring 
lyke  as  I  hâve  afore  touched  as  I  am  beaten,  I  am  boimde,  I  am 
greved,  I  am  hiule  and  suche  lyke. 

Verbes  passyves  in  this  tong  hâve  no  certen  conjugacyon  no  more 
than  they  bave  with  us  in  our  tong ,  for  like  as  we  circumlocute  our 
verbes  passives  with  the  tenses  of  I  am,  and  the  participles  prété- 
rit of  our  verbes  actyves,  sayeng  :  I  am  loved,  I  was  loved,  I  bave 
ben  loved,  I  had  ben  loved,  I  shalhe  loved  and  so  forthe,  joynyng 
the  other  modes  and  tenses  of  "  I  am  »  to  our  sayd  participles,  so  say 
they  with  themye  suis  aymé,  jestôye  aymé,  je  fus  aymé,  jay  esté  aymé. 


\ 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  125 

javôye  esté  aymé,  je  serày  aymé,  joynyng  the  participle  prétérit  ol  the 
verbe  actyve  to  the  modes,  tenses,  nombres  and  parsons  oï  je  suis. 

WHOSK  COMPLET  CONJUGATION  HERE  IMMEDfATLY  FOLOWETH. 

Je  svys,  tu  es,  il  est,  novs  sommes,  novs  estez,  Hz  sont. 

Jestôye,  ta  estôys,  il  estôyt,  novs  estions,  uovs  estiez,  Hz  estôyent. 

Je  fus,  tu  fus,  il  fut,  novsfàsmes,  uovsfustéz,  Hz  furent. 

Jay  este,  tu  as  este,  il  a  este,  novs  aaôns  este,  uovs  auéz  este,  etc. 

Jaaôye  este,  tu  auôys  este,  il  auoyt  este,  novs  aaiôns  este,  etc. 

Je  serày,  tu  seras,  il  sera,  novs  serons,  uovs  serez,  Hz  seront. 

Que  je  sôye,  que  ta  sôyes,  quil  soyt,  que  novs  soyons,  que  uovs  soyez, 
quilz  sôyent. 

Que  je  fusse,  que  ta  f tisses,  quilfast,  que  novs  fassions,  que  uovs  fus- 
siez, quilz  fassent. 

Que  je  àye  este,  que  tu  âyes  este,  quil  ayt  este,  que  novs  ayons  este,  etc. 

Que  je  évsse  este,  que  ta  évsses  este,  quil  evst  este,  que  novs  evssiôns 
este,  etc. 

Que  javrày  este,  que  ta  avrds  este,  quil  avrà  este,  que  nous  avrons 
este,  etc. 

Je  seràye,  tu  serôys,  il  seràyt,  novs  serions,  uovs  seriez,  Hz  seràyent. 

Javràye  este,  ta  avrôys  este,  il  avrôyt  este,  novs  avriôns  este,  uovs,  etc. 

Suys,  soyt,  soyons,  soyez,  sôyent. 

Bien  soye,  bien  soys,  bien  soyt,  bien  soyons,  bien  soyez,  bien  sôyent. 

Bien  fusse  je,  bien  fusses  tu,  bienfust  H,  bien  fussions  novs,  bien  fassiez 
uovs,  bien  fussent  Hz. 

Si  je  sais,  si  ta  es,  sil  est,  si  novs  sommes,  si  aovs  estes,  etc. 

Estre,  auôyr  este. 

And  note  that,  for  the  tnie  circumlocutyng  of  verbes  passives  in 
this  tong,  the  Icrnar  must  call  agayn  to  mynde  wliat  I  hâve  said  hère 
afore,  in  the  thirde  accident  of  mean  verbes,  where  I  shewed  that 
suche  gender  and  nombre  as  the  nominative  case  is,  that  commeth 
before  any  of  the  parsons  of  jf'e  suis,  of  suche  lyke  gender  and  nom- 


I  am. 

I  was. 

I  was. 

I  liave  ben. 

I  liad  bcn. 

I  shal  be. 

That  r  be. 

That  I  were. 

ThatI  bave  ben. 
Thaï  I  had  ben. 

That  I  shali 
hâve  ben. 

I  shuldc  be. 

I  shulde 

hâve  ben. 

Be. 

Wel  be  I. 
Welmyghtlbe. 

Ifibc. 

Tobc. 

Régula  prima. 


126  LESCLARCISSEMENÏ 

ber  shall  the  participle  be  whiche  foloweth  any  of  the  sayd  parsons; 
for  suche  like  congruite  is  observed  belwene  ail  participles  passives 
and  the  nominative  cases  that  governe  the  tenses  of  ^e  suis,  so  often 
as  by  the  sayd  tenses  and  participles  we  expresse  passion  in  this  tong, 
as  shal  by  the  tenses  of  the  indicative  mode  of  ^e  sais,  joyned  to  this 
participle  conuertf,  more  playnly  be  expressed. 


OF     THE     INDICATIVE     MODE. 
THE  PRESENT  TENSE  PASSIVE. 


The  masculine  singular.  Je  suis  conueriy,  tu  es  conuertf,  il  est  con- 
uerty. 

The  masc.  plur.  Novs  sommes  conuertiz,  uovs  estez  conuertiz,  Hz  sont 
conuertiz. 

The  féminine  sing.  Je  suis  conuertf  e,  tu  es  conuertye,  elle  est  con- 
uertye. 

The  fe.  pi.  Novs  sommes  conuerties,  uovs  estez  conuerties,  elles  sont 
conuerties. 


THE    PRETER    IMPARFIT    TENSE    PASSIVE. 


The  mas.  sing.  Jestôye  conuerty,  tu  estôys  conuerty,  il  estôyt  conuertf. 

The  ma.  plm'.  Novs  estions  conuertiz,  uovs  estiez  conuertiz,  ilzestàyent 
conuertiz. 

The  fem.  sing.  Jestôye  conuertf  e,  tu  estôys  conuertf e,  elle  estôyt  con- 
uertye- 

The  fe.  pi.  Novs  estions  conuerties,  uovs  estiez  conuerties,  elles  estôyent 
conuerties. 


THE    INDIFFINITE    TENSE    PASSIVE. 


The  mascu.  sing.  Je  fus  conuertf,  ta  fus  conuertf,  il  fut  conuertf. 
The  mascu.  plu.  Novs  fùsmes  conuertf z,  uovs  fàstez  conuertf z,  etc. 
The  fem.  sing.  Je  fus  conuertf  e,  tu  fus  conuertf  e,  elle  fut  conuertf  e. 
The  fem.  plu.  Novs  fùsmes  conuerties,  uovs  fàstez  conuerties,  etc. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE. 

THE  PRETER  PERFIT  TENSE. 


127 


Jay  este  conucrty ,  jay  este  connertie,    novs  avons  este  conuertiz,  novs 
auôns  este  conuerties. 


THE  PRETER  PLBSPERFIT  TENSE. 


Jauôye  este  conaerty,  jauôje  este  conuertfe,  novs  auiôns  este  conuertiz, 
novs  avions  este  conuerties. 


THE    FUTURE    TENSE. 


Régula 
secunda. 


Régula  ^ertia. 


Je  serày  conuerty,  je  serày  conuertie,  novs  serons  conuertiz,  novs  serons 
conuerties. 

And  so  through  al  the  other  modes  and  tenses  of  ^'e  suis,  changyng 
the  gender  and  nombre  of  the  participle ,  whan  he  foloweth  any  of 
them,  as  I  hâve  hère  by  the  tenses  of  thindicative  mode  clerely  de- 
clared. 

But  howe  ail  maner  participles  forme  theyr  masculine  genders  out 
of  theyr  féminines,  and  theyr  plurel  nombres  out  of  theyr  singulars, 
shal  hère  after  in  the  chapter  of  participles  more  playnly  appere. 

Note  also  that  the  infinitive  mode  of  al  verbes  actives  may  signifie 
both  action  and  passion,  as  the  sence  shal  require,  as  I  shal,  in  the 
thirde  boke,  in  his  place,  more  playnly  déclare. 

And  that  there  be  many  infinitive  modes  whiche  come  of  verbes     Régula  quarta 
passives  onely,  as  encéyndre  oï  je  suis  encéynte,  endormyr  of  je  suis  en- 
dormy,  and  suche  lyke  :  they  say  natye  encéyns,  je  endors,  in  the  active 
sence. 

Note  also  that,  where  as  I  hâve  sayd  that  this  maner  of  circuin-  Régula quima. 
locutyng  of  verbes  passives  is  gênerai  through  al  the  french  tong,  1 
fynde  exception  onely  in  je  nays,  whiche  beyng  conjugate  lïke  je  fays , 
and  alteryng  his  final  terminations ,  as  though  he  were  of  the  thyrde 
conjugation  of  verbes  actives,  save  in  his  prêter  tenses,  hath  the  signi- 
fication of  a  verbe  passive ,  as  by  his  conjugatyng  shal  hère  conse- 
quently  appere. 

Je  nays,  ta  nays,  il  nayst,  novs  naissons,  uovs  naissez,  Hz  naissent.  lam  borne. 


I  was  born. 

I  was  born. 

I  hâve  be  born. 
I  )iad  be  b. 

I  shalbe  b. 

Thaï  I  be  b. 


That  I  shuld 
hâve  bcn  be. 

That  I  bave 
ben  borne. 

That  1  had 
ben  borne. 
That  I  shal 
bave  be  b. 
]  shulde 
be  borne. 

I  shulde  bave 
bc  b. 

Be  liorne. 
Let  me  be  b. 


Wel  be  I  b. 


Well  rayght 
I  be  borne. 


To  be  borne. 

To  bave 
ben  borne. 


128  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

Je  naissàye,  tu  naissàys,  il  naissôyt,  novs  naissions,  uovs  naissiez,  ils 
naissùyent. 

Je  nasquis,  tu  nasqaîs,  il  nasquit,  novs  nasquîsmes ,  uovs  nasquistez,  Hz 
nasqairent. 

Jay  este  ne,jay  este  née,  novs  sommes  nez,  nous  sommes  nées. 

Jauôye  este  ne,  jauôye  este  née  (like  the  same  tenses  in  other  verbes 
passives). 

Je  naistrây,  tu  naistràs,  il  naisirà,  novs  naistrons,  uovs  naistréz,  Hz 
naistrùnt. 

Que  je  naisse,  tu  naisses,  il  naisse,  que  novs  naissions,  que  uovs  naissiez, 
quils  naissent. 

Que  Je  nasquisse,  que  tu  nasquisses,  quil  nasquist,  que  novs  nasquissiôns , 
que  uovs  nasquissiéz ,  quilz  nasquissent. 

Que  je  âye  este  ne,  que  tu  àyes  este  née,  que  nom  ayons  este  nez,  que 
uovs  ayez  este  nées. 

Que  jévsse  este  ne,  que  novs  evssiôns  este  nez,  que  jévsse  este  née,  etc. 

Que  jdvray  este  ne,  que  je  âvray  este  née,  que  novs  avrôns  este  nez,  etc. 

Je  naistràye,  tu  naistrôys,  il  naistrôyt,  novs  naistriôns,  uovs  naistriéz, 
ils  naistrôyent. 

Je  avrôye  este  ne,  novs  avriôns  este  nez,  javrôye  este  née. 

Nays,  naisse,  naissons,  naissez,  naissent. 

Que  je  naisse,  que  tu  naisses,  quil  naisse,  que  novs  naissions,  que  uovs 
naissiez,  quilz  naissent. 

Bien  naisse  je,  bien  naisses  tu,  bien  naisse  il,  bien  naissions  novs,  bien 
naissiez  uovs,  bien  naissent  'Hz. 

Bien  nasquisse  je,  bien  nasquisses  tu,  bien  nasquist  il,  bien  nasquissiôns 
novs,  bien  nasquissiéz  uovs,  bien  nasquissent  Hz. 

Naystre. 

Aaôyr  este  ne. 


Régula  seita.  But  of  the  use  and  signification  of  this  verbe  I  shal  more  speke 

hère  after  in  the  thyrde  boke,  in  this  place,  onely  notyng  hère,  that 
I  fynd  in  maner  ail  thèse  tenses  circumlocuted  after  the  gênerai  rule 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  129 

of  verbes  passives,  as  je  suis  ne,jestôje  ne,  je  fus  ne,  je  scrày  ne,  que 
je  sôye  ne,  que  je  fusse  ne,  and  je  serèye  ne.  But  other  tenses  be  more 
iised  of  approved  auctours. 

OF  VERBES  IMPERSONALS. 

Verbes  impersonals  be  suche  as  betokenyng  doyng  will  hâve  none 
other  nominative  case  before  them  but  onely  il,  by  reasonwherof  they 
bave  neyther  nombre  nor  parson,  but  one  onely  worde  in  every  of 
theyr  tenses  suche  as  il  requireth. 

Verbes  impersonals  bave  suche  and  as  many  accidentes  as  verbes 
actyves  parsonalles  bave,  save  that  nombres  and  parsones  they  bave 
iîone,  lyke  as-I  bave  hère  afore  touched. 

IN    WHICHE    OTHER    II    ACCIDENTES    VERBES    IMPERSONALS    DIFFER    ALSO 
FROM    VERBES    PARSONALLES. 

In  conjugalion  and  order  différent  from  our  tong  in  interrogations 
they  diflfer  also  from  verbes  actives  parsonals  :  for  al  verbes  impar- 
sonals  be  eyther  conjugate  like  the  firste  parsons  singular  of  the  fyrst 
conjugation,  or  like  the  same  parsons  of  the  thyrde  conjugation;  so 
that  like  unto  the  thyrde  parsons  of  the  seconde  conjugation  is  no  verbe 
imparsonal  conjugate  in  this  tonge.  Verbes  imparsonals  therfore  bave 
but  onely  ii  conjugations  of  whiche  the  fyrst  is  lyke  il  parle,  il parlôyt, 
il  parla,  etc.  and  the  seconde  like  ilfaict,  ilfaisôyt,  il  fit,  etc.  for  lyke  il 
conuertit  (as  I  bave  sayd)  is  no  verbe  imparsonal  conjugate  in  this  tong. 

HOWE    VERBES    OF    THE    FYRST    CONJUGATION    BE    VARIED 
BY    THE    EXAMPLE    OF    IL    TONNE. 

OF    THE    INDICATIVE    MODE. 

The  présent  tense  il  tonne  «  it  thondereth  ».  The  preterperfit  tense 
e7  tonnôyt  «  it  did  thonder  ».  The  indiffinite  tense  «7  tonnd  «  it  thon- 
«  dred  ».  The  preterperfit  tense  il  a  tonne  «  it  hath  thondred  ».  The 
preterplusperfit  tense  il  auôyt  tonne,  «  it  had  thondred  ».  The  future 
tense  i7  tonnera,  «  it  shal  thonder  ». 

>7 


130  LESCLARCISSEMENT 


OF    THE    SUBJDNCTYVE    MODE. 


The  présent  tense  qail  tonne,  that  it  thonder.  The  indifïinite  tense 
quil  tonnàst,  that  it  thondred.  The  preterperfit  tense  qail  ayt  tonne, 
that  it  hath  thondred.  The  preterplusperfit  tense  qail  evst  tonne,  that 
it  hadde  thondred.  The  future  tense  qail  avrà  tonne,  that  it  shal  hâve 
thondred. 


OF    THE    POTENCIAL    MODE. 


The  présent  tense  il  tonneràyt ,  it  shulde  thonder.  The  future  tense 
il  àvroyt  tonne,  it  shulde  hâve  thondred. 


OF    THE    IMPERATIVE    MODE. 


The  présent  tense  tonne,  thonder.  The  future  tense  qail  tonne,  let 
it  thonder. 


OF    THE     OPTATIVE    MODE. 


The  présent  tense    bien  tonne  il,   well  thonder  it.  The  indiffinite 
tense  bien  tonnàst  il,  well  mought  it  hâve  thondred. 

THE    INFINITIVE    MODE. 

Tonner,  to  thonder.  Aaôyr  tonne,  to  hâve  thondred. 

Régula  prima.  And  note  that  of  this  conjugation  I  fynde  but  viii  other  verbes  in 
this  tong,  that  is  to  say,  il  esclére,  it  lyghtneth.  //  tempeste,  it  stor- 
meth.  //  uénte,  it  bloweth.  //  brvyne,  it  misleth.  //  neige,  it  sneweth. 
Il  grésle,  it  hayleth.  Il  qéle,  it  friseth.  //  desgéle ,  it  thaweth.  So 
that  I  fynde  no  verbe  imparsonall  betokenynge  any  acte  or  impres- 
sion of  the  ayre  but  he  is  of  theyr  fyrst  conjugation,  save  onely  ilplevt, 
it  rayneth,  whiche  is  of  theyr  seconde  conjugation.  But  as  for  il  faict 
chavlt,  il  faict  froyt,  il  faict  noyr,  il  faict  cler,  used  as  imparsonals  for  it 
is  hotte,  it  is  colde,  it  is  darke,  it  is  clere,  and  howe  they  put  il  faict, 
before  diverse  other  adjectives,  that  belong  nothyng  to  the  qualités 
of  the  ayer,  I  shal  defer  to  speke  of,  tyl  I  corne  to  the  thyrde  boke 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  131 

in  this  place  where  I  wyll  also  speke  oi  il  y  a,  il  y  auôyt,  ilyfui,  etc., 
used  as  imparsonals  for  ther  is,  ther  was,  ther  was,  etc. 

Note  hère  also  that  verbes  imparsonals  of  this  conjugation  be  sel-         Régula 
flome  or  never  used  in  the  passive  sensé  :  how  be  it  I  may  say  «  the 
«  river  is  frosyn  ». 

HOWE    VERBES    IMPARSONALLES    OF   THE    SECONDE   CONJUGACION   BE   VARIED 
BY    THE    EXEMPLE    OF    IL    ADVIENT. 

OF    THE    INDICATIVE    MODE. 

The  présent  tense  il  adaiént,  it  happenneth.  The  prêter  imperfit 
tense  il  adaenôyt,  it  did  happen.  The  indiffinite  tense  il  aduint,  it 
happened.  The  preterperfit  tense  il  a  aduenà,  it  hath  happened.  The 
preterplusperfit  tense  il  auôyt  aduenà,  it  had  happened.  The  future 
tense  il  aduiendrâ,  it  shal  happen.  ' 

OF    THE    SUBJONCTIVE    MODE. 

The  présent  tense  quil  adaiéngne,  that  it  happen.  The  indiffinite 
tens  quil  aduénist,  that  it  might  bave  happened.  The  preterperfitens 
qail  ayt  aduénu,  that  it  hath  happened.  The  preterpluperfitens  quil 
evst  aduénu,  that  it  had  happened.  The  luturtens  quil  avrâ  aduénu, 
that  it  shall  bave  happened. 

OF    THE    POTENCIALL    MODE. 

The  presentens  il  aduiendrôyt,  it  shulde  happen. 

The  preterparfitens  il  avrôyt  advenu,  it  shidde  bave  happened. 

OF    THE    IMPARATYVE    MODE. 

The  presentens  aduiéngne,  happen.  The  futurtens  qail  aduiéngne, 
let  it  happen. 

OF    THE    OPTATYVE    MODE. 

The  presentens  bien  aduiéngne  il,  well  happen  it. 

Te  indiffînit  tens  bien  aduinst  il,  well  might  it  bave  happened. 

»7- 


132  LESCLARCISSEMENT 


THE    INFINITIVE    MODE. 


Aduénir,  to  happen.  Auôyr  aduénu,  to^have  happened. 
Régula  teilia.         And  note  that  dyvers  verbes  imparsonals  of  this  seconde  conjuga- 
cion  may  signifie  passion,  whiche  hâve  the  thirde  parsons  singuler  of 
je  suis  put  before  their  participle ,  lyke  as  by  example  of  il  est  aduénu 
shall  hère  consequently  appere. 

OF    THE    INDICATYVE    MODE. 

The  présentons  j7  est  aduénu,  it  is  happened. 

The  prêter  imperfîtens,  il  estôyt  aduénu,  it  was  happ'ened. 

The  iudiffinit  tens  il  fut  advenu,  it  was  happened. 

The  preterperfitens  il  a  esté  aduénu,  it  jliath  ben  happened. 

The  preterplusparfitens  il  auàyt  esté  aduénu,  it  had  ben  happened. 

The  futurtens  il  sera  aduénu,  it  shalbe  happened. 

OF    THE    SUBJUNCTYVE    MODE. 

The  présentons  quil  soyt  aduénu,  that  it  be  happened. 

The  indiffinit  tens  quil  fust  aduénu,  that  it  might  bave  bene  hap- 
pened. 

The  preterparfitens  quil  ayt  esté  aduénu,  that  it  hathben  happened. 

The  preterplusparfitens  quil  eust  esté  aduénu,  that  it  had  be  hap- 
pened. 

The  future  tens  quil  avrà  esté  aduénu,  that  it  shall  bave  ben  hap- 
pened. 

OF    THE    POTENCIALL    MODE. 

The  présentons  qu'il  seroyt  aduénu,  that  it  shulde  be  happened. 
The  preterparfit  quilavrôyt  esté  aduénu,  that  it  shulde  bave  be  hap- 
pened. 

OF    THE    IMPARATYVE    MODE. 

The  présentons  soyt  il  aduénu,  be  it  happened. 
The  futurtens  quil  soyt  aduénu,  lot  it  bo  happened. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  133 


OK    THE    OPTATYVE    MODE. 


The  presentens  bien  soyt  il  aduéim,  well  be  it  happened. 

The  indiffinit  tens  bienfast  il  adaénu,  well  had  it  ben  happened. 


OF    THE    CONDICIONALL    MODE. 


The  presentens  sil  est  adaénu,  and  so  in  lykewise  syl  estàyt  aduénii, 
silfast  adaénu,  etc. 

OF    THE    INFINITYVE    MODE. 

f 

Estre  adaénu,  auàyr  esté  aduénu. 

Note  also  that  dyvers  verbes  be  used  in  the  frenche  tonge  as  im-  Régula  quana. 
parsonals ,  and  of  this  seconde  conjugacion ,  whiche  we  in  our  tong 
use  as  verbes  parsonalles,  for  thexpressyng  of  whiche  parsons  in 
bothe  the  nombres  they  use  to  adde ,  bytwene  il  and  their  verbe  im- 
parsonall,  me,  te,  luy,  novs,  uovs  and  levr,  by  addynge  of  whiche 
wordes  before  their  verbes  imparsonalles  they  shall  counterveyle  to 
the  nombres  and  parsons  of  oiu*  sayde  verbes  parsonalles.  As  where 
we  saye  in  our  tonge»  I  ytche,  thou  ytchest,  he  ytcheth,  we  ytche, 
«  you  ytche,  they  ytche  »  :  the  frenchmen  saye  il  me  cuyt,  il  te  cuyt,  il 
lay  cuyt,  il  novs  cuyt,  il  uovs  cuj't,  il  levr  cujt  and  so  in  lykewyse, 
for  ail  the  other  modes,  tenses,  nombres  and  parsons  of  the  sayd 
parsonall  verbe  :  as  for  «  I  dyde  itche,  I  itched,  I  bave  itched,  I  had 
«  itched,  I  shall  itche  »  they  say  il  me  cuysôyt,  il  me  caft,  il  ma  cuyt,  il 
mavôyt  cuj't,  il  te  cuyrà  :  kepynge  il  and  the  tens  of  the  verbe  impar- 
sonall  ever  unchaimged,  whiche  thynge  also  shall  in  the  table  of 
verbes  playnlye  be  expressed,  so  often  as  any  suche  verbe  shall  for- 
tune to  come  in  place.  Whiche  lyke  maner  of  conjugatynge  we  use 
also  with  some  of  our  verbes  imparsonalles,  for  lyke  as  the  french- 
men saye  il  me  favlt,  il  tefavlt,  il  luyfavlt,  il  novsfavlt,  il  aovsfavlt, 
il  leur  favlt ,  so  saye  we  «  it  behoveth  me,  it  behoveth  the,  itbehoveth 
«  hym  or  her,  it  behoveth  us,  it  behoveth  you,  it  behoveth  them  ». 

And  note  that  there  is  no  verbe  impersonall  but  that  he  hath  so     Régula  quinta. 


134  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

many  tenses  as  il  tonne.  Il  adulent,  save  that  I  fynde  il  affiért  used  in 
his  presentens  of  thindicatyve  mode  onely,  whiche  Alayne  Cliartier 
m  his  Exile  uselh  in  the  plurell  nombre ,  as  shall  in  the  thirde  bote 
appere. 
Régula  sexia.  Note  also  that  verbes  imparsonalles  kepe  so  cerlaynely  one  ôf  thèse 

two  conjugacions  that  they  confounde  nat  their  tenses  of  one  with 
another,  save  that  il  siet  it  becometh ,  beyng  of  the  seconde  conju- 
gacyon,  hath  his  prétérit  tenses  and  presentenses  of  his  subjunctyve 
and  imparatyve  mode  like  as  he  were  of  the  first  conjugacion,  as  il 
a  sye,  quil  sye,  etc. 
Régula  septima.  Nole  also  that  there  be  no  verbes  imparsonalles  that  at  any  tyme 
be  used  as  meanes  in  this  tong  for  the  doublyng  of  the  pronowne, 
supposeth  ever  the  verbe  to  be  parsonall. 

THE    SECONDE    ACCVDENT   :  WHERIN    VERBES    IMPARSONALLES    DIFFER 
FROM    PABSONALLES. 

In  order  also  contrarie  to  our  tong  in  interrogations  they  differ 
from  verbes  actyves  parsonall,  for,  in  ail  interrogations  made  by  a 
verbe  impersonall,  il  must  folowe  the  verbe  that  he  governeth,  as 
que  novsfavlt  il,  novs  cuyrà  il,  levr  somment  il  :  but  thèse  thynges  shall 
in  the  thirde  boke,  in  this  place,  more  playnly  appere. 

OF  THE  PARTICIPLE. 

Participles  be  suche  in  frenche  as,  in  some  accidentes,  resemble 
unto  their  verbes,  and  in  some  accidentes,  unto  their  nownes  adjec- 
tyves. 

Of  participles  be  two  sortes  :  some  betoken  doyng  as  ajmânt,  par- 
lant, regardant,  and  suche  with  us  ende  ever  in  yng,  as  lovyng, 
spekyng,  beholdyng.  Some  betoken  suffiyng,  as  ajme,  conHer/}^,/aîcf, 
loved,  converted,  done.  Participles  betokenyng  doyng  hâve  thre  ac- 
cidentes, formacion,  tyme  and  declynacion  with  dyversite  of  gendre 
and  nombre. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  135 

THE    FIRST    ACCIDENT. 

Formacion  :  for  ail  participles  endyng  in  anthe  fourmed  of  the  lirst 
parsone  singuler  of  the  preterimparfitens ,  by  chaungyng  of  ôye  in 
dnt,  as  oi  parlàye,  coimertissôye  anàfaisôje,  be  fourmed  parlant,  con- 
uertissànt  and  faisant  :  and  so  of  ali  such  other  in  the  tong.  Except 
onely  saichànt  whose  preterimparfitens  is  scaaôye  ofje  scay,  I  wot  or 
I  knowe. 

THE    SECONDE    ACCIDENT. 

Tyme  :  for  ail  participles  endyng  in  ant  betoken  the  acte  of  the 
verbe  to  be  presently  in  executyng. 

THE    THIRDE    ACCIDENT. 

Declynation  with  diversyte  of  gendre  and  nombre,  as  thus  : 

The  masculyne  and  ferayn.  singuler/>ar/ân/,  conuertissdnt,  andfaysdnt. 

The  masculyn  and  femyne  plurell  partâns,  conuertissàns ,  faysàns. 

So  that,  if  any  worde  declynable  in  this  tong  be  founde  endyng  Régula. 
in  ant  in  the  synguler  nombre,  and  in  ântes  in  the  plurell,  they  be 
syngulars  and  plurelles  of  some  femynine  adjectyves  whose  mascu- 
lyne endeth  in  ant,  and  of  no  participle  in  this  tong.  Participles  be- 
tokenyng sulfring  bave  fyve  accidentes  :  formation,  tyme,  termynation, 
declynacion,  with  diversyte  of  gendre  and  nombre,  and  agreynge 
with  the  relatyve  or  some  other  accusatyve  case  govemed  of  the 
verbe. 

THE    FIRST    ACCIDENT. 

Formation  :  for  ail  participles  betokenyng  suffrynge  belongynge  to 
the  lirst  and  seconde  conjugations-  be  fourmed  of  their  infynityve 
modes  by  puttyng  awaye  of  r,  as  of  parler  and  conuertyr,  be  formed 
thèse  participles  aymé  and  conaerty,  but  m  the  participles  of  the  thirde 
conjugation  howe  they  be  fourmed  I  fynde  nat  so  great  certayntie. 

THE    SECONDE    ACCIDENT. 

Tyme  :  for  ail  suche,  thoughe ,  whan  they  be  joyned  to  the  tenses 


136  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

ofje  suis,  betoken  suffryng,  yet,  if  they  be  added  lo  ihe  lenses  o(  je 
ay,  they  expresse  the  tyme  that  is  passed,  except  in  futures  of  the 
subjiinctyve  mode. 

THE    THIRDE    ACCIDENT. 

Termynacion  :  for  ail  participles  prétérit,  or  belokenynge  sufFrynge 
ende  outher  in  e,  y,  s,  t  or  u;  as  parlé  of  the  first,  conuerty  of  the 
seconde;  partj,  prins,  faict,  batà  of  the  thirde,  whiche  generally  by 
addynge  to  of  e  forme  their  femynines,  as  parlée,  conuertye,  prinse, 
faicte,  batùe,  by  addyng  to  of  z  forme  their  masculyns  plurelles, 
except  suche  as  ende  in  s,  whiche  remayne  imchaunged  :  as  parlez, 
partyz,  prins,  faictz,  batùz,  and,  by  addyng  to  of  5  unto  their  femynes 
forme  also  their  plurels,  rs  parlées,  conuertyes,  prinses ,  faictes ,  hatàes. 
And  this  maner  of  formation  of  the  femyne  gendres  out  of  their 
masculynes,  and  their  plurell  nombres  out  of  their  syngulars,  is  ge- 
nerall  to  ail  prétérit  or  passyve  particyples  in  this  tonge;  so  that,  if 
they  be  founde  otherwyse  written ,  it  is  by  the  erroure  of  the  prin- 
tars. 

THE     FOURTHE     ACCIDENT. 

Declynation  :  whiche  may  appere  by  the  accident  hère  nexte  be- 
fore,  as  aymè  ayméz,  aymée  ayméez  :  conuerty  conuerty  z ,  conuertye  con- 
uertyez  :  party  partyz,  partye  partyez  :  prins  prins,  prinse  prinsez  :  faict 
faictz ,  faicte  faictez  :  batù  batùz,  batùe  batùez. 

THE    FIFTE    ACCIDENT. 

Agreyng  with  the  relatyve  or  with  some  other  accusatyve  cases  go- 
verned  of  ihe  verbe  :  For  thougb  the  participle  passyve  folovyng  the 
tenses  of  je  svis  is  ever  of  suche  gendre  and  nombre  as  the  pronowne 
or  substantyve  that  bis  nominatyve  case  to  the  same  tenses  dothe 
requyre,  as  I  bave  sufficiently  declared  hereafore,  whan  I  shewed 
howe  verbes  passyves  in  this  tong  be  circumlocuted,  yet  whan  the 
participle  prétérit  foloweth  the  tenses  of  ye  ay,  it  is  nat  ever  generali 
that  he  shall  remaygne  unchaunged,  but  as  I  somthyng  touched  in 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  137 

the  note  iipon  the  thirde  accident  of  verbes  actyves  parsonalles,  yf 
the  tenses  ofje  ay  hâve  a  relatyve  before  them,  or  governe  an  accu- 
satyve  case  eyther  of  a  pronowne  or  substantyve,  the  participle,  for 
the  most  parte,  shall  agrée  with  the  sayd  accusative  cases  in  gendre 
and  nombre,  and  in  suche  sentences  nat  remayne  unchaunged  :  as 
the  letters  that  I  hâve  sent  you  les  lettres  que  jeuovs  ay  enaoyécs.  Helas 
I  hâve  loved  her,  hélas  je  lay  aymée.  My  husband  hath  béate  me, 
mon  màry  ma  batûé;  he  hath  anon  taken  an  arowe,  il  a  tantôst  prinse 
vue  jlcche. 

But  this  shall  in  the  thirde  boke,  in  this  place,  more  playnly  appere, 
where  I  wili  also  déclare  howe  with  their  passyve  participles ,  they 
use  conception  of  gendres.  Onely  in  this  place  it  is  ynough  to  warne 
the  lemar  herof  that  he  maya  the  better  observe  it,  for  there  is 
nat  a  more  straunger  construction  in  ail  this  tonge. 

OF  THE  PREPOSITION. 


Prépositions  be  suche  as  whan  soever  they  corne  in  any  sentence       Descripiio 
being  dystinct  wordes  by  them  selfe,  and  nat  compounde  with  other, 
they  suppose  a  substantyve  or  pronowne  to  corne  after  them  in  the 
same  sentence  wherimto  they  do  belong. 

Prépositions  be  thus  many  a  to  or  at;  de,  of  or  from;  en,  in;  sur  Preposit. xxmi. 
OT  sus,  upon;  souhz,  imder;  dessus,  above;  dessôubz,  underneth;  auéc 
or  auécques,  with;  contre,  agaynst;  aer$  or  enuérs,  towardes;  selon, 
jouxte,  après,  after;  enuirôn,  about;  ôvltre,  over,  beyond  or  through; 
permy,  through;  entre,  bitwene  or  amongest;  deudnt,  before;  derrière, 
behynde;  pour,  for,  and  par,  by;  and  as  for  re  is  never  used  alone 
but  in  composition  as  I  hâve  afore  sayd  in  the  lu  chapiter  of  tlie  first 
boke, 

So  that  this  discription  is  generall  to  ail  thèse  xxnn  prépositions         ReguU. 
and  they  never  be  founde  belongynge  to  any  of  the  other  partes  of 
speche. 

Save  that  a,  de,  and  pour  may  corne  before  infinityve  modes,  as    Exceptio prima. 

i8 


138  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

shall  hereafter  in  the  thirde  boke ,  in  my  annotacions  upon  the  use  of 
the  infynityve  mode,  appere. 
Exceptio  And  save  that  dessus,  dessoùbz,   deuànt,   derrière  and  vitre   maye 

somlyine  be  used  as  adverbes,  declaryng  or  answeryng  to  a  question 
made  of  the  piace  where  a  dede  is  donc. 

Prépositions  bave  fyve  accidentes.  Governyng  of  the  oblique  cases 
of  pronownes.  Commynge  fardest  from  the  substantyve.  Composi- 
tion with  dyvers  partes  of  speche,  wbére  they  be  kept  hole  and 
unchaunged.  Confused  composition  with  thèse  articles  le  and  les. 
Somtyme  addyng,  somtyme  leavyng  awaye  of  this  preposytion  de, 
otherwyse  than  we  do,  in  our  tonge,  in  the  same  sentences. 

THE    FIRST    ACCIDENT. 

Governyng  of  the  oblique  cases  of  pronownes.  For  whan  soever 
any  of  the  pronownes  primatyves  folowe  a  préposition  and  is  go- 
vemed  of  hym,  they  use  ever  their  oblique  cases,  as  pour  moy,  contre 
toy,  a  lay,  en  elle,  etc.,  and  so  of  ail  the  resydue;  whiche  I  bave  som- 
thyng  alredy  touched  in  the  fyfte  accident  of  pronownes  primityves. 

THE    SECONDE   ACCIDENT. 

Commyng  fardest  from  the  substantyve.  For  if  any  of  the  décli- 
nable wordes,  article,  adjectyve,  or  pronowne,  or  two  of  them,  or 
ail  thre  at  ones,  come  before  a  substantyve,  the  préposition  must  come 
before  them  ail,  and  that  as  well  in  our  tong  as  in  the  frenche  tong, 
as  I  bave  also  afore  touched  in  the  rule  that  foloweth ,  «  whiche  be 
«  numeralles  »,  folio  xxxiiii  as  for  my  goodmaster,  pour  mon  bon  màistre, 
and  so  of  suche  lyke. 
Régula.  And  note  that  thèse  two  accidentes  be  generall  to  ail  the  xxiiii  pré- 

positions without  any  exception. 

THE    THIRDE    ACCIDENT. 

Composytion.  For  somtyme  prépositions  be  compounde  with  sub- 
stantyves,  SLSsarsâvlt,  entrôeyl,  pôvrpris,  and  suche  lyke.  Somtyme  they 


Régula  prima. 


Régula 
secunda. 

Régula  tertia. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  139 

be  compounde  with  verbes,  as  aborder,  départir,  enterrer,  surprendre, 
soabzmétlre ,  contregardér,  entremettre,  oultrecvidér,  povrueôyr,  paraenir, 
rappellér,  redire.  Somtyme  they  be  compounde  with  other  préposi- 
tions, as  dessus,  dessôabz,  dauécques,  enôvltre,  depâr,  enaprés,  encontre, 
deuérs,  pardeuânt,  parderriére  and  suche  lyke,  whiche  ali  be  in  maner 
ever  used  as  adverbes,  and  syldome  as  prépositions.  Somtyme  they 
be  compounde  with  adverbes,  as  deçà,  delà,  enaaànt,  dehors,  delors- 
encà,  and  suche  lyke. 

And  notethat,  of  thèse  xxiiii  prépositions,  oneiy  ten  be  used  in  com- 
position,  eyther  with  verbes,  substanty ves ,  or  any  of  their  other  partes 
of  speche,  that  is  to  say  :  a,  de,  en,  sur,  soubz,  contre,  entre,  àaltre,  pour, 
par  and  re,  as  appereth  by  thexamples  hère  afore  rehersed;  and  as 
for  any  of  the  other  be  syldome  or  never  founde  in  composition. 

So  that  enuironnér  is  no  compounde  verbe,  but  fourmed  of  enuirôn, 
lyke  as  ovltrér  is  formed  of  ôultre. 

And  as  for  accvmvlér,  abstenir,  adjvgér,  inuadér,  conjôyndre,  prépa- 
rer, subjvguér,  promettre,  and  suche  lyke  be  no  verbes  compoundes  of 
the  frenche  tonge,  but  holly  borowed  ont  of  the  latyn,  lyke  as  I  bave 
afore  touched  in  the  rule  which  foloweth  the  vu  accident  of  verbes 
actyves  parsonalles. 

Note  also  that,  where  as  dyvers  verbes  and  substantyves  in  the  Régula quana. 
french  tong  begyn  with  des,  as  deshonést,  desdâyng,  desméttre,  des- 
ployér,  despéndre,  deshonovrér,  and  many  suche  lyke,  they  be  nat  com- 
pounde with  tlîis  preposytion  de  but  of  this  worde  des,  whiche  out 
of  composytion  in  this  sence  betokeneth  nothynge,  no  more  than  do 
thèse  wordes  mes  and  for,  wherof  I  bave  made  mencion  in  the  viii  ac- 
cident of  verbes  actyves  parsonalles,  whiche  worde  we  also  call  dis 
in  our  tonge,  whan  we  borowe  any  suche  verbes  or  substantyves  out» 
of  the  frenche  tong,  sayeng  «  disdayne,  dishonest,  I  dismysse,  I  dis- 
«playe,  I  dispende,  I  dishonour»,  and  suche  lyke. 

Note  also  that  e  of  this  préposition  en,  so  often  as  he  is  com-    Régula  quinta 
pounde  with  any  verbe  or  substantyve  begynnyng  with  b,  m  or  p, 
he  chaungeth  n  into  m,  as  embrasser,  emmvrér,  empirer,  embds. 

18. 


140  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

Régula  sexu.  Aiid  howe  éfilre  and  re,  whiche  be  often  used  in  composytion  with 

the  verbes  of  this  tong,  leseth  tbeir  e,  if  the  verl^e  or  substantyve  fo- 
lowyng  begyn  with  a  vowell  or  with  h  nat  havyng  his  aspiratyon, 
as  entraymér,  entrhabitér,  rauôyr,  rappellér,  I  hâve  alredy  declared  in 
the  LU  chapiter  in  the  firste  booke. 
Régula septima.  Where  I  also  shewed  howe  de  leseth  his  vowell,  whan  the  worde 
that  he  is  joyned  withall  begynneth  with  any  of  the  said  letters,  as 
dor,  dhonéste  conversasiàn ,  davoyr  and  sache  lyke. 


THE    FOURTHE  ACCIDENT. 


Exceptio. 


Kegala  prima. 


Régula 
secunda. 


Confused  composition  with  thèse  artycles  le  and  les.  For,  so  often 
as  the  sentence  falleth  so  that  thèse  wordes  a  le,  de  le,  or  en  le  do 
come  toguyder,  they  use  for  a  le  to  write  av,  for  de  le,  dv,  for  en  le, 
ov,  as  for  «  to  the  mayster  »  they  saye  nat  a  le  mâisire,  but  av  mâistre, 
and  in  lykewyse  nat  de  le  mâistre,  but  dv  mâistre,  nor  en  le  mâistre, 
but  ov  mâistre,  and  so  of  suche  lyke  thorowe  ail  the  tong. 

Except  the  masculyne  substantyve,  his  adjectyve  or  pronowne, 
whiche  nexte  folovveth  after  this  ax-tycle  le,  begyn  with  a  vowell  or 
with  h  nat  havyng  his  aspyration,  for  than  they  take  awaye  the  vowell 
of  the  artycle,  and  joyne  the  /  to  the  vowell  or  h  nexte  folowyng, 
kepyng  styll  the  préposition  unchaunged  :  as  for  «  to  the  abbe,  of  the 
«  man,  in  the  soûle  »  they  say  a  lâbbe,  de  Ihômme,  en  lame,  as  I  bave 
alredy  declared  in  the  lv  chapiter  of  the  first  boke. 

And  note  that,  thoughe  they  use  this  confused  composytion  with 
thèse  thre  prépositions  and  the  masculyne  artycle  synguler,  they  use 
it  nat  with  la,  whiche  is  the  femyne  artycle  singuler,  thoughe  la  do 
lèse  his  vowell  as  well  as  le  by  reason  of  the  worde  folowyng  hym, 
•lyke  as  I  bave,  in  the  sayde  chapiter  of  the  firste  boke,  declared; 
so  that  I  shall  nat  saye  av  femme,  but  a  la  femme,  de  la  femme,  en  la 
femme. 

But  so  often  as  the  sentence  falleth ,  so  that  any  of  thèse  préposi- 
tions do  come  before  this  artycle  les,  wheder  he  belong  to  a  mascu- 
lyne substantyve  or  a  femyne,  they  use  to  compounde  thèse  prepo- 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  141 

sitions  and  les  confusedly  togyder,  and  tourne  a  les  into  avx,  de  les  ■ 
into  des,  and  en  les  into  es,  as  for  a  les  hommes,  de  les  femmes,  en  les 
maysôns,  they  saye  avx  hommes,  des  femmes,  es  maysôns;  and  so  of  ail 
suche  lyke  through  ail  the  tong. 

THE    FYFTE   ACCYDENT. 

Somtyme  addyng,  somtyme  leavyng  out  of  this  préposition  de, 
otherwyse  than  we  do  in  oiir  tong  in  the  same  sentences. 

Addyng  of  de,  for  whansoever  they  use  any  of  thèse  wordes  plus, 
môyns,  beavcùup,  peu,  tant  or  assés  before  a  substantyve,  they  adde  to 
de  more  than  we  hâve  in  our  tong  in  the  same  sentences,  as,  where 
we  saye  «  more  golde,  lesse  sylver,  moche  wytte,  lytell  discrecion  », 
they  saye  plus  dor,  môyns  dargént,  beaucoup  dentendémcnt ,  peu  de  discré- 
tion ,  lyke  as  they  saye  il  composa  des  liiires ,  novs  trovuerôns  des  àvltres. 

Leavyng  out  of  de.  For  where  as  we  saye  «  my  maisters  gowne ,  my 
«  ladyes  beedes  » ,  whiche  countrevayleth  as  moche  as  the  gowne  of  my 
maister,  the  beedes  of  my  lady,  they  saye  la  robe  mon  mâistre,  le  pa- 
tenôslres  ma  dame;  lyke  as  they  saye  il  descendit  du  havlt  mont  Gordievs, 
il  vint  jusques  avjléuue  Armis,  but  this  is  nat  ever  generall,  and  ther- 
fore  I  suppose  suffycient  in  this  place  onely  the  warne  the  lernar 
hère  of. 

OF  THE  ADVERBE. 

Adverbes  be  suche  as  belongyng  unto  verbes  serve  to  make  dé- 
claration or  answere  unto  suche  questyons  as  be  demaunded  of  a 
dede,  and  to  expresse  the  tyme,  place,  maner  or  some  other  cyr- 
cumstaunce  belongyng  to  the  same.  And  where  as  there  be  sondrie 
sortes  of  adverbes,  I  shall  hère  in  this  boke  reherse  a  certayne  of 
eche  sorte,  suche  as  corne  moost  in  use,  for  the  resydue  referryng 
the  lernar  to  the  table  of  adverbes  in  the  thirde  boke. 

Notyng  hère  first  that,  where  as  ail  the  other  partes  of  speche  in     Régula  prima, 
this  tonge  be  so  utterly  distynct  one  from  another  that  there  is  no 
worde  contayncd  under  any  one  of  them  whiche  is  contayned  under 


Régula 
sccunda. 


Régula  tertia. 


142  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

another,  in  adverbes  ihis  thynge  is  nat  so  precisely  kept,  for,  ihough 
there  be  some  fewe  wordes  whiche  onely  be  adverbes  and  contayned 
under  none  of  their  otber  partes,  there  be  fewe  aiso  of  the  said  other 
partes  but  they  may  be  used  as  adverbes,  nat  onely  wordes  alone  by 
them  selfe,  but  somtyme  two  wordes  beyng  sondrie  partes,  somtyme 
tlire,  ye  and  somtyme  four  or  fyve,  and  somtyme  hole  sentences,  as 
matin,  bas,  fort,  avlcvlnefôys ,  en  alemùnt,  avsôyr,  avjovrdhvy,  tout  aslévre, 
quant  et  quant,  cest  adiré,  cest  ascavôyr,  and  many  suche  iyke,  as  shaU 
hère  consequently  in  this  boke,  but  specially  in  the  thirde  boke,  in 
this  place,  appere.  So  that  if  an  adverbe  semé  to  be  but  one  worde, 
and  in  dede  be  made  of  many,  it  shall  moche  lielpe  the  lernar  to  the 
parfite  understandyng  of  them  if  he  can  enserche  out  of  what  and 
howe  many  distynct  wordes  the  savd  adverbes  shulde  be  made,  as 
astévre  is  made  of  a  céste  hévre,  depvisnagâjres  of  de  pvis  il  ny  aguâyres, 
of  whiche  sorte  be  also  certayne  other. 

Notyng  hère  also  that,  for  so  moche  as  many  of  the  adverbes  hère 
after  folowvng  serve  to  make  answere  unto  suche  questyons  as  be 
demaunded  in  this  tong,  I  shall  hère  first  shewe  by  what  wordes  they 
use  to  make  their  interrogations  whiche  be  thèse. 

Quant,  whan;  ov  or  ove,  where  or  wheder  ;  comment,  howe; 
combien,  howe  moche  or  howe  many  ;  combien  de  foys  or  quant  de 
fàys,  howoften  ;  en  quel  endrôyt,  wheraboutes  ;  depvis  quant,  sithe 
whan  ;  dont,  fromwhens  or  wherof  ;  povrquoy,  wherfore  ;  a  quoy 
faire,  what  to  do  ;  par  quel  moyen,  by  what  meanes;  ascavôyr  mon 
si ,  io  wytte  whyder.  As  for  a  qui,  to  whome  ;  a  quoy,  to  what 
thyng;  de  qui,  of  whom;  de  quoy,  wherof  or  of  what  thyng  ;  en  qui, 
in  whom  ;  en  quoy,  in  what  thyng,  and  suche  Iyke  questyons  whiche 
may  be  demaunded  by  ail  the  preposytions ,  they  serve  nalr  to  de- 
maunde  a  questyon  for  any  dede  but  of  a  thyng. 

And  note  that  sucbe  maners  of  interrogatyons  diffre  from  the  first. 
For  whansoever  a  questyon  is  so  demaunded  that  the  first  worde  is 
a  préposition,  the  first  worde  of  the  answere  must  also  in  maner  ever 
be  a  preposylioQ,  as  en  qui  mefierâyje  ?  En  Diev.  En  quoy  le  metteràyje? 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCO YSE.  143 

En  vôstre  bovrse.  But  in  thèse  other  it  is  nat  so ,  as  shall  herafter  ap 
père  by  the  divydyng  of  adverbes  in  to  their  dyvers  sortes. 

Of  adverbes  some  betoken  tyme  and  serve  to  déclare  or  gyve  an-  Tymewhan. 
swere  whan  a  dede  is  done,  as  astévre,  mayntendnt,  or  or  ores,  nowe; 
a  présent,  at  ihis  tyme;  tout  astévre,  evyn  nowe;  tantost,  anon  or  by 
and  by;  lors  or  alors,  than  ;  astévre  la,  at  that  tyme;  avculne  fiys, 
somtyme  ;  parfàys,  nowe  and  than;  nagaayrcs,  lately  or  late  a  go; 
quant,  whan  ;  devant,  before  or  afore;  as  devant  nànne,  devant  noél,  etc. 
après,  after  ;  as  après  nànne,  après  noél,  etc.  hvy,  to  day  ;  which  is 
seldom  used  but  in  composition ,  as  avjovrdlivy  or  meslivy ,  to  day  ; 
avmàtin,  in  the  momyng  ;  a  niydy,  at  noone  ;  avsôyr,  at  evyn; 
a  nvyt,  at  night;  demàyn,  to  morowe  ;  après  demàyn,  two  dayes  hens 
or  two  dayes  herafter;  hyer,  yesterday  ;  devanthyer,  two  dayes  a  go; 
màtyn,  early;  tart,  IsLte;  jadis,  in  olde  tyme;  avtemps  jadis,  afore- 
season  ;  tousjôars,  alwayes;  ônqves,  ever -,  jamàys  or  ônqves  (whan  ne 
commeth  before  bis  verbe),  never;  and  generaliy  ail  substantyves 
betokenyng  tyme,  whan  they  be  used  as  answeres  to  this  ques- 
tion «  whan  ». 

Some  betoken  order  in  tyme ,  as  deshorsmàys ,  fromhensforthe  ; 
doresenavànt ,  from  this  tyme  forwarde  ;  incontinent,  by  and  by  ;  qvant 
et  qvant,  by  and  by;  sovbddyn,  shortly  ;  viste,  shortly  or  swiftely  ; 
premier,  first;  dernier,  laste  ;  pvis  après,  afterwarde;  ^vw,  after;  avant, 
or  ever  ;  a  la  fyn ,  at  the  laste  ;  enconclvsiôn ,  in  conclusion  ;  and  so 
of  ail  nombres ,  whan  we  use  them  havyng  respecte  to  tyme. 

Some  betokenne  place,  and  serve  to  déclare  or  aunswere  to  a 
questyon  where  a  dede  is  done,  as  cy  or ycf,  hère;  la,  there;  par 
cy,  by  this  waye  ;  par  la,  by  that  waye  ;  en  havlt,  above  ;  contremônt, 
upwarde;  enihàs,  beneth;  sas,  \kç\  jvs,  downe  ;  ens,  whiche  is  nat 
used  but  in  composition  as  cyens,  hère  within  ;  Ijens  or  la  dedans, 
there  within  ;  a  terre,  to  the  gi'ounde  ;  dedans,  within;  dehors,  without; 
loinq,  farrp;  delôing ,  afarre  of;  près,  nere;  a  lencÔfitre ,  encontre  or 
contre,  agaynste  ;  vis  a  vis,  streight  over  againste;  tovt  avplûs  près,  the 
very  next  or  the  next  of  ail;  chez,  in  the  bouse,  as  chez  moy,  in  my 


144  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

house;  àvltre,  beyonde  or  on  the  otherside;  avtàur,  about;  avlrauérs, 
overthwarte  ;  and  generally  ail  substantlves  betokenyng  place ,  whan 
they  be  used  as  answeres  to  this  question  «whan». 

Some  betoken  oïder  in  place,  as  devant,  before  ;  derrière,  be- 
hynde;  de  ca,  on  this  syde;  de  la,  beyonde  ;  avmyliev,  in  the  myd- 
dest;  av  havll  bout,  at  the  upper  ende  ;  av  bout  demhàs,  at  the  nether 
or  lower  ende  ;  av  déstre,  on  the  right  side  ;  av  senéstre,  on  the  lefte 
syde;  du  caste,  asyde  halfe  or  beslde;  premier,  firste  ;  dernier,  laste; 
and  so  of  ail  nombres,  whan  we  use  them  havyng  respecte  to  any 
order  had  in  place. 

Some  betoken  quantité  and  serve  to  shewe  howe  moche  a  dede 
is,  as  beaucoup,  moche  ;  pev ,  lytell  ;  autant,  as  moche;  tant,  so  moche; 
davantàige,  over  and  above;  demy,  halfe;  guayres,  but  a  litell  ;  rycns 
or  neànt,  nothyng. 

Some  betoken  quantité  wilh  tyme  and  serve  to  déclare  howe  longe 
a  dede  is  in  doinge,  as  beaucoup,  moche;  bonne  pièce,  a  good  season; 
long  temps  a,  a  good  while  sithe  or  a  good  while  a  go;  guayres,  but 
a  while  ;  depuis  peu  de  tems  en  ca,  but  a  small  tyme  sithe  ;  depuis  na- 
guayres,  but  a  while  a  go;  jusquesatdnt  or  jusques  a  ce,  unto  the  tyme; 
tant,  unto  the  tyme;  and  generally  ail  substantyves  betokenyng  tyme, 
whan  they  be  used  as  answeres  to  this  question  «  howe  long  ». 

Some  betoken  quantité  with  nombre  and  serve  to  déclare  howe 
often  a  dede  is  in  doyng,  as  sovuentesfoys ,  often  ;  pev  sovuént,  sildome  ; 
mayntesfôys  or  plusieursféys ,  manytymes;  avlcvnefôys ,  somtyme  ;  aultre- 
foys,  another  tyme  or  afoi'e  tiuie  ;  nullefôys,  notyme;  parfôys,  nowe 
and  than;  unefôys,  ones  ;  devxfoys,  twise  ;  troysfôys,  thrise  ;  quattre- 
foys,  fourtymes;  and  so  of  the  resydue  of  ail  nombres,  joynyng  them 
to  this  substantive/oj5,  wherby  maye  be  made  answere  to  this  ques- 
tion «  howe  often  ». 

Some  betoken  qualité  and  serve  to  déclare  or  answere  to  a  question 
howe  a  dede  is  done,  as  bien,  well;  mal,  yvell  ;  tellement  quellcment, 
so  so;  entredevx,  bitwene  twavne. 
Kcgulaquaria.         And  uote  that  of  every  féminine  adjective  ,  in  the  frenche  tonge, 


vf 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  145 

may  be  fornjed  an  adverbe  of  quabte  by  addyng  to  of  ment,  as  of  belle 
bellement,  discrète  discrètement,  but  bien  and  mal  be  more  in  use  than 
bonnement  and  mallément. 

And  this  ruie  hath  some  exceptions  wherof  I  defer  lo  speke  tyll  I 
shall  corne  to  the  thirde  boke  in  my  annotations  upon  this  rule  :  onely 
hère  I  suppose  it  sufficient  to  warne  the  lemar  that ,  lyke  as  we  in 
our  tong  of  good  forme  goodly  ,  of  wyse  wisely,  of  discrète  discre- 
tely,  and  so  of  other  adjectives  fourming  our  adverbes  of  quahte  by 
adding  to  of  «  ly  » ,  so  do  the  frenchemen  to  their  féminine  adjectives 
adde  ment. 

Some  betoken  comparation  whiche  added  before  thèse  adverbes 
betokenyng  qualité  serve  to  compare  one  dede  to  another,  as  plus  sai- 
gement  more  Wise\y ,  màyns  discrètement  lesse  discretely,  and  so  of  ali 
other  adverbes  betokening  qualité ,  save  that  mievlx  and  le  mievlx,  pis 
and  le  pis  be  used  without  adding  of  plus;  but  hereof  I  shall  hereafter 
in  the  thirde  boke,  in  this  place,  speke  more  at  length. 

Some  betoken  véhémence  and  serve  to  extende  or  diminysshe  the 
qualité  of  a  dede,  without  makyng  of  comparison  therof  to  any  other, 
wherof  I  bave  made  mencyon  in  the  fourthe  rule  of  the  fourthe  ac- 
cident belongyng  to  nownes  adjectives,  whiche  be  thèse  :  trop,  fort, 
mpvlt,  très,  bien,  pev,  gôvtte,  tant,  avtànt,  davantdige,  and  suche  lyke, 
as  trop  saigément,  to  wisely;  movlt  saigcment,  moche  wisely ;ybrt  saigè- 
ment ,  very  wisely;'  très  saigément,  right  wisely;  bien  saigément,  very 
wisely;  and  so  of  the  resydue. 

Some  betoken  simylitude  and  serve  to  licken  one  dede  to  another, 
as  comme,  as;  ansi,  so;  tout  ansi,  evyn  so;  en  préslre,  lyke  a  preest;  en 
allemant,  like  an  almigne. 

Some  betoken  ittering  or  renewlng  of  adede,  as  enc(}re,  yet  ;  de  re- 
chief,  agayne;  encore  unefôys,  yet  ones  againe. 

Some  betoken  remytting  or  slacking  of  a  dede,  as  tout  bellement, 
fayre  and  softe  ;  petit  a  petit,  litell  and  litell  ;  a  peyne,  unneth  or  scarsely  ; 
a  grant  peyne ,  very  scantely;  de  paovr,  leste. 

Some   betoken  déclaration  or  makyng  playne  of  a  dede  that  is 

19 


146  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

spoken  before,  as  cest  adiré,  that  is  to  saye;  cest  ascavôir,  ihat  is  to 

witte. 

Some  betoken  affirmation,  and  serve  to  affirme  a  thynge  or  saye 
«  ye  »  to  a  question,  as  ouy,  ye  ;  uôyre,  ye;  cest  mon,  it  is  in  dede;  ce  fait 
mon,  it  dothe  iu  dede;  si  fait  si,  and  thatdothe  it,  or  evyn  so  dothe  it. 
And  as  for  en  bowe  he  is  added  before  their  verbes  affyrmatives  and 
of  hym  selfe  betokeneth  nothynge  I  bave  afore  declared  in  the  ninte 
accident  belongynge  to  tbe  verbes  actyves  personalies. 

Some  betoken  négation  and  serve  to  denye  or  saye  «  nay  »  to  a 
thyng,  as  non,  nay;  nenny,  nay;ya,  in  nowise;  riens,  nothynge  ;  Jamajs, 
never;  ne,  nat.  And  bowe  pas,  poynt,  and  mye  be  but  signes  of  néga- 
tion I  bave  afore  toucbed  in  tbe  sayd  ix  accident  of  verbes  actives 
personalies. 

Some  betoken  conjecturing  and  serve  to  suppose  a  dede  to  be 
done,  AS paradueniurc,  paradventure  or  may  hapipcn;  possible ,  possible; 
pevlt  estre,  it  maye  be;  prennes ,  suppose;  mettons  le  cas,  let  us  put  tbe 
case;  pose,  be  it. 

Some  betoken  confirmation  and  serve  to  certifie  a  dede  to  be  done , 
as  certes,  certainly  ;  en  effect,  in  dede  ;  sansfavlte  nulle,  without  any  faile  ; 
a  la  uerite,  for  a  treutb;  en  bonne foy,  in  good  faithe. 

Some  betoken  wissbing ,  as  plevst  a  Diev,  wolde  to  god;  Diev  le  aveille, 
god  will  it  so  be. 

Some  betoken  forbidding  that  a  dede  shulde  bedone,  as««//ewen^, 
in  no  wise;  a  Diev  ne  plaise,  god  forbede. 

Some  betoken  exhorting  to  do  a  dede,  as  sus,  come  of ,  or  bave  done  ; 
faictez  le  covrt,  be  shorte. 

Some  betoken  cessing  from  a  dede,  as  hola,  ho  there. 

Some  betoken  démonstration  and  serve  to  shewe  or  poynt  to  a 
dede,  as  a  gardez,  hehoide  ;  uecy  or  uoyezcy,  se  hère  ;  ue  la  or  aoyezlà, 
se  there. 

Some  betoken  excepting,  as  sans,  without  or  besides;  forscjue,  ex- 
cepte. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE. 


147 


ACCIDENTES  TO  ADVERBES  GENERALL. 


Accidentes  generall  unto  adverbes  I  fynde  none,  save  that  they  go- 
verne  the  oblique  cases  of  pronownes  primitives,  lyke  as  prépositions 
do ,  as  astévre  moy,  demàyn  toy.  Ouy  moy,  nenny  toy,  and  so  of  the  re- 
sydue. 


ACCIDENTES    PARTICULAR. 


Particidar.  Unto  ail  adverbes,  by  whiche  one  dede  is  compared  to  Régula  prima, 
another,  it  is  belonging  to  bave  ne  cornmyng  before  the  later  verbe 
that  foloweth  this  worde  que,  signifyenge  than,  more  than  we  bave 
in  our  tonge  in  the  same  sentence,  as,  where  we  saye  «  I  thinke  more 
«  than  I  saye ,  I  hâve  lesse  than  I  deserve ,  I  drinke  better  than  I  syng , 
«  you  daunce  worse  than  you  tumble  »,  they  sayy'e  pense  plus  que  je  ne 
dis.  Jay  môyns  que  je  ne  mérite.  Je  boys  mievlz  que  je  ne  chante,  je  danse 
pis  que  je  ne  iùmbeK  And  so  of  ail  other  lyke  sentences  where  we  use 
to  compare  one  dede  to  another  by  plus  or  moyns,  commynge  before 
an  adverbe  of  qualité,  as  il  parle  plus  saigément  que  uovs  ne  faictes.  Il 
besôigne  moyns  discrètement  que  je  ne  cvidùye.  And  so  of  ail  other.  But 
as  for  je  ne  lestéme  ne  que  devx  pommes  and  suche  like ,  where  they 
leave  out  plus,  I  shall  hereof  in  the  thirde  boke,  in  this  place,  more 
entreate. 

Also  ail  maner  adverbes  whiche  contayne  in  themselfe  puther  a 
playne  négation,  or  signifie  dimynisshinge  or  privation  wyll  bave  ne 
before  the  verbe,  whiche  they  belongimto,  more  than  we  bave  in 
our  tonge  in  the  same  sentence,  as  where  we  say  «  I  shall  never  se 
«  hym.  I  wyll  never  do  it.  He  pleaseth  me  nothing.  Was  ever  man  so 
"  begiled.  I  love  him  but  a  lytell.  I  se  never  a  whitte.  I  bave  but  faire 
1  wordes  in  payment  »,  they  sayey'e  ne  le  verrdy  jamdys ,  je  ne  le  ferày 
ja.  Il  ne  me  plait  en  riens.  Onques  ne  fut  homme  si  trompé.  Je  ne  làyme 
guayres.  Je  ne  uoys  gôvtte;  je  nay  fors  que,  or  sinon  que,  or  que  belles 
parolles  en  poyément,  and  so  of  ail  suche  like. 

'  11  faut  :  uovs  dansez  pis  qae  uovs  ne  Inmbéz. 

'9- 


Régula 
secunda. 


148  LESCLARCISSEMENT 


OF  THE  CONJUN'CÏION. 


Conjunctions  be  suche  as  serve  to  joyne  ail  the  other  partes  of 
speche  toguyder  one  with  another,  and  to  make  one  sentence  to  folowe 
upon  another  in  a  mater. 

Of  conjunctions  some  be  copulatives  and  serve  to  couple  lyke  partes 
of  speche  togyder,  or  to  joyne  one  sentence  to  another,  as  et,  and;  or 
bothe,  mays,  or  ayncoys,  but;  toatesfôis,  nevertheless;  avssi,  also;  tant, 
as  well;  que,  as.  Some  be  disjunctives  and  serve  to  départe  or  sever  the 
partes  of  speche  from  toguider  or  one  sentence  from  another,  as  ov, 
or;  ne,  nor  or  nother.  Some  be  continuatives  and  serve  to  begyn  a 
mater  wherupon  other  sentences  must  nedes  folowe,  as  comme  or  la 
ove,  wheras;  si  ainsi  est,  if  it  so  be;  et  av  regàrt,  and  as  for,  or  and  as 
touchyng;  et  qvant  av  surplus,  and  as  touchyng  the  resydue;  av  sur- 
■   plus,  fardermore  or  moreover;  en  ôvltre,  fardermore. 

Some  be  subcontinuatyves  whiche  serve  to  contynue  a  mater  whan 
it  is  alredy  begon,  or  to  begyn  a  mater  at  the  first,  as  povr  autant,  for 
so  much;  dautànt  or  entant,  for  so  moche  or  in  so  moche  ;ya  sàyt  ce, 
albeit;  si,  so;  combien,  although;  encore,  yet;  tovtesfàys,  neverthelesse ; 
que,  vvhose  englysshes be  «  that,  than,  but  »,  or  as  like  as  the  sentences 
do  requyre. 
Régula.  Which  worde  commeth  moreoften  in  use  than  any  other  worde 

in  the  tong,  and  may  folowe  asweil  after  adverbes  as  conjimctions.  ■ 
And  whan  so  ever  he  is  used,  signifîeng  «  that  or  than  «,  lie  liath  for 
the  moost  parte  a  sentence  folowynge  hym  :  and  therfore  I  bave  hère 
rehersed  hym  amongest  tiie  subcontinuatyves  and  called  one  of  the 
VII  modes  belongynge  to  verbes  actyves  parsonalles,  the  subjunctyve 
mode  or  siibcontinuatyve  mode.  But  herof  I  shall  hère  after  bave 
better  occasyon  to  entreate  in  the  thirde  booke,  whan  I  shall  speke 
agayne  of  the  said  modes ,  onely  in  this  place  supposyng  ynough  to 
wamc  the  lernar  that  que  maye  folowe  after  the  moost  parte  of  the 
other  conjunctions  and  adverbes. 

Some  be  causales  and  sewe  to  bring  in  a  sentence  wherby  the 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  149 

cause  of  a  mater  spoken  of  before  is  expressed,  as  aj/in  ijue,  to  the 
entent  that;  car  povr  (juoy,  for  vvliye;  car,  for;  povr  laquelle  cause,  for 
the  whiche  cause;  a  cause  que,  bycause  that;  par  (juoy,  wherfore, 
wherby. 

Some  betoken  doutynge,  as  si,  why  der;  mon,  wyder;  ascavôir  mon, 
to  wytte  whyder. 

Some  betoken  condisionyng  if  a  dede  be  done,  as  si,  if. 

Some  betoken  contraring,  as  iovtesfôys,  neverthelesse  ;  combien  que, 
albeit;  ov  avltrément,  or  elles;  car  avltrément,  for  elles;  non  povr  tant, 
notwithstandyng;  ce  non  ohstànt,  this  natwithstandyng. 

Accidentes  generall  or  particxilar  belongyng  to  conjunctions  i  iinde 
none ,  save  that  they  ail  goveme  the  oblique  cases  of  pronownes  pri- 
matives ,  as  Ivy  et  moy,  toy  ov  evlx,  ne  moy  ne  elle,  and  so  of  the 
resydue. 

OF  THE  INTERJECTION. 

Interjection  be  suche  as  serve  to  expresse  the  passyons  and  the  alfec- 
tions  of  the  mynde,  of  whiche. 

Some  betoken  callyng,  as  hay  or  hav. 

Some  betoken  askynge,  as  haa. 

Some  betoken  perceyving,  as  ha  ha,  atat. 

Some  betoken  an  out  crye,  as  haro. 

Some  betoken  kepyng  of  scylence,  as  hovfsche,  mom,  paix. 

Some  betoken  warnyng  of  a  daunger,  a.s  garre,  ware. 

Some  betoken  joye,  as  ho. 

Some  betoken  lamentyng,  as  helas,  las,  lasse,  hee,  henny. 

Some  betoken  marveyling,  as  a,  ôya,  dievx,  dea. 

Some  betoken  sorowynge,  as  o. 

Some  betoken  abhorringe,  as^  or  fuy. 

And  this  for  an  introduction  and  in  a  generalytie  to  shewe  howe 
many  partes  of  speche  there  be  in  the  frenche  tonge  and  what  accy- 
dentes  belong  unto  them ,  I  suppose  to  be  suffycient  :  endynge  thus 


150  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

of  my  thre  bokes  ihe  seconde ,  in  whiche  1  hâve  so  opyned  ail  the 

hole  frenche  tbng,  natwlthstandyng  any  brevite  that  I  hâve  herin  used , 

that,  if  the  lerner  hâve  this  seconde  boke  parfitey,  he  maye,  by  the 

helpe  of  the  frenche  vocabuler,be  sure  to  understande 

any  authoure  that  is  wrilten  in  the  frenche  tong 

by  his  owne  studye  without  any  techar  : 

except  some  fewe  sentences. 

whiche  the  lernar  shall 

fynde  gathered 

in  an  order 

before  the 

be- 

gynnyng  of  the  sayd  voca- 

bulyst. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  151 


THE  THIRDE  BOKE. 


Nowe  ihal  I  hâve  in  my  first  boive  sliewed  howe  the  franche  tong 
in  redyng  and  spekyng  ought  to  be  pionounced,  and  in  my  seconde 
declared  howe  many  partes  of  speche  the  same  tong  hath,  and  in  a 
generalte  intreated  of  them ,  as  fane  as  concerneth  the  declynyng  and 
conjugatyng  of  ail  suche  partes  as  vary  their  last  letters,  and  of  the 
other  partes  whiche  remayne  unchaunged  made  a  brefe,  and,  for  an 
introduction,  sufFycient  rehersall,  restelh  nowe,  usyng  the  same  order 
agayne ,  to  shewe ,  accordyng  as  I  bave  afore  promysed ,  more  exqui- 
sitely  what  other  accidentes  and  properlies  the  sayde  partes  of  speche 
bave;  so  that  the  iernar  maye  be  advertised  nat  onely  what  gendre 
ail  their  substanty vas  be  of  (whosa  gendre  the  other  declynable  partes 
must  folowe) ,  and  howe  the  sayd  siUjstantyves  forme  their  phirell 
nombres  outof  their  singidars,  and  whiche  of  their  substanty ves  be 
used  in  the  plurell  nombre  onely,  Ijut  also  howe  the  other  declynable 
partes  forme  their  plurell  nombres  outa  of  their  singulars,  their  femi- 
nynes  out  of  their  masculynes,  and  howe  their  verbes  forme  one 
mode  and  tens  out  of  another,  and  also  whan  and  whye  they  use 
somtyme  one  mode  and  tens  and  somtyme  another,  and  fardermore 
what  order  and  congruite  they  use  in  the  covenable  joynyng  of  every 
of  the  sayd  partes,  one  with  another,  as  they  come  togyder  in  sen- 
tences. After  every  of  whiche  partes,  so  completely  eutreated  of,  shall 
folowe  certayne  tables  contayning  ail  the  wordes  in  our  tong  after  the 
order  of  a,  b,  c,  with  the  frenche  wordes  joyned  unto  them,  to  thentent 
that  after  the  Iernar  can,  by  the  helpe  of  the  sayde  first  boke,  pro- 
nounce  this  frenche  tong  truely,  and,  by  the  meanes  of  the  seconde, 
with  the  frenche  vocabulyst  (whiche  shall  folowe  whan  the  thirde 
boke  with  bis  tables  is  completely  fmisshed)  understande  any  authour 


I 


152  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

that  writeth  in  the  sayd  tong,  by  his  owne  study,  without  any  other 

teacher. 

He  maye  also,  by  the  helpe  of  ihis  thirde  boke  and  tables  therunto 
belongyng,  knowe  howe  to  speke  any  sentence ,  or  truely  and  parfîtely 
to  endyte  any  mater  in  the  same  tong.  So  that,  if  he  well  note  the 
préceptes  in  this  thirde  boke  contayned ,  and  gyve  hym  to  the  often 
redyng  and  dilygcnt  observyng  of  suche  authours  as  in  the  sayd  tong 
be  moost  excellent,  orels,  if  he  be  so  mynded,  do  note  well  the  styles 
of  suche  secretaries  as  in  the  fayt  of  endityng  be  most  approved ,  he 
shall  hère,  in  this  said  thirde  boke,  fynde  ail  thynges  whiche  to  bave 
the  sayd  tong  in  parfection,  outher  to  speke  or  write  in  it,  maye  be 
requyred. 

Notynge  hère  firste  that  the  order  whiche  I  bave  taken  in  the  se- 
conde boke  is  in  this  thirde  boke  so  presisely  kept  agayn,  that  the 
hole  seconde  boke  maye  semé  to  be  but  as  a  table  unto  this  thirde 
boke.  For  every  accident  belongyng  to  the  sayd  nyne  partes  of  speche 
and  rules  whiche  I  bave,  in  the  sayd  seconde  boke,  gyven  upon  the 
sayd  accidentes,  shall  hère  in  this  thirde  boke,  in  the  selfe  same  or- 
der, be  entreated  of  agayne.  Howbeit,  for  the  lernars  more  spedy  ease, 
1  bave  hère,  before  this  thirde  boke,  set  forthe  the  table  of  ail  suche 
maters  as  in  this  same  boke  be  contayned. 

ANNOTATIONS  UPON  THE  TWO  ARTYCLES  AND  THE  TWO  ACCIDENTES 
BELONGYNG  TO  THEM. 

CAPITULUM  UNICUM. 

Vny  is  never  used  in  his  plurell  nombre  as  an  artycle  but  whan 
he  belongeth  to  suche  substantyves  as  be  of  the  plurell  nombre 
onely,  as  vngs  sajfletz,  a  payre  of  belous  :  Vues  heures,  a  primer  boke  : 
and  howe  many  substantyves,  in  this  tong,  be  used  in  their  plurell 
nombre  onely,  shall  hère  after  in  this  boke  appere. 

And  howe,  if  a  femynine  substantyve  or  his  adjectyve  begyn  with 
a  vowell  or  with  /;  nat  hawnge  bis  aspiration,  than  before  suche  they 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  153 

use  nat  vne,  but  vng;  as  vng  ame,  a  soûle;  vng  amiable  dame,  anamya- 
ble  ladye;  vng  habitation,  an  abyding;  vng  horrible  iempeste,  an  hor- 
rible tempeste,  I  bave  alredy  shewed  in  the  seconde  boke.  And  howe 
they  use  somtyme  to  joyne  vngz  to  les,  and  ail  the  gendres  and  nom- 
bres of  vng  to  the  like  gendres  and  nombres  of  chascune,  sball  heraf- 
ter  in  the  ende  of  the  pronowne  in  tins  boke  appere. 

And  note  that,  though  we  never  use  thisartycle  «  the  >>  in  any  sen- 
tence of  our  tong  but  that  the  frencliemen  use  ever  in  the  stede 
therof,  their  article  le  in  such  lyke  order  commyng  before  the  sub- 
stantive  as  we  use  hym  in  our  tong,  as  where  we  say  «  the  gooiman, 
«  ail  the  men  »,  they  say  le  bon  homme,  tous  les  hommes.  Of  our  article  «  a  » 
it  is  nat  ever  so,  for  though  we  say  «  many  a  good  man,  never  a  fayre 
«  woman,  he  is  a  gentylman  »,  and  suchelyke,  they  saye  :  Maynt  bon 
homme,  nulle  belle  femme,  il  est  tout  gentil;  leavyng  out  vng,  for  this 
article  vng  must  ever  come  before  ail  declynable  partes  belongyng  to 
any  substantyve. 

Note  also  that ,  where  we  say  «  he  is  a  good  man ,  she  is  a  good  wo- 
«  man  »  and  suche  lyke  in  the  commonspeche,  they  saye  :  il  est  bon  homme, 
elle  est  bonne  femme.  But  suche  as  be  writers  use  vng  in  maner  ever 
where  we  use  «  a  » ,  and  for  «  a  »  fewe  ruynes  «  a  certayne  other  »  they  say 
quelque  pev  de  rvynes,  quelque  pev  davltres,  usyng  for  «  a  »,  in  suche  sen- 
tences, quelque;  and  so  of  ail  other  lyke. 

ANNOTATIONS    UPON    THE    FIRST  ACCIDENT  OF  SUBSTANTIVES,  AND  FIRST 

OF  WHAT  SUBSTANTYVES  THE  GENDRE  MAY  BE  KNOWEN, 

BY  REASON  OF  THEIR  SIGNIFICATION. 

CAPITULUM  PRIMUM. 

First  ail  proper  names,  ail  names  of  dignité,  office  and  craftes, 
and  also  names  of  kynred  or  cognation  spirituall,  belongyng  onely 
tomen,  be  of  the  masculyn  gendre,  and  the  same  names  belongyng 
onely  to  women  be  of  the  femynin  gendre,  as  Henry,  roy,  pape,  chan- 
cellier,  covstvrier,  père,  pairrayn,  Harry,  king,  pope,  chaunceller,  tayliour, 
father,  godfather;   Katherine,  rôyne,  abesse,  chancelliére ,  covstvriére, 

ao 


154  LËSCLARCISSEMENT 

mère,  marràyne,  Katheryn,  quene,  abbesse,  chaiincellars  wyfe,  tayl- 

lours  wyfe,  mother,  god  mother. 

Item  the  names  of  ail  maner  trees,  whider  they  bearefrute  or  nat, 
be  of  tbe  masculyne  gendre. 

Except  that  beare  frute,  vigne  a  wyne  tree  and  oliue  an  olyfe  tre; 
but  as  for  oliuier,  wbicbe  also  signifieth  an  olyfe  tre,  foloweth  the  rule. 

Except  of  other  trees  and  shrobbes  espine  a  blacke  thorne;  and  ronce 
a  brainble. 

Item  ail  names  of  frutes  be  of  the  femyne  gendre ,  as  well  generall 
as  pomme,  an  apple,  and  pôyre,  a  peare,  as  particuler,  as  carpendv,  a 
pippyn;  estrangvillon ,  a  choke  peare. 

Except  roysin ,  a  raysin  or  a  grape  ;  biit  as  for  grappe,  a  cluestre  of 
grapes,  foloweth  the  rule. 

Item  ail  suche  substantives  whose  signification  serveth  to  men  onely, 
and  fourmeth  of  them  another  substanlyve  belongyng  onely  to  womeu, 
be  of  suche  gendre  as  theii'  signilication  requireth.  So  that  ail  now- 
nes  verballes  endyng  in  enr  be  of  the  masculyne  gendre,  and  ail 
nownes  verballes  endynge  in  esse,  fourmed  of  their  masculyns,  be 
of  the  femyne  gendre,  as  brodevr,  a  man  brodùrar;  broderésse,  a  wo- 
man  brodùrar;  tencevr,  a  man  cliyder,  tenceresse  a  woman  chyder; 
and  so  of  ail  other  verballes.  And  in  lykewise  ail  names  of  any  craftes 
men  endyng  in  ier  be  of  the  masculyn  gendre  and  ail  tliat  be 
fourmed  of  them  endyng  in  iere,  by  cause  they  signifie  their  wyves  or 
women  exercisyng  the  same  crafte,  be  of  the  femyne  gendre,  as  covs- 
tvrier,  a  tayllour;  covstvriere,  a  tayllours  wyfe  or  a  woman  tayllour; 
and  so  in  maner  of  ail  other  substantives  betokenynge  men  of  crafte. 
And  of  this  sorte  be  ail  suche  as  ende  in  oys,  beyng  formed  of  the 
names  of  countreis,  whose  femynines  ende,  for  the  moost  parte,  in 
oyse,  as  Francoys,  a  frenche  mun  ;Francoyse,  a  frenche  woman.  Ànd 
also  ail  suche  as  ende  in  art,  of  whiche  be  formed  féminins  endyng 
in  arde,  as  bastàrt,  a  man  bastarde;  bastàrde,  a  woman  bastarde.  And 
of  other  whiche  I  can  nat  comprehende  under  any  generall  rule  be 
thèse  folowynge  :  compaignôn ,  a  man  felowe;  compaigne,  a  woman  le- 


4 

DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  155 

Jowe;  macquereav,  a  man  baude  ;  macqaerélle,  a  woman  baude;  belistre, 
a  man  beggar;  beliterésse,  a  woman  beggar;  jaroyyne,  a  man  dron- 
carde;  jarésse,  a  woman  droncarde;  garcàn,  a  boy,  garce  a  gyrle;  mi- 
gnon, a  man  in  favour;  mignonne,  a  woman  in  favour;  fraw/re,  a  man 
fraytour;  tray tresse,  a  woman  traytresse;  larron,  a  tbefe;  larronnésse, 
a  woman  thefe;  peleryn,  a  man  pilgrym;  pèlerine,  a  woman  pilgrym; 
serj)ént,  a  he  sarpent;  serpente,  a  she  saqjent;  hôste,  a  man  hoste;  hos- 
tésse,  a  woman  hosXe^préstre,  a  preest;  presterésse,  a  preestes  concu- 
byne;/o/,  a  he  foole;/ô//e,  a  woman  foole;  serf,  a  bondman;  serve, 
a  bond  woman.  And  suche  as  ende  in  art,  whose  femynines  ende  in 
arde  be  of  this  sorte,  as  I  bave  afore  toucbed,  as  braggàrt,  a  man 
braggar;  braggdrde,  a  woman  braggar;  gailldrt,  a  man  fresshely  be- 
sene;  gayllàrde,  a  woman  fresshely  besene,  and  ail  suche  lyke. 

Item  ail  names  of  beestes  whiche  bave  a  distyncte  name  for  their 
maie,  and  another  for  their  female,  after  their  kynde  allre  their  gen- 
dre, of  whiche  sorte  I  fynde  thèse  substanlives  folowynge. 

Lyon,  a  lyon;  lyonésse,  a  lyonesse;  leopàrt,  a  lyparde;  leopàrde,  a 
she  leparde;  ovrs,  a  he  beare;  ovrse,  a  she  beare;  lovp,  a  he  wolfe; 
lovpue,  a  she  wolfe;  cerf,  a  harte;  byche,  a  hynde;  dayn,  a  bucke; 
biche,  a  doo;  cheuerevl,  a  gote;  chieare,  a  she  gote;  cheual,  à  horse; 
jvment,  a  mare;  thoreav,  a  buU;  uache,  a  cowe;  ueràrt,  a  boore;  trvye, 
a  sowe;  chycn,  a  dogge;  chyénne,  a  bytche;  mvlet,  a  mulet;  mvle,  a 
mule;  asne,  an  asse;  asnésse,  a  she  asse;  leurier,  a  gray  hounde;  le- 
uriére,  a  grayebytche. 

Item  ail  names  of  foules  whiche  bave  a  distyncte  name  for  their 
maie,  and  another  for  their  female,  after  their  kynde  altre  their  gen- 
dre, as  pan,  a  pecocke;  pannésse,  a  pehen;  cocq,  a  cocke;  geline,  a 
benne;  cannàrt,  a  drake;  canne,  a  ducke;  gars,  a  gander;  oye,  a  goose; 
faysànt,  a  faysantcocke;/aj5â7i^e,  a  faysant  benne;  cormerànt,  a  corme- 
raunt;  cormerdnde ,  a  she  cormeraunt;  tartre,  a  he  turlyll  dove;  turte- 
rélle,  a  she  turtyll  dove. 

Item  ail  the  names  of  monethes  and  the  four  sessons  of  the  yere 
be  of  the  masculyne  gendre,  as  novembre,  november;  esté,  sommar. 

30. 


156  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

Item  ail  names  of  cyties  be  of  the  feminyne  gendre. 

Item  ail  nownes  dimynutives  folowe  the  gendre  of  the  substantyve 
that  they  be  fourmed  of,  as  vng  lionceav,  a  lytell  lyon;  vng  cheualét,  a 
lytell  horse;  vne  maysonnette,  a  lytell  house;  vne  chanconnette,  a  lytell 
song,  by  cause  that,  as  shall  hère  afler  by  myrules  appere,  cheaâl and 
lyon  be  of  the  masculyne  gendre  and  mayson  and  chancôn  of  the  fe- 
minyne. 

Item  ail  principal  floodes  be  of  the  masculyne  gendre ,  and  smalle 
ryvers  of  the  feminyne.  I  call  them  principall  flodes  into  whiche 
many  small  ryvers  ronneth ,  as  la  Sayne,  le  Rosne,  la  Vienne,  la  Char- 
lante. 

Item  ail  the  feestes  of  the  yere  be  of  the  femyne  gendre ,  except 
Noël,  as  Pasques,  la  Chandelévr,  la  Pentecôste,  la  Tous  Saynctz,  la  saynt 
Michélle,  and  ail  suche  lyke,  for  in  ail  suche  they  understande  feste, 
whiche  is  of  the  feminyne  gendre. 

Item,  if  any  of  the  other  partes  of  speche  be  used  for  substantives , 
ail  suche  be  ever  of  the  masculyne  gendre,  as  mon  possible,  mon  blanc, 
mon  deuànt,  mon  ryén,  mon  cuidér,  mon  pencér,  and  so  of  ail  other  in- 
fynityve  modes ,  whiche  often  in  this  tonge  be  used  in  the  stede  of 
substantives ,  and  therfore  where  the  bysshoppe  of  Angolesme  saythe 
in  the  pystyll  of  Hipermestra, 

Las  que  dirày  nous  estant  en  céste  éstre 
Lavbe  dvjovr  commença  apparoistre, 

the  boke  wolde  be  corrected,  for  estre  is  of  the  masculyne  gendre. 

And  note  that  certayne  substantives  I  fynde  whiche,  thoughe  they 
be  ail  one  in  writynge,  y  et,  by  reason  of  their  dyvers  signification, 
they  alter  their  gendre ,  of  whiche  sorte  be  thèse  substantyves  fo- 
lowyng. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE. 


* 
157 


WHAT  SUBSTANTIVES  BEYNG  ALL  ONE  IN  WRITYNG,  BY  REASON  OF  THEIR 
DYVERS  SIGNIFICATION  ALTER  THEIR  GENDRE. 

CAPITULCM  II. 

Vng  charboncle,  a  carboncle,  a  precious  stone,  whiche  I  fynde  written  es- 

charbonclé. 
Vne  charboncle ,  a  carboncle,  a  sore  pestylenciail. 
Vng  costé,  a  syde  of  a  beest  or  a  partie. 

Vne  caste,  a  rybbe  of  a  beest  or  a  coost  of  a  countray. 

Vng  cvré,  a  curate  or  a  parsone  of  a  churche. 

Vne  cire,  a  cure,  a  parsonage,  or  a  cbarge. 

Vng  conte,  a  taie  or  a  mater  that  is  tolde. 

Vne  conté,  a  countie  or  a  sbire  of  a  countrey. 

Vng  compte,        is  an  accompt. 
Vng  datte,  the  date  of  a  writynge,  whiche  sheweth  the  day  and  tyme 

whan  a  writynge  is  made. 
Vne  datte,  a  date,  a  kynde  of  frute. 

Vng  exemple,       an  example  of  any  thyng. 
Vne  exemple,       an  exemplar  for  a  woman  to  worke  by. 
Vng  feste,  the  rofe  of  a  house,  or  the  wynde  beames  of  a  house. 

Vne /este,  a  feest  a  hye  daye,  or  an  assembly  of  people  at  meate. 

Vngjillé,  a  spyndell  with  yarneonit.or  an  baye  to  catche  conyse  with. 

Vne  fille,  a  doughter. 

Vng  livre,  a  boke  to  lerne  on. 

Vne  livre,  a  pounde  in  weight  or  in  money. 

Vng  lovche,  a  goggle  eyed  man. 

Vne  lovche,  a  ladyli  (the  olde  Romant  tonge). 

Vng  manche,       the  bafte  of  a  knyfe  or  the  helve  of  any  edged  tôle. 
Vne  manche,        a  sleve  of  a  gowne  or  any  other  garment. 
Vng  marché,        a  marketstede  or  a  bargayne. 

Vne  marche,        a  marches  or  boundes  bytwene  countrey  and  counti'ey. 
Vng  monstre,       a  monstre,  a  wonderfull  thyng  or  forshapen. 
Vne  monstre,       a  mustre   of  men  that  go  to  warre,  or  a  warehoiise  to 

shewe  ware  in. 
Vng  movlé,  a  moulde,  to  mouide  or  print  a  thyng  in. 


158  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

Vne  tnovle,  a  muskyll,  a  shell  fysshe. 

Vnq  paytié,  a  thrumme  of  a  hatle  or  suche  lyke. 

Vne  payne,  a  peyne,  a  grefe. 

Vng  posté,  a  pasty. 

Vne  poste,  paast  or  battre,  or  a  blette  made  with  ynke. 

Vng  péché,  a  synne  or  trespas. 

Vne  pèche,  a  pèche,  a  kynde  of  frute. 

Vng  poyx,  a  peyse  pr  a  weight. 

Vne  poyx,  a  pees,  a  kynde  of  corne,  or  pytcbe  suche  as  is  used  in 

shippes. 

Vng  poyllé,  a  canapy  to  bèare  over  a  prince,  or  a  herse  for  a  deed  body. 

Vnepàylle,  a  fryeng  pan  to  frye  any  meate  in. 

Vng  planché,  a  plancher  or  a  florthe  that  is  boorded. 

Vne  planche,  a  piancke  over  a  bridge. 

Vng  pié ,  a  fote  of  a  man  or  beest. 

Vne  pie,  a  pye  a  byrde. 

Vng  povlcé,  a  thombe,  or  the  poulce  of  a  mannes  arme. 

Vne  pàvlce,  an  ynche  of  measnre. 

Vng  sommé,  a  slepe  or  a  slombre. 

Vne  somme,  a  somme  of  money  or  of  any  other  thyng. 

Vng  sorte,  a  sorte  or  a  company . 

Vne  sorte,  a  facion  or  maner. 

Vng  tayé,  a  skuU  of  a  mannes  heed. 

Vne  tàye,  a  webbe  in  a  mannes  eye,  or  a  pyllowe  bere. 
Vng  temple,         a  temple ,  or  a  churche. 
Vne  temple,  a  temple  of  a  mannes  heed. 

Vng  testé,  a  wytnesse  that  testifyeth  in  a  mater. 

Vne  teste,  a  heed  of  a  man  or  beest. 

Vng  tovr,  a  tourne  or  a  compassyng  about  a  thyng  or  a  dede. 

Vne  tovr,  a  towre  or  a  stronge  holde. 

Vng  vis,  a  face  or  vysage. 

Vne  vis,  a  wyndingstayre,  or  a  vice  of  a  cuppe,  or  suche  lyke. 

Vng  voyllé,  a  vayle  or  a  thyng  to  cover  ones  face,  or  suche  lyke. 

Vne  vôylle,  a  sayle  of  a  shyppe. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  159 

Also  déxtre  and  sinéstre,  if  they  understande  pié  or  costé,  be  of  the 
masculyne  gendre ,  and ,  if  they  understande  mayn ,  they  be  of  the  fe- 
myn  gender. 

TO  KNOWE  THE  GENDRE  OF  THE  RESYDUE  OF  THE  SCJBSTANTIVES  IN  THE 
FRENCHE  TONG,  BY  REASON  OF  THEIR  TERMYNATIONS. 

CAPITULUM  III. 

Of  what  gendres  the  resydue  of  their  sidjstantyves  be  shall  hère 
after  appere  by  their  terminations,  and  faste. 

HOWE  THE  GENDRES  OF  ALL  SUC  HE  SUBSTANTIVES  SHALBE  KNOWEN, 

WHICHE,  THOUGH  THEY  ENDE  IN  DYVERS  TERMYNATIONS, 

HAVE  BUT  ONE  SIGNIFICATION. 

CAPITDLUM  llll. 

Notynge  first  that  ail  suche  substantives  as  be  used  of  sondrie  ter- 
minations belongyng  ail  to  one  thyng  shall,  after  my  rules  hère  fo- 
ie wynge  ,varye  their  gendre,  as  uvcil,  iiovlôir,  and  uovlénte  hetoken  ail 
one  thynge,  yet  uvéil  and  uovlôir  must  be  of  the  masculyne  gendre, 
and  uovlénte  of  the  femyne;  and  of  this  sorte  used  of  suche  as  write 
in  prose  I  fynde  thèse  folowynge  :  defàvlt,  defavlté,  demévr,  demevré 
and  demevrée,  povrpris  povrprise,  despéns  despénse,  créspe  crespine ,  dicton 
dictée,  dv  gtev  de  la  gléve,  prc  prée,  but  suche  aUthoiu's  as  write  in 
ryme  use  to  varie  the  terminations  of  substantives  very  often,  bicause 
of  the  more  just  kepyng  of  their  ryme,  especially  the  Romant  of  the 
Rose,  in  whose  dayes  the  Romant  tong  was  nat  come  to  suche  cer- 
taynte  as  sith  the  frenche  tonge  is,  so  that  it  were  requisite  to  loke 
upon  other  authours  that  write  in  prose ,  or  upon  suche  as  bave  writ- 
ten  sithe  Alayn  Cliartiers  tyme  to  knowe  the  right  frenche  wordes; 
but,  as  concemynge  this  purpose,  ail  suche  be  of  suche  gendre  as  their 
terminations  expressetli. 

WHAT  SUBSTANTIVES  IN  THE  FRENCHE  TONGE  BE  OF  THE  COMMYN  GENDRE. 

CAPITULUM  V. 

Notyng  also  that,  by  l'eason  of  their  tenninations,  the  lernar  maye 


160  LESCLARGISSEMENT 

be  in  certaynte  of  what  gendre  every  substantyve  is,  of  masculyne  or 
femyn,  save  that  they  use  thèse  sixe  uéufve,  advllére,  esclave,  gvîde, 
garde  and  hôste  of  ihe  commyn  gendre,  lyke  as  the  latyns  do  homo 
and  latro  and  suche  lyke. 

WHAT  NOWNES  THERE  BE  IN  THE  FRENCHE  TONG  OF  UNCERTAYNE 

AND  DOUTFULL  GENDRE. 

CAPITULUM  VI. 

And  notyng  also  that  they  use  thèse  sixe,  affaire,  evangille,  mevrs, 
nauire,  val,  and  gent  uncertainly,  somtyme  of  the  masculyne  gendre 
and  somtyme  of  the  feminyne.  And  therfore  I  wyll  nat  take  upon  me 
to  name  them  of  any  certayne  gendre ,  no  more  than  suche  as  hâve 
written  grammars  in  the  latyn  tonge  do  talpà  and  dama ,  and  xxi  suche 
lyke,  whiche  they  hâve  therfore  named  dahii  generis;  and  that  the 
sayde  sixe  be  so  uncertaynly  used  of  the  authours  in  the  frenche 
tonge,  shall  hère  after  by  their  authorities  appere. 

Affayre.  —  Jehan  le  Maire  en  la  primiére  epistre  de  lamant  vert. 
De  te  adaertir  de  tovt  le  mien  affaire. 

Idem  alibi  : 

Condigne  assez  selon  le  triste  affaire. 

Levesque  dAnguillesme  en  lespitre  de  Pénélope. 
Mais  Diev  juste  et  honnaire 
A  bien  pàvraev  a  ma  trescJiaste  affaire. 

Le  Romant  de  la  Rose ,  parlant  de  Virginius. 

Et  mievlx  ainsi  le  uovlvt  faire 
Que  la  livrer  a  pdtte  affaire. 

But  in  the  plurell  nombre  ail  authours  use  affàyre  in  the  masculyne 
gendre  onely. 

Evangille.  — Le  Romant  de  la  Rose  parlant  de  favlx  semblant. 

5ur  marne  je  uovs  dis  sans  gvdle 

Se  estait  le  saint  evangille. 


Idem  : 


Tant  svrmonte  céste  evangille. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  161 

In  the  plurell  nombre  ail  authours  use  evangille  in  the  femynin 
gendre. 

Mevrs.  —  Whiche  is  onely  of  the  plurell  nombre  is  used  of  the 
Romant  of  the  Rose,  through  ail  bis  boke,of  the  masculyne  gendre,  as 
Qui  toas  les  mevrs  féminins  scavôit. 
Idem  : 

Ei  toas  a  ma  raison  saccordent 
Quant  les  meurs  féminins  recôrdent, 

and  so  through  ail  bis  boke. 

Alayn  Chartier,  and  ail  that  bave  written  sithe,  use  it  of  the  fe- 
myne  gendre ,  save  that  I  fynde  in  him  : 

Que  nal  ne  pèvlt  ses  mevrs  pervers 
Compter,  par  risme  ne  par  vers. 

Et  alibi  : 

Qui  tovt  leur  mevrs  ndtarélz  leur  bâillent , 

howbeit  naturéh  may  be  saved ,  as  shall  hère  after  appere ,  and 
pervers  he  sayde  to  kepe  his  ryme  wlth  uers. 

Navire.  —  Jehan  le  Mayre  useth  doutfuUy  somtyme  of  the  femi- 
nyne  gendre,  which  also  ail  other  authours  do,  and  of  the  mascu- 
lyne gendre  dyvers  tymes,  as  :  Et  armèrent  avlcuns  petiz  nauires. 
And  :  lavltre  roy  nommé  Athanùs  se  salaâ  en  ung  petit  nanire,  et  sen 
fvîôit'en  Espaigne. 

Val.  —  Alayn  Chartier: 

Apres  passày  vne  postérne 
Ov  je  trovuày  ung  triste  ual. 

Jehan  le  Mayre  :  Si  la  Rôyne  est  de  ce  val  transitoire. 

Idem  :  Qui  est  auprès  dv  movnt  saynte  Bemàrde,  et  sestendit  en  la  val 
dAvàste  jusques  a  la  plaine  de  Playsànce. 

Idem  :  Il  print  et  conqucstà  la  cyte  divoyre  en  la  val  dAvoste. 

Gent.  —  In  the  singuler  nombre  is  used  of  ail  authours  in  the 
femyne  gendre,  in  the  plurell  nombre  somtyme  of  the  masculyn 


162  LESCLARGISSEMENT 

gendre,  but,  for  the  moost  parte ,  also  of  the  femynine.  But  le  Romànt 

jjaythe  : 

Telles  choses  ne  font 
Sinon  gens  folz  et  de  malvais  renom . 

Idem  :  Dvngz  et  davltres  gens. 
LEvesque ,  en  lepistre  de  Dido  : 

Helas  ta  aas  et  si  cognais  assez, 
Que  tes  gens  sont  fatigués,  et  lassez. 

And  Johan  le  Mayre  in  primo  :  Assembla  vng  grant  exercite  et  mar- 
uaillevx  peuple  de  toutes  gens  puissans ,  fortz  et  hardys,  et  expers  en  toutes 
sciences. 

BY   WHAT   REASON   THE  AUTHOURS  IN  DYVERS   PLACES   MAYE   BE    CORRECTED, 

AND  HOWE  THEY  MAYE  BE  EXCUSED,  WHAN  THEY  OBSERVE  NAT  SOMTYME 

THESE  RUEES,  BYCAUSE  OF  THEIR  RYME  :  AND  HOWE  THE  FRENCHE 

TONG  IS  MOCHE  CORRUPTED  BY  THE  NEGLYGENCE    . 

OF  THE  PRINTERS. 

CAPITULUM   VII. 

.  Dyvers  pther  substantyves  there  be  besydes  tbese  sixe  above  rehers- 
ed,  whiche  I  fynde  used,  somtymes  ones,  somtyme  twyse,  of  ano- 
ther  gehder  than  the  same  substantyves  be  used  of  ail  other  au- 
thours  that  write  in  the  tonge  :  whiche  I  defarre  to  speke  of,  tyll  I 
shall  bave  occasion  to  reherse  them  in  their  places  where  I  shall  speke 
of  their  terminacions;  in  whiche  places  I  wyll  reherse  the  sayde  au- 
thours  sayenges,  and  correcte  them,  or  at  the  leest  excuse  them,  by 
cause  of  the  ryme  that  the  authours  write  in ,  to  thentent  that  I  wolde 
therby  gyve  the  frenchmen  occasion  to  regarde  and  value  of  ryght 
the  parfection  of  their  owne  tonge ,  in  whiche  I  fynde  as  constant 
agrément  concernyng  their  genders,  as  I  do  in  any  of  the  thre  tonges 
parfite,  greke,  hebrieu,  or  latyn,  and  to  thentent  also  that  the  printers 
in  Fraunce  might  use  more  dilygence  that  the  bokes  of  their  owne 
tonge  shulde  nat  by  their  oversight  be  so  unparfite. 

But  of  the  very  parfection  of  the  frenche  tonge  in  dede ,  and  howe 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANGOYSE.  163 

it  is  corrupted  by  tlie  négligence  of  suche  as  medled  with  the  crafte 
of  printyng,  I  sliall  defarre  to  speke  tyll  my  prologue,  whiche  Iwyll 
Write  atthe  begynnyng  of  the  frenche  vocabular;  andnowe  to  retourne 
toltnowe  the  gendres  of  nownes  by  their  terminations. 

HOWE  THE  GENDRES  OF  NOWNES   MAY   BE  KNOWEN  BY  THEIR   TERMINATIONS, 
AND  FIRST  OF  SUCHE  AS  ENDE  IN  ANY  VOWELL,  EXCEPT  E. 

CAPITULUM  VIII. 

First,  ail  substantyves  endyng  in  any  vowell  without  it  be  e,  whe- 
rof  I  wyll  herafter  speke,  be  of  the  masculyne  gendre,  excepte  end- 
ynge  in  y,  mercj,  and  in  v,  uertù:  but  as  for  credo,  thoughe  they  use 
it  of  the  femynin  gendre,  sayeng  la  credo',  yet  it  is  no  frenche  worde, 
no  more  than  patenostre  or  ave,  whiche  they  use  in  the  masculyne 
gendre;  and  therfore  where  Johan  le  Mayre  saythe,  fe  grant  palv 
denfer,  the  booke  is  corrupte  :  it  wolde  be  la  grant  palv. 

HOVE  THE  GENDRES  OF  ALL  SUBSTANTYVES  MAY  BE  KNOWEN  THAT  ENDE 

IN  ANY  DYPHTHONGE. 

CAPITULDM  IX. 

AU  substantyves  endyng  in  any  dyphtong  be  of  the  masculyne  gen- 
der,  except  in  aj,  lay  for  a  last  of  heryng  or  suche  lyke  marchandise  : 
in  av,  peav,  a  skynne;  in  oy,foy,  faythe,  and  loy,  lawe. 

HOWE  THE  GENDRES  OF  THE  SUBSTANTYVES  MAYE  BE  KNOWEN  THAT  ENDE 
IN  ANY  CONSONANT,  EXCEPT  N.  R,  X  AND  Z. 

CAPIT13LUM  X. 

AU  substantives  endynge  in  any  consonant  except  n,  r,  x  ànd  z  (d/ 
whiche  foure  consonantes  I  wyll  hère  after  entrent)  be  of  the  mascu- 
lyne gendre,  except  : 

Endyng  in  c,  lembic,  a  styUatorie; 

In/,  clef,  a  kay;  nef,  a  shippe;  noyf,  the  snowe,  as  it  cleveth  upon 
tre  branches  of  trees  in  winler;  frost;  soyf,  thrust. 

ai . 


164  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

In  /,  pel,  a  skynne,  whiche  is  olde  Romant,  for  whiche  they  say 
nowe  peav,  lyke  as  for  thorel  tJioreav,  aignel  aigneav,  and  dyvers  suche 
lyke,  whiche  also  Alayn  Chartier  useth  moche. 

Except  endynge  in  s,  brebis,  a  shepe;  bov taillis,  bubble;  chvcas^,  a 
cadowe,  abyrde;/op,  tyme;  marm,  the  mother  ;  pardris,  apartrytche; 
riens,  nothynge;  caribdis,  a  perell  of  the  çee;  and  sovris  bothe  for  a 
mouse  and  the  brawne  of  a  mannes  arme ,  or  suche  like ,  with  his 
compoundes,  chavae  sovris,  a  backe  that  flyeth  aboute,  and  formys,  a 
pysmer. 

Except  endyng  in  /:  covrt,  a  court;  mort,  dethe  ;  nayt,  a  nyght;  dent, 
a  tothe  ;  art,  a  crafte  ;  hart,  a  with  or  wythe  ;forést,  a  forest  ;  and  part,  a 
parte,  with  his  compounde  plus  part,  the  moost  parte. 

But  where  as  agaynst  this  rule  lEvesque  dAnguillesme  saythe  : 

Te  tient  en  suspens 
Dung  mesme  art  quelle  fait  les  serpens, 

it  wolde  be  dune  mesme  art,  for  art,  as  I  bave  hère  shewed,  is  of  the 
feminyne  gendre;  so  that  Alayn  Chartier,  en  la  balade  de  Fovgieres, 
where  he  saythe  : 

Sont  punys  par  leur  malvais  art, 

he  shulde  bave  sayd  malaayse,  safe  for  the  regarde  he  had  to  his 
ryme.  But  as  for  les  sept  ars  liberavlx  whiche  I  fynde  in  Johan  le 
Mayre  maye  be  saved ,  as  I  shall  hereafter  déclare ,  whan  I  speke  of 
adjectyves  endyng  in  /. 

TO  KJMOWE  THE  GENDRE  OF  ALL  SUBSTANTYVES  ENDYNG  IN  N. 

CAPIT13LUM  XI. 

Ail  substantives  endyng  in  n,  havynge  i  or  e  commynge  before  n, 
be  of  the  masculyne  gendre,  except  alphyn,fyn  an  ende,  with  his 
compounde  perfyn  a  fynall  ende ,  and  mayn  bothe  for  a  hande  and  for 
a  queare  of  paper;  as  for  larrecyn  thefte,  I  bave  ones  founde  used  in 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  165 

the  femyne  gendre,  but  I  wyll  nat  affirme  that  it  is  of  that  gendre, 
by  cause  his  latyn  worde  is  latrocinium. 

Ail  subslantives  endyng  in  on,  havyng  i  commyng  next  before  on, 
beofthe  femyne  gendre.  Excepte  millyôn,  amyllion;  escorpiôn,  a  scor- 
pyon,  a  sarpent;  aespilion,  a  holyv/adeTSTprincle;  estovrgiôn,iîshe;psal- 
teriôn  a  psaltrion;  and  sion,  bothe  for  a  jacket  and  a  quicke  set,  or  a 
plant. 

Ail  substantives  endyng  in  on,  havyng  a  syngle  s  before  on,  be  of 
the  feminyne  gendre,  except  tison,  a  fyre  brande;  blason,  a  blasyng  or 
discryvyng  of  ons  armes  ;  peson,  a  wharle  for  a  spyndell;  ojson,  a  goose  ; 
iranchaysôn,  the  gripynge  in  onsbelly;  separaisôn,  a  particion;  son,  a 
sounde  of  a  bell  or  suche  another  thyng,  and  poynsàn,  bothe  for  a 
bodken  and  a  vessel  of  wyne;  mesprisôn,  mysbehavour.  Neverthelesse  I 
fynde  hym  used  doutfuUy,  but  I  suppose  he  foloweth  the  rule. 

But  where  as  lEvesque  Anguellesme,  en  lepistre  de  Zenône,  saythe  : 

Destraira  toy,  et  pais  et  maysôns 

Tant  seront  griefz  et  mortelz  ses  paysans , 

it  vvolde  be  griefves,  but  as  for  mortelz  may  stande  well  ynough. 

AU  substantyves  endyng  in  on,  havyng  a  double  s  before  on,  be 
of  the  masculyne  gendi-e  :  except /m5on,  a  shyvering  for  colde;  mavl- 
dission ,  a  curse  or  cursyng. 

AU  substantyves  endyng  in  on ,  with  any  other  consonant  commyng 
before  on,  be  of  the  masculyne  gendre  :  except /acon,  a  facyon;  leçon, 
a  lesson  to  lerne;  chancon,  a  songe,  and  plancon,  a  plancke  or  yong 
plante. 

But  where  as  I  fynde  in  Alayn  Chartier  : 

En  la  belle  dame  sans  mercj  ov  il  luy  playst,  et  bon  lay  semble,  gaer- 
don  contrainte  et  renchiere,  it  wolde  be  contraint,  for  gaerdon  is  of  the 
masculyne  gendre,  accordinge  to  my  rule. 


166  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

TO  KNOWE  THE  GENDRE  OF  ALL  SUBSTANTYVES  ENDYNG  fN  B. 
CAPITULDM  XII. 

AU  substantyves  endyng  in  ar  or  erhe  of  the  masculyne  gendre, 
excepte  mer,  the  see,  and  amer,  the  galle  of  a  beest. 

Ail  substantyves  endyng  in  evr,  beyng  nat  nownes  verballes,  of 
whiche  I  bave  hère  afore  made  mencion,  be  of  the  femyne  gendre, 
except  caevr,  a  harte;  labevr,  labour;  plevr,  a  wepynge;  honnevr,  with 
his  compoiinde  dislionnevr,  dyshonour;  and  evr,  happe  or  lucke  with 
bis  compoundes  bonevr  and  malevr,  good  lucke  and  yll  lucke. 

But  where  as  in  Johan  le  Mayre,  in  the  prologue  of  his  thirde 
boke,  I  fynde  : 

Povr  eaiter  tout  eri'evr fabuhvx , 
and  in  the  sonie  authoure  : 

Nettoyez  et  poargez  de  tout  errevr  fabulevx , 
I  wolde  saye  toute  errevr fabulevse ,  for  errevr  is  ofthe  feminyne  gendre, 
accordyng  to  my  rule. 

Ail  substantives  endyng  in  ir,  or  or  evr,  be  of  the  mascidyne  gen- 
dre, except  chair,  flesshe;  major,  majour;  mj'nor,  minour  ;  amovr,  love, 
und  paovr,  feare. 

But  where  as  the  Roinant  of  the  Rose  useth  clamoar,  labour,  and 
tristovr,  their  right  termination  is  in  evr,  and  therfore  ciamevr,  and 
tristevrhG  ofthe  femyne  gendre,  as  appereth  by  my  rule  next  before. 

TO  KNOWE  THE  GENDRE  OF  SUBSTANTIVES  ENDYNG  IN  X. 
CAPITULUM  XIII. 

AU  substantyves  endyng  inx,  nat  havyng  i  commynge  before  x,  be 
of  the  masculyne  gendre,  except  tovx,  the  coughe;  quevx,  a  whet- 
slone;.and  chavlx,  lyme  to  make  mortar  with. 

AU  substantyves  endyng  in  ix,  whether  the  i  be  a  parte  of  di- 
phthong  or  nat,  be  ofthe  feminyne  gendre,  excepte  choix,  a  clioyse. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  167 

TO  KNOWE  THE  GENDRE  OF  ALL  SUBSTANTYVES  ENDYNG  IN  Z. 
CAPITULUM  XIIll. 

Ail  substantives  endyng  in  z  be  of  the  masculyne  gendre,  except 
retz,  a  nette. 

TO  KNOWE  THE  GENDRE  OF  ALL  SUBSTANTYVES  AS  ENDE  IN  E. 
CAPITULUM   XV. 

Nowe  that  I  hâve  declared  howe  the  gendre  ol  ail  siJjstantyves  in 
the  frenche  tonge  maye  be  knowen,  whlche  ende  in  any  vovvell, 
diphthong  or  consonant,  except  e,  by  reason  oF  their  terinination, 
resteth  to  shewe  the  gendre  of  suche  substantyves  as  ende  in  e, 
whiche  I  hâve  hytherto  differred  to  speke  of  a  parte  by  themselfe, 
by  cause  there  is  so  great  a  nombre  of  them,  in  the  declaryng  of 
whiche  thyng  to  avoyde  confusion,  I  shall  after  the  order  of  the  o,  h, 
c,  joyne  the  vowelles  and  consonantes  unto  e,  and  shewe  the  genders 
of  ail  suche  substantives  in  their  places. 

OF  SUBSTANTYVES  ÊNDYNG  IN  BE. 
CAPITULUM   XVI. 

AU  substantyves  endyng  in  be  be  of  the  feuiynine  gendre,  excepte 
verbe,  a  worde;  ^Xià.  proverbe ,  a  proverbe. 

OF  SUBSTANTYVES  ENDYNG  IN  /Cfi. 
CAPITULUM  XVll. 

AU  substantyves  endyng  in  ice  be  of  the  masculyne  gendre,  except 
^"iwrtcc,  justyce;  malice,  malyce,  and  po/ice,  polyce. 

OF   SUBSTANTYVES  ENDYNG  IN  CHE. 
CAPITULUM  XVIU. 

AU  substantyves  endyng  in  che  be  of  the  femyne  gendre,  excepte 
embûche,  an  embusshment;  porche,  a  porche,  and  reproche,  reproch- 


168  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

yng;  dimanche,  sonday;  and  therfore  in  the  epistell  of  Dydo  where 

the  bysshoppe  saythe  : 

Si  tu  crains  donqaes  kl  reproclie  ov  diffame , 
■  Qaon  me  repvte  ton  espouse  ov  ta  femme, 

the  booke  wolde  be  corrected,  for  it  wolde  be  le  reproche. 

OF  SUBSTANTYVES  ENDYNG  IN  CE,  WITH  ANY  OTHER  LETTER  BEFORE  CE. 

CAPITULUM   XIX. 

Ali  substantyves  endyng  in  ce,  with  any  other  letter  conimynge  be- 
fore  ce,  be  of  the  femyne  gendre,  excepte  négoce  busynesse,  and  sci- 
lence  scylence. 

OF  SUBSTANTYVES  ENDYNG  IN  DE. 

CAPITULUM  XX. 

AU  substantyves  endyng  in  de  be  of  the  femynine  gendre,  except 
covlde,  an  elbowe;  eschavldé,  a  wygge;  esclande,  a  slaundre;  exorde,  a 
begynninge;  gvedde,  woode  to  dye  with;  remède,  a  remedy;  subside, 
helpe;  estade,  a  furlong. 

OF  SUBSTANTYVES  ENDYNG  IN  EE. 
.     _  CAPITULUM  XXI. 

AU  substantyves  endyng  in  ee,  be  of  the  femyne  gendre,  except 
caducée,  virga  Mercurii,  whiche  Johan  le  Mayre  useth  in  the  mascu- 
lyne  gendre. 

OF  SUBSTANTYVES  ENDYNG  IN  FE  OR  IN  FFE. 

CAPITULUM  XXII. 

AU  substantyves  endynge  in/e  or  in^e  be  of  the  femyne  gendre 
without  any  exception. 

OF  SUBSTANTYVES  ENDYNG  IN  AGE  OR  AIGE. 
CAPITULUM  XXIII. 

AU  substantyves  endyng  in  âge  or  aige,  whiche  termynation  is  aU 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  169 

one  in  the  frenche  tong,  as  I  hâve  touched  in  the  first  boke,  be  of 
the  masculyne  gendre,  except  cayge,  acsge;ymaige,  an  ymage ; /j/aigrg, 
a  snare,  and  raige;  but  advantaige ,  avauntage,  I  fynde  used  doutfully. 
But  I  wolde  suppose  hym  to  be  of  the  masculyne  gendre,  and  therfore 
where  lEvesque  dAngulIesme  savthe  : 

Faire  de  cire  maintz  ymages 

Semblera  cevlx  ov  elle  aevlt  dommages , 

the  boke  wolde  be  maintes. 

But  where  as  be  saythe  in  thepystell  of  Dydo, 

Ha  que  movltfaz  cause  de  mon  domaige , 
Quant  mefiay  en  son  playsant  ymage , 

that  proveth  nat  ymage  to   be   of  the  masculyne  gendre,  as  shall 
hère  after  by  my  rules  playnly  appere.  And  that  ymage  is  of  the  fe- 
myne  gendre  appereth  plainlye  in  the  same  epystell  by  thèse  wordes  : 
Jay  son  ymaige  paincte  au  vif  et  pourtraicte. 

Where  as,  ifhe  were  of  the  masculyne  gendre,  he  wolde  bave  sayd 
painct  et  pourtraict. 

OF  SUBSTANTYVES  ENDYNG  IN  GE.  WITIl  ANY   OTHER   CONSONENT  COMMYNG 

BEFORE  GE. 
CAPITULUM  XXIIII. 

AU  substantyves  endyng  in  ge,  with  any  other  letter  commyng  be- 
fore  ge,  be  of  the  femyne  gendre,  except  ange,  an  angell;  archange, 
an  archangell;  chalenge,  a  challeng;  change,  a  change;  cierge,  a  tapar; 
collège,  a  colledge;  congé,  leave;  déluge,  a  floode;  eschange,  a  chaunge; 
gaige,  a  pledge;  herberge,  an  harborowe;  liège,  a  corke  for  a  slyppar; 
litige,  stryfe;  loge,  a  lodge;  pleige,  a  pledge;  priuilege,  a  privylege; 
prodige,  a  wondre;  refuge,  helpe;  sacrilège,  sacrilège;  siège,  a  siège  to 
sytte  upon,  or  a  siège  about  a  towne;  singe,  an  ape;  songe,  a  dreme; 
sortilège,  sortilège;  and  uovlge,  a  byll  a  weapen. 

But  where  as  Alayn  Chartier  saythe  in  bis  quadrilogue  :  Regarde 
ma  très  languerevse  affliction,  et  tu  cognoisteras  que  toutes  refuges  me 

aa 


170  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

défaillent,  the  boke   wolde  be  correcled,  fer  it  wolde  be  que  tous 

refuges,  for  refuge  is  of  the  masculyne  gendre,  accordynge  to  my 

rule. 

6F  SUBSTANTYVES  ENDYNG  IN  lE. 
CAPlTULUM  XXV. 

AU  substantyves  endyng  in  ie,  i  beyng  a  vowell,  be  of  the  feinyne 
gendre,  excepte  barronnye,  cheualerye,  clergie,  congyé,  and/oje a ly ver. 
But  as  for  dictye,  a  dytie;  marchyé,  for  a  bargayne  or  a  markestede  or 
chepe;  planckyé,  a  plancke;  and  traictie,  a  treatyse;  though  Alayn 
Chartier  use  to  write  them  with  an  i  before  e,  they  that  bave  written 
sythe  bis  tyme  use  more  dicté,  marché,  planché,  and  traicté. 

OF  SUBSTANTYVES  ENDYNG  IN  LE,  HAVYNG  A  VOWELL  COMMYNG  NEXT 

BEFORE  LE. 

CAPlTULUM  XXVI. 

Ail  substantyves  endyng  in  le,  bavyng  a  vowell  commyng  nexte  be- 
fore le,  be  of  the  femyne  gendre,  except  balé  a  baies,  a  brome  or  a 
precious  stone,  and  idole  an  ydole,  scrupule  a  doutynge,  stile  a  style, 
and  zèle  love  or  zeie. 

OF  SUBSTANTYVES  ENDYNG  IN  BLE. 
CAPlTULUM  XXVIL 

AU  substantyves  endyng  in  ble  be  of  the  masculyne  gendre,  except 
bible  the  byble,  chesuble  a  chesable,  estable  a  stable,  and  table  a  table. 
Howe  be  it  I  fynde  in  the  bysshope  of  Anguyllesme  : 

Et  toat  ainsi  que  les  nouuelles  blés 
Gresles  et  tendres  de  petit  vent  troublées, 

but  aU  other  authours  use  ble  .in  the  masculyne  gendre ,  accordyng 
to  my  rule. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  171 

OF  SUBSTANTYVES  ENDYNG  IN  CLE. 
CAPiTULUM  XXVIII. 

All_^  substantyves  endyng  in  de  be  of  the  masculyne  gendre,  except 
bovticle,  a  shoppe. 

But  where  as  Alayn  Chartier  saythe  miracle  gracievse,  and  the  Ro- 
mant  of  the  Rose  : 

Cil  voit  (jue  la  chose  est  a  certes 
Et  uoit  les  miracles  apertes, 

they  hâve  bothe  used  myracle  of  the  femyne  gendre  for  by  cause  of 
the  ryme,  where  as  I  ever  elles  fynde  hym  of  themasculyne  gendre, 
accordyng  to  te  generall  rule  touched  in  the  seconde  boke,  for  bis 
latyn  worde  is  hoc  miraculam. 

OF  SUBSTANTYVES  ENDYNG  IN  FLE. 
CAPITCLUM  XXIX. 

Substantyves  endyng  in  y/el  fynde  no  mo  but  escovfle,  a  kyte  a  put- 
tocke  ;  and  pantovjle,  a  slyppar  ;  whiche  be  of  the  femyne  gendre. 

OF  SUBSTANTYVES  ENDYNG  IN  GLE. 
CAPITULUM  XXX. 

AU  substantyves  in  gle  be  of  the  masculyne  gendre,  excepte  aigle, 
an  egle;  cengle,  a  gyrthe  ;  and  règle,  a  rule. 

OF  SUBSTANTYVES  ENDYNG  IN  LIE. 
CAPITULUM  XXXI. 

Ail  substantyves  endynge  in  lie  be  of  the  femyne  gendre ,  excepte 
Capitolle,  scrupalle,  idollc,  domicilie,  whiche  thre  substantives  I  wolde 
Write  with  a  syngle  /,  bicause  their  latyn  wordes  be  written  with  a 
syngle  /;  volaille,  a  company  of  byrdes  flyeng;  interaalle,  the  space 
bytwene  two  hylles  or  bitwene  two  tymes;  palle,  a  pale  ;  rolle,  a  rôle  ; 
and  libelle,  a  lybell. 

aa. 


172  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

But  where  as  the  Romant  of  the  Rose  sayth  : 

Et  regarde  il  toasjoars  a  vne  estoille 
Si  ne  court  pas  tousjours  dvng  voylle , 

it  wolde  be  une  for  voylle,  for  a  sayle  is  ever  used  of  the  femynine 
gendre,  as  I  hâve  afore  declared;  for  of  the  latyn  worde  hoc  vélum 
cometh  voyle  for  a  vayle  which  is  of  the  masculyne  gendre ,  accord- 
yng  to  the  generall  rule,  and  the  other  is  used  of  the  feminyne 
gendre  by  cause  of  a  différence. 

OF  SUBSTANTYVES  ENDYNG  IN  PLE. 
CAPITULUM  XXXII. 

Ali  subslantyves  endyng  in  pie  be  of  the  masculyne  gendre,  except 
covple,  a  couple,  a  payre;  and  gvimple,  a  wympyll;  and  exemple,  an 
example. 

OF  SUBSTANTYVES  ENDYNG  IN  SLE. 
CAPITULUM  XXXIH. 

AU  substanty ves  endyng  in  sle  be  of  the  masculyne  gendre ,  except 
esle,  a  wyng;  and  gresle,  hayle. 

In  le  with  any  other  consonant  I  fynde  but  marie,  marie  to  fatte 
the  erthe  with,  whiche  is  of  the  masculyn  gendre. 

OF  SUBSTANTYVES  ENDYNG  IN  ME. 
CAPITULUM  XXXIIII. 

AU  substantyves  endynge  in  me  be  of  the  femyne  gendre ,  excepte 
abisme,  a  depe  place  ;  avrijlame,  the  chiefe  standart  of  the  frenche 
kynge;  bavhme,  baulme;  baptisme,  ha^ptym  ;blasme,h\sLme;  blasphème, 
mispekyng  of  God;  carme,  for  a  calme  wether;  crime,  a  synne  ;  dia- 
dème, a  crowne  for  a  prince;  diffame,  yvell  spekyng;  esme,  for  an 
ame  or  a  gessyng;  germe,  sede  ;  latiesme,  the  letany;  uolume,  a  vo- 
lume; psealme,  a  psalme;  phantosme,  a  fantosy;  proesme,  a  proheme  ; 
problème,  a  problème;   royavlme ,  a  reaime;   régime,   a  govemyng; 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  173 

schisme,  a  scissym  or  enusion  ;  syllogisme,  a  sylogysme  ;  sparme,  mannes 
sede;  sophisme,  a  sophyme;  terme,  a  terme  ;  thyeme,  anantetyme  of  a 
sermon. 

As  for  the  gendre  of  apostemc  I  hâve  nat  yet  observed,  but,  aller 
the  generall  rule,  it  muste  be  of  the  masculyne  gendre,  lyke  as  ail 
thèse  greke  wordes  hère  afore  rehersed,  by  cause  the  latyns  use  them 
in  the  neutre  gendre.  And  therfore  Alayn  Chartier,  in  bis  quadrilogue 
where  be  speketh  of  the  treasour  of  Fraunce ,  wolde  be  corrected 
where  be  saythe  :  Mais  cest  vne  droicte  abisme  on  tout  se  font  et  despent. 
And  also  in  another  place  of  the  same  boke ,  where  be  saythe  :  Et 
povr  ce  que  les  jugemens  de  Diev  sans  que  riens  ne  se  faict  sont  vne  pro- 
fonde abisme,  for  abisme  is  of  the  masculyne  gendre,  accordyng  to 
myne  exception. 


OF  SUBSTANTYVES  ENDYNG  IN  MME. 
CAPITULUM  XXXV. 


Ali  substantives  endyng  in  mme  be  of  the  femyne  gendre ,  except 
heavlme. 


OF  SUBSTANTYVES  ENDYNG  IN  NE. 
CAPITULUM  XXXVI. 


Ail  substantyves  endyng  in  ne  be  of  the  femyne  gendre,  except 
avlmosne,  almesse;  cigne,  a  swanne  ;  crespine,  a  cyprès  lynyn  ciothe  ; 
demayne  or  domayne,  demayne  landes  ;  ^une,  a  faste;  infortune,  a  mys- 
chaunce;  quintaine,  a  quyntayne  to  juste  at;  patrimoine,  a  patrimony  ; 
pigne,  a  combe;  règne,  a  raigne  ;  signe,  a  token;  throne,  a  trône,  ly- 
come  an  unicorne  beest,  and  origine  a  begynnyng,  I  suppose  shuide 
be  of  the  masculyne  gendre ,  but  I  hâve  nat  sene  it ,  and  therfore 
where  Aiayn  Chartier  saytli  in  bis  quadrilogue  :  Ainsi  croy,  que  le  fleal 
de  la  diaine  justice ,  qui  nous  fier  t  par  laduercite  présente  novs  doybt  esmov- 
uoir  a  prendre  covraige,  povr  novs  hors  jecter  de  ceste  infortune,  it  wolde 
not  be  ceste  infortune,  for  infortune  is  of  the  masculyne  gendre.  But 


174  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

as  for  guigne,  I  fynde  hym   doutfuUy   used  in  the  Romant  of  the 

Rose,  as  : 

Ov  s'il  a  son  lahevr  gaigne, 

Mays  il  ne  pevt  de  son  gaigne. 

Idem  : 

Son  don  multiple  et  gaigne 
Quest  bien  certayn  de  sa  gaigne. 

But  the  right  frenche  worde  is  goyng  whiche,  by  reason  of  his  ter- 
mination ,  muste  nedes  be  of  the  masculyne  gendre. 


OF  SUBSTANTYVES  ENDYNG  IN  OE. 
CAPITDLLM  XXXVll. 


AU  substantyves  endyng  in  oe  be  of  the  femyne  gendre, 

OF  SUBSTANTYVES  ENDYNG  IN  PE. 
CAPITULUM  XXXVIII. 

AU  substantyves  endyng  in  y^e  be  of  the  femyne  gendre,  except 
crespe,  mancipe  and  principe. 

In  phe  I  fynde  no  more  but  triumphe  and  epitaphe  whiche  bothe 
be  of  the  masculyne  gendre. 

OF  SUBSTANTYVES  ENDYNG  IN  PE. 
CAPITCLUM  XXXIX. 

AU  substantyves  endyng  in  re,  havyng  a  vowell  commyng  next  be- 
fore  re,  outher  alone  or  in  a  diphthonge,  be  of  the  femynyne  gendre, 
except  adultère,  for  a  man  advoUerer  and  the  syn,  but  adultère  for  a 
woman  advuoulterer  must  nedes  be  of  the  femyne  gendre ,  by  cause 
of  his  signification. 

Excepte  also:  aduersaire,  bréviaire,  cemitiere,  colire,  consistoire,  con- 
traire, denaire,  empire,  exemplaire,  yaoire,  luminure,  martire,  miliaire, 
misère,  monastère,  murmure,  offretoire,  perjare,  presbitoire ,  purgatoire,  re- 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  175 

paire,  sanctuaire,  salaire,  scapulaire ,  sidère ,  suaire ,  territoire ,  vitupère,  for 
ail  their  latyn  wordes  ende  in  um,  and  be  of  the  neutre  gendre.  But 
where  as  Alayn  Chartier,  in  his  Quadrilogue,  saythe  :  la  murmvre  du 
pevple,  the  booke  wolde  be  corrected,  for  it  wolde  be  le  murmvre,  ac- 
cordynge  to  my  rule,  and  as  for  the  englysshe  of  thèse  substantyves, 
bicause  of  brevyte  I  overpasse  them,  referryng  the  lernarto  the  frenche 
vocabular. 

OF  SUBSTANTYVES   ENDYNG  IN  RBE. 
CAPITULUM  XL. 

Ail  substantyves  endyng  in  rre  be  of  the  femyne  gendre. 

Except  arre,  as  larre  des  chatz,  the  catenvawyng  of  cattes;  bevrre, 
butter;  bavbevrre,  whey;  curre,  a  charet;  levrre,  a  lure  fora  hauke, 
or  the  loke  or  countenaunce  of  a  parson;  foirre,  strawe;  tonnoyrre, 
thundre;  and  uoyrre,  a  glasse  to  drinke  in;  for  al!  their  latyn  wordes 
also  ende  in  um  and  be  of  the  neutre  gendre. 

OF  SUBSTANTYVES  ENDYNG  IN  SE. 
CAPITULDM  XLl. 

AU  substantyves  that  ende  in  se  be  of  the  femyne  gendre. 

Except  colosse,  and  that  I  fynde  dyuorse  used  of  the  bisshope  of 
Anguillesme  doutfully,  as  povr  en  faire  entre  nous  le  divorse. 

Idem.  Pçiris  Alexandre  a  envoyé  la  belle  diuorse,  but  I  suppose  di- 
uorse  rather  to  be  of  the  masculyne  gendre,  by  cause  his  latyn  worde 
is  diuortium. 

OF  SUBSTANTYVES  ENDYNG  IN  TRE. 
CAPITULUM  XLII. 

AU  substantyves  endyng  in  tre  be  of  the  masculyne  gendre. 

Except  chartre,  bothe  for  a  prison  and  a  princes  chartre  or  par- 
done;  epystre,  a  pysteU;/enes<re,  a  wyndowe;  lettre,  a  letter;  and  tartre, 
a  tarte.  As  for  lovtre,  an  ottre,  I  finde  in  Phebûs,  de  Déduit  de  la  chasse, 


176  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

used  uncertainlye ,  but,  in  other  aulhours,  I  note  hym  to  folowe  my 

rule.  And  vvhere  as  the  romant  of  the  Rose  saythe  : 

Quant  apperccvt  Ihoirible  monstre 

Toute  preste  a  batailler, 

ihe  boke  wolde  bc  corrected  for  accordyng  to  my  generall  rule, 
where  1  shewed  what  substantyves  beyng  ail  one  in  writyng,  by  rea- 
son  of  their  dyvers  signification,  altre  their  gendre.  Monstre  for  a  mons- 
tre is  of  the  masculyne  gendre. 

OF  SUBSTANTYVES  ENDYNG  IN  liE,  WITH  ANY  OTHER  CONSONANT  COMMYNG 

BEFORE  RE. 

CAPITULUM  XLlIl. 

AU  substantyves  endyng  in  re,  with  any  other  consonant  commynge 
before  rc,  be  of  the  femyne  gendre. 

Except  ambre,  ambcr;  camfre,  camfory;  chancre,  bothe  for  a  lobster 
and  fora  çanker  a  disease;  chamure,  hempe;  cjc?re,  sydar  drinke;  coffre, 
a  coffer;  congre,  a  congre;  degré,  a  steppe  or  degré  ;  esclandre,  a  slaundre; 
gendre,  for  a  kynde;  gre  as  bon  gre,  mal  gre;  gingembre,  gynger;  govffre, 
a  great  fall  of  water  or  the  mouthe  of  a  great  hoUowe  thynge;  haare, 
a  havyn;  hongre,  agelding;  Heure,  anhare;  lucre,  wynnyng;  mandeglaire, 
a  niandrake;  malendre,  a  malandre,  a  sore;  marbre,  marble;  membre,  a 
membre;  ojfrc,  an  ofFrynge,  used  as  yet  of  the  doutefull  gendre;  op- 
probre, a  rebuke;  pre,  a  medowe;  repayre,  a  repayre;  «acre,  a  sacre,  a  hauke, 
safre;  sépulcre,  a  sépulcre  ;  simulacre,  an  ymage  ;  sulphre,  brimstone  ;  sucre, 
sugar;  tirfre,  a  tygre -,  timbre ,  a  tymbre;  uespre,  an  evennyng;  and  vmbre, 
a  shadowe.  As  for  encombre  and  cojfre  I  bave  nat  yet  observed  what 
gendi'e  they  be  of  ;  but,  where  as  the  Romant  of  the  Rose,  in  the  dis- 
cription  of  the  bouse  of  Fortune,  and  the  ylande  where  it  is  sette, 
useth  arbre  sixe  tymes  toguyder  in  the  femyne  gendre,  the  same 
authour  and  ail  other  elswhere  useth  hym  accordyng  to  my  rule  ;  and 
as  for  pricvré  is  of  the  femyne  gendi'e  accordyng  to  my  rule ,  though 
1  fynde  hym  of  some  writers  mysused. 

And  note  that  of  the  ntiooste  parte  of  thèse  substantyves  to  a  latyn 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  177 

man  the  gendre  may  bc  easely  knowen,  for  so  moche  as  thelr  latin 
wordes,  accordyng  to  the  generall  rule,  ende  in  um  and  be  with  them 
of  the  neutre  gendre. 

OF  SUBSTANTYVES  ENDYNG  IN  TE. 
CAPITULUM  XLHIl. 

Ail  substantyves  endyng  in  te  be  of  the  femyne  gendre. 

Except  acte,  an  acte;  antidote,  a  recept  against  a  poyson ;  arbuste,  a 
shrobbe,  a  lowe  tre;  cyrcvite,  a  cyrcute,  a  goyng  or  compassynge  about 
a  thyng;  dovbte,  a  doute;  dicté,  a  dyte  of  a  song;  geste,  a  jest  in  acte; 
yiste,  a  lodgyng ;  mm/e ,  a.  meryle  ;  ypocrite,  anypocrite;  reste,  the  rest 
that  leaveth  of  a  thyng  or  somme;  teste,  a  wytnesse;  traicté,  a  tracte 
or  a  treylise;  tumulte,  a  prease  of  people;  conte  for  a  taie. 

OF  SUBSTANTYVES  ENDYNG    IN  TTE. 
CAPITULUM  XLV. 

AU  substantyves  endyng  in  ite  be  of  the  femynine  gendre. 


OF  SUBSTANTYVES  ENDYNG  IN  VE,  THE  V  BEYNG  A  CONSONANT. 
CAPITULUM  XLVI. 

AU  substantives  endyng  in  ve  be  of  the  femyne  gendre. 

Except  conclave,  a  parlour;  conuyve,  a  geste;  esprevue,  a  profe; 
oeue,  the  roughe  of  a  fysshe;  gleyve,  a  v/ea.pyn;  Jlevue ,  a  floode.  As 
for  prévue  foloweth  the  rule,  thoughe  I  fynde  hym  of  some  writers 
mysused. 

OF  SUBSTANTYVES  ENDYNG  IN  VE,  THE  V  BEYNG  A  VOWELL. 
CAPITULUM  XLVII. 

AU  substantyves  endynge  in  ve  be  of  the  femyne  gendre. 
Excepte  masque,  muske;  maisgue,  the  ronnelles  suche  as  chese  is 
made  with  ;  and  gve,  a  place  in  a  ryver  where  one  maye  wade  over. 

2.S 


178  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

OF  SUBSTANTYVES  ENDYNG  IN  XE. 
CAPITULUM  XLVIII. 

Substantyves  endynge  in  xe  I  fynde  no  more  but  sixe  whiche  ail 
be  of  tbe  masculyne  gendre. 

TO  KNOWE  THE  GENDRE  OF  SUCHE  SUBSTANTYVES  AS  BE  COMPOUNDE  IN   THE 

FRENCHE   TONGE,   AND   OF  SUCHE   ALSO   AS   BE   EXPRESSED  BY   THRE 

WORDES  OF  WHICHE  THE  MYDDLE  WORDE  IS  A  PREPOSITION. 

CAPITDLUM  XHX. 

Nowe  that  I  hâve  declared  howe  the  gendres  of  ail  substantyves  in 
tbe  frenche  tong  may  be  knowen ,  whiche  be  wordes  alone  by  them 
selfe ,  resteth  nowe  to  shewe  the  gendre  of  ail  suche  as  be  compomxde 
of  two  wordes  or  elles  be  expressed  by  thre  wordes  of  whiche  the 
myddell  is  a  préposition;  for  the  déclaration  of  whiche  thing  it  is  to 
be  noted  that  there  be  four  sortes  of  compounde  substantyves  in  the 
frenche  tonge. 

First.  Some  be  compounde  of  two  wordes,  of  whiche  eche  ofthem 
be  unparfite by  theniselfe ,  as  dimanche,  sonday;  landj,  monday;  mardy, 
tuesday  ;  mercredy,  wednisd&y ;juevdy,  thursday;  uendredy,  friday;  samedy, 
saturdaye;  mydy,  noone;  and  suche  lyke.  And  ail  suche  be  of  suche 
gendre  as  their  termination  requyreth,  excepte  dimanche  of  whiche  I 
hâve  made  mencyon  in  the  substantyves  endyng  in  che. 

Seconde.  Some  be  compounde  of  two  wordes  of  whiche  the  last  is 
a  substantyve  distyncte  by  hym  selfe ,  thoughe  the  first  be  unparfyte , 
as  printemps ,  thespringof  theyere;  bersaull,  a  quyntine;  licol,  a  halter; 
mynuyt,  mydnight;  and  suche  lyke.  And  ail  suche  aJso  be  of  suche 
gendre  as  their  later  substantyve  is  alone  by  hymselfe. 

Thirde.  Some  be  compounde  of  two  wordes  of  whiche  the  one  is 
a  substantyve  and  the  other  an  adjectyve,  as  Monsieur,  the  heyre  ap- 
paraunt  of  Fraunce;  Madame,  the  heyre  apparauntes  wyfe,  or  the 
kynges  mother;  bonhomme,  a  Tpoore  husbande  man;  bonne  femme,  apoore 
woman;  gentylhômme,  a  gentyllman;  gentyl  femme,  a  gentyll  woman; 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  179 

beavpere,  a  father  in  lawe  or  a  beaupere  a  felowe;  bellemere,  a  mother  in 
la.we-^ grantpere,  agraunt  father;  meregrant,  a  graunt  mother;  and  suche 
lyke.  And  ail  suche  be  of  suche  gendre  as  the  substantyve,  if  alone  by 
hym  selfe,  shulde  be. 

Fourthe.  Some  be  compounde  of  two  wordes  of  whiche  the  one  is 
a  substantyve ,  the  other  somtyme  also  a  substantyve ,  and  somtyme 
some  other  parte  of  speche,  as  garderohe,  a  wardroppe;  portebaffet , 
hethat  hath  charge  of  a  great  mannes  plate;  savhieconduit,  a  safe  con- 
ducte;  ortiegriache ,  a  wylde  nettell  ;  ^Haresme  prennan^  shraftyde;  sur- 
sault,  a  sodayne  starte;  sombresault ,  a  tumblyng  caste;  barbedieu,  the 
sede  of  dandelyon  whiche  children  call  preestes  crownes;  and  su- 
che lyke.  And  ail  suche  be  of  suche  gendre  as  the  substantyve  is  alone 
by  hymselfe;  but  they  which  be  made  of  two  substantyves,  as  bar- 
bedieu, chausse  trappe,  shalbe  of  suche  gendre  as  the  later  substantyve 
is  alone  by  hymselfe. 

But,  if  they  be  expressed  by  thre  wordes  of  which  the  myddle  worde 
is  a  préposition,  as  bec  de  faulcon,  apollax;  tablier  a  femme,  a  womans 
naperne  ;  husche  a  pétrir,  a  knedynge  troughe,  and  suche  lyke,  ail  suche 
shalbe  of  suche  gendre  as  the  substantyve  is  that  cometh  before 
the  préposition.  And  this  for  to  knowe  the  gendres  of  ail  the  sub- 
stantyves ,  in  the  frenche  tong,  bothe  symple  and  of  suche  as  be  com- 
pounde, 1  thynke  to  be  sufficient. 

ANNOTATIONS  UPON  THE  SECONDE  ACCIDENT  OF  SUBSTANTYVES,  AND  FIRST 

WHAT  PLURELL  NOMBRES  ENDE  IN  S  AND  HOWE  ALL  SUCHE 

BE  FOURMED  OUT  OF   THEIR  SYNGULARS. 

CAPITULUM  L. 

AU  substantyves  endyng  in  any  vowell,  by  addyng  to  of  s,  fourme 
their  plurelles,  as  homme  hommes,  mercy  mercys,  uertv  uertvs. 

Except  suche  substantyves  as  ende  in  e,  havyng  their  accent  upon 
the  same  e:  for  ail  suche ,  by  addyng  to  of  z,  fourme  their  plurelles,  as 
bonté  bontez. 

AU  substantyves  endyng  in  ay  or  oy,  by  addyng  to  of  s,  forme  their 

a3. 


-t 


180  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

plurelles,  as  essay  essays,  esmoy  esmoys ,  excepte  loy,  whiche  maketh  loix 
in  his  plurell  nombre  by  addyng  to  of  x. 

Also  ail  substantyves  endyng  in  m,  n  or  f,  by  addyng  to  of  s,  forme 
their  plurelles,  as  nom  noms,  mayson  maysons,  mur  murs,  brodeur  hro- 
devrs,  covp  covps  :  but  ail  suche  substantyves  as  ende  in  t  or  in  d,  if 
they  hâve  n  or  r,  commynge  nexte  before  them,  by  cbaungynge  their 
laste  letters  in  to  s,  fovu"me  their  plurelles,  as  accord  accors,  serment 
sermens,  except  chant  and  gant,  for  whose  plurelles,  for  the  most  parte, 
they  use  chantz  and  gantz  by  addynge  of  z. 

WHAT  PLURELL  NOMBRES  ENDE  IN  X,  AND  HOWE  ALL  SUCHE  BE  FODRMED 
OUT  OF  THEIR  SYNGULARS. 

CAPITULUM  LI. 

Ail  sidDstantyves  endyng  in  eu,  ou,  evl  or  ovl,  by  addyng  to  of  x, 
foui'me  their  plurelles,  as  diev  dievx,  clov  clovx,  cheuercvl  cheuerevlx, 
povl  povlx,  genoul  genovlx:  but  where  as  1  fynde  in  Johan  le  Mayre 
povyl  and  genovyl,  with  an  i  added  before  the  /,  that  kynde  of  writinge 
I  do  nat  approve. 

Also  ail  substantyves  endyng  in  avlt,  by  chaungyng  of  /  into  x,  forme 
their  plurell  nombres,  as  heravlt  heravlx. 

Also  ail  substantyves  endyng  in  eav,  whose  olde  Roniant  worde  was 
wont  to  ende  in  el ,  by  a:ddyng  of  /  and  x  to  their  syngulars  fourme 
their  plurelles,  as  thoreav  thoreavlx,  wherby  appereth  that  we  bave 
taken  dyvers  of  our  substantyves  beyng  of  thèse  sorte  out  of  the  olde 
romant  tonge ,  as  charnel,  hedel,  barbel,  jouel,  bovcl,  chastel,  mantel, 
fardel,  seel  and  suche  lyke,  of  whiche  if  their  el  be  tourned  into  eav, 
maye  be  made  right  frenche  wordes ,  as  chameav,  bedeav,  barbeav,  etc.; 
whose  plurelles  howe  they  be  fourmed  apperelh  hère  by  my  rule. 
But  ail  that  ende  in  eav  or  in  av,  beyng  nat  fourmed  oui  of  olde  Ro- 
mante  substantyves,  by  addynge  of  x  onely,  fournie  their  plurelles,  as 
raynceav  raynceavx. 

Also  ail  suljstantyves  endyng  in  al,  by  addynge  to  of  u  to  their  a 
and  to  their  /  an  x,  fourme  their  pluielles,  as  cheval  cheuavlx. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  181 

Also  ail  substantyves  endyng  in  ail,  by  chaungynge  of  y  into  u, 
and  addynge  to  of  x,  fourme  tlieir  plurelles ,  as  trauayl  trauavlx. 

WHAT  PLURELL  NOMBRES  ENDE  IN  Z.  AND  HOWE  ALL  SUCHE  BE  FOURMED 

OUT  OF  THEIR  SYNGULERS. 

CAPITULUM  LU. 

Ail  substantyves  endyng  in  c,  in  d,  a  vowell  commyng  nexte  before 
the  d. 

Also  ail  substantyves  endyng  in/,  in  çj,  in  el,  beynge  a  ryght  fren- 
che  worde,  and  nat  of  the  olde  Romant  in  il  or  in  ol. 

Also  ail  substantyves  endyng  in  q,  orin  /,  a  vowell  commyng  next 
before  the  t,  by  addynge  to  oi  z,  forme  their  plurelles  :  as  sac  sacz, 
parc  parez,  nyd  nydz,  piedpiedz,  nefnefz,  cerf  cerf  z ,  jovg  jovgz ,  poyny 
poyngz ,  fiel  fielz ,  péril  perilz ,  fol  folz ,  cocq  cocqz,  chat  chatz,  secret  se- 
cretz,  mot  motz,  and  ail  that  ende  in  e,  havyng  their  accent  upon  the 
same  e,  accordyng  as  I  bave  hère  afore  touched. 

And  note  that,  thoughe  I  fynde  thèse  rules  somtyme  broken,  I 
impute  that  to  the  neglygence  or  rather  ignorance  of  the  printers 
than  to  the  authoms,  howe  be  it  the  tonge  is  nat  yet  so  utterly  corne 
to  bis  perfection  but  that  I  fynde  somtyme  diversité  amongest  the 
authours  selfe. 

But  w^here  as  I  fynde  in  Jehan  le  Mayre  estomach  and  roch  for  es- 
tomac and  roc,  in  suche  writyng  he  is  nat  to  be  folowed. 

WHAT  SUBSTANTYVES  THERE  BE  IN  THE  FRENCHE  TONGE,  WHICHE  HAVE 
THE  PLURELL  NOMBRE  ONELY  AND  NAT  THE  SYNGULAR. 

CAPITULUM  LUI. 

There  be,  besydes  the  substantyves  hère  above  rehersed,  certayne 
other  in  the  frenche  tong,  whiche  be  of  the  plxu"ell  nombre  onely, 
and  bave  no  syngular  at  ail,  other  by  cause  the  latyn  wordes  of  whiche 
they  be  deduced  be  so  used  in  the  latyn  tonge,  as  nopces,  ftansaylles , 
uigiles,  obsèques,  and  suche  lyke,  by  cause  the  latyns  saye,  nuptie, 
sponsalia,  uigilie,  obsequie,  or  elles  by  cause  they  signifie  suche  instru- 


182  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

mentes  or  tôles  as  we  in  our  tong  use  to  narae  by  payres ,  as  ungz  suf- 
fletz,  ungz  pièges,  unes  lunettes,  unes  patenostres,  by  cause  we  saye  in 
oure  tonge  a  payre  of  bellous,  a  payre  of  stockes,  a  payre  of  spec- 
tacles, a  payre  of  bedes;  and  of  this  sort  howe  many  I  fynde  in  the 
frenche  tong  shall  hère  appere ,  and  also  what  gendre  they  be  of  by 
their  article  put  before  them,  lyke  as  I  sayde  I  wolde  do,  whan  I 
made  mencion  of  thèse  substantyves  in  the  chapiters  of  the  gendres. 


Vnes  ancestes , 
Vnes  armes,  . 
Vnes  avlmoires, 
Vnes  besaces, 
Vnes  belances, 
Vnes  brayes, 
Les  broches, 
Vnes  chausses, 
Vnes  cartes, 
Vnes  cimballes , 
Vngz  siseletz, 
Les  consavlx. 

Les  complies. 

Les  delicez , 
Vnes  decrottoyres , 
Vngz  degrez, 
Les  dispens, 
Vnes  escourgez , 
Les  escrovelles, 

Les  entremîtes , 
Vnes  estricguoyres 
Vnes  escriptoyres , 
Vnes  entraves, 
Vnes  estevues, 


a  payrè  of  potte  hangynges. 

an  armes  of  a  noble  man  or  gentyilman. 

a  presse  to  laye  or  hang  stoffe  in. 

a  waliet. 

a  payre  of  baians  or  scales  to  wey  with. 

a  payre  of  sloppes  or  a  payre  of  brèches. 

of  the  femyn  geridi-e ,  a  disease  called  the  emerodes. 

a  payre  of  hosen. 

a  payre  of  cardes  to  playe  with. 

a  payre  of  symballes,  an  instrument  of  musyke. 

a  payre  of  barbours  sheyres, 

of  the  masculyne  gendre ,  the  counsaylours  about  a  prince 

or  great  esta  te. 
of  the  femyne  gendre,  compiayn,  the  boiu-of  service that 

foloweth  evynsong. 
of  the  femyne  gendre,  delytes  or  pieasures. 
a  rubbynge  brusshe  to  make  clene  clothes  with. 
a  payre  of  stayres. 

of  the  masculyne  gendre,  a  cost  or  charge, 
a  scourge,  a  whyppe. 
of  the  femyne  gendre,  a  disease  called  the  quynnancy  or 

the  kynges  yvell. 
of  the  femyne  gendre,  the  bowelles  of  a  beest. 
a  payre  of  pynsons  an  instrument, 
a  pennar  and  ynke  borne, 
a  payre  of  boites  of  yron  for  a  prisoner. 
a  bote  bouse  or  a  bayne. 


1 


Vues  estovpes, 
Vues  Jiansayles , 
Vues  forceps , 
Les  frontières , 

Vngz  govjons , 
Les  glandres, 
Vngz  gietz, 
Les  grâces , 


Les 


gayges, 


Vues  hevres, 
Vues  endentures , 

Vnes  lunettes, 
Vnes  lices, 

Vnes  lettres , 
Les  mevrs. 

Les  matynes, 
Vnes  monstres. 
Vnes  nopces, 
Les  noviielles, 
Vnes  orgues, 
Vnes  obsèques, 


Les  ordres, 
Vnes  patenostres, 
Vnes  paces . 
Vngz  picgz , 
Les  rayns, 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  183 

a  locke  of  towe  or  hurdes. 

an  assiiryng  or  handfastynge  of  folkes  to  be  maryed. 
a  payre  of  shermans  sheres. 
of  the  femyne  gendre,  the  fronters  or  marches  bytwene 

reaime  and  reaime, 
a  payre  of  fetters  for  a  horse  or  a  man. 
ofthefemynegendre.adiseaseofahorsecalledtheglaunders. 
a  payre  of  gesses  for  a  hauke. 
of  the  femyne  gendre,  grâce,  suche  asissayd  at  the  table 

or  thankes. 
of  the  masculyne  gendre,  wages,  suche  as  souldyouis  or 

hyred  folkes  bave, 
a  primer  or  a  mattyns  boke. 
a  payre  of  indentures  of  covynauntes  bytwene  partie  and 

partie, 
a  payre  of  spectacles, 
a  tylte  to  lerne  to  juste  at,  or  the  barres  that  compassé  a 

justyng  place, 
a  letter  missyfe. 
of  the  femyne  gendre ,  maners  or  comlicions  :  but  of  hym 

I  bave  spoken  before. 
of  the  femyne  gendre,  matyns  servyce  in  the  churche. 
a  mustre  of  men  that  shall  go  a  warfare. 
a  weddyng  or  a  maryage. 
of  the  femyne  gendre,  tidynges  or  newes. 
a  payre  of  organs,  an  instrument  of  musyke. 
an  obit  for  a  deed  body  ;  bow  be  it  I  fynde  in  Jehan  le  Mayre  : 
Si  lay  furent  faitz  grantz  obsèques, 

but  obsèques  is  of  the  femyne  gendre, 
of  the  femyne  gendre,  benêt  the  first  tonsure, 
a  payre  of  beedes  to  praye  with. 
a  payre  of  pastes  for  the  attyre  of  a  womans  heed. 
a  payre  of  stockes  to  punysshe  vacabundes. 
of  the  masculyne  gendre,  the  raynes  of  the  backe,  ou- 

ther  of  man  or  of  beest. 


184  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

Les  revenues,         of  the  femyne  gendre,  a  rent  or  lyvelode. 

Vngz  sajfletz,        a  payre  of  belowes  to  blowe  the  fyre  with. 

Vnes  tables,  a  payre  of  tables  to  write  in. 

Vues  toarnettes,      a  payre  of  wyndynge  blades  to  wynde  yai'ne  iipon. 

Vnes  tenaylles,       a  payre  of  tonges. 

Vnes  taylles,  a  payre  of  taylles,  suche  as  folke  use  to  score  upon  for 

rekennyng. 
Les  terres,  of  the  femynine  gendre,  rentes  or  lyvelode  of  a  naan.  , 

Les  ténèbres ,  of  the  femyne  gendre ,   a  sodayne    darkenesse  or  tena- 

bles,  the  servyce  in  the  chiirche,  or  want  of  lyght  in 

the  night  season. 
Les  aespres,  of  the  femyne  gendre,  evynsong,  servyce  in  the  churche. 

Vnes  uerges,  a  brusshc  to  brusshe  with. 

Les  iiigiles,  of  the  fennyne  gendre,  dirige,  servyce  for  a  deed  body. 

Les  uiures,  of  the  femyne  gendre,  stoore  or  provisyon  of  vitayie. 

As  foi"  vngz  gantz,  vngz  sovUers,  vngz  yevlx,  nngz  bras,  and  suche 
lyke,  though  I  fynde  them  used  in  dyvers  auctours,  yet  I  hâve  nat 
rehersed  them  amongest  the  other  of  this  sorte,  bycause  we  may 
saye  vng  gant,  vng  soulier,  vng  œil,  vng  bras,  which  of  the  other  wordes 
we  can  nat  saye  without  we  chaunge  the  signification. 

And  note  that  natwithstandynge  that  the  lasle  lelters  of  their  sub- 
stantyves  be  altred  for  the  expressyng  of  their  plurell  nombres,  yet 
the  begynnyng  of  ail  substantyves  remayneth  ever  imchaunged,  ex- 
cepte œil,  whiche  in  bis  plureli  makelh  yevlx,  as  I  bave  afore  touched 
in  the  seconde  boke.  And  tbis  for  the  formation  of  plurell  nombres 
of  ail  substantyves  I  suppose  to  be  suflicient. 

ANNOTATrONS  UPON  THE  THIRDE  ACCIDENT. 
CAPITULUM  LIIII. 

Upon  the  tbirde  accident  I  fynde  nothynge  to  be  noted,  save  that 
substantyves,  used  in  suche  wyse  as  the  latyns  do  their  vocatyves 
cases ,  bave  the  seconde  persons  of  the  verbes  of  suche  nombres  as 
the  substantyves  be ,  as  of  o  homme  adaisc  toy,  o  hommes  amendez  mus. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  185 

And  note  that,  if  two  substantyves  or  many  corne  before  a  verbe 
beynge  joyned  toguyder  with  a  conjunctyon  copulatyve ,  or  elles  dis- 
tyncted  from  a  sondre  with  this  stryke  (,),  the  verbe  shalbe  of  the 
pliirell  nombre,  vvheder  the  nownes  be  synguler  or  plurell. 

Exemple  of  Alayn  Chartier  in  his  Exyle  : 

Et  qui  laisse  la  cognoissavce  de  Diev  et  de  son  office,  povr  sviare  comme 
les  bestes  mues  ses  sevlx  delitz,  (jrace  et  sevrte  le  delayssent,  et  payne,  et 
honte,  et  misère  le  povrsvyaent  jvsques  en  uergoignevse  fyn. 

Idem  in  eodem  : 

Et  se  son  exemple  et  son  enseignement  ne  te  suffisent,  aise  comme  les- 
cripture  te  comforte. 

The  same  authour  in  his  Quadriiogue  : 

Désirant  la  mort  qui  tant  me  tarde,  que  je  la  regrete  chascun  jour  comme 
celuy  qui  courrovx ,  fain  et  défiance  de  comfort,  mainent  doulovrevsement 
a  son  dernier  jour. 

Howe  be  it  suche  as  write  in  ryme  observe  natthis  rule,  for  I  fynde 
in  the  bysshoppe,  in  the  epystle  of  Phylles  to  Demophone  : 
Et  qaav  miliev  dAthenes  la  cite 
Soit  ton  barat  et  fraude  recite, 

for  soyent  recitez.  But,  if  two  substantyves  synguler  be  joyned  toguyder 
with  a  conjvmction  disjunctyve,  the  verbe  shalbe  of  the  synguler 
nombre.  Alayn  Chartier  in  his  Exyle  : 

Si  polation  ou  sacrilège  estfaicte  ou  temple, 
and  suche  lyke. 

ANNOTATIONS  UPON  THE  FOURTHE  ACCIDENT,  AND  FIRST  WHAT  SUBSTANTYVES 
BE  FORMED  OUT  OF  OTHER  SUBSTANTYVES. 

CAPITULUM  LV. 

Of  every  substantyve  endynge  in  e,  betokenynge  the  name  of  any 
frute,  maye  by  fourmed  another  by  chaungyng  the  e  in  to  ier,  wliiche 
shall  signifie  the  tree  that  beareth  the  same  frute,  as  o£ pomme,  an 
apple  ;  pommier,  an  apple  tree  ;  poire,  a  peare;  poirier,  a  peare  tree  ; 
cerise,  a  chery;  cerisier,  a.  chery  tree;  and  so  generally  of  ail  other. 

a4 


186  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

Excepte  noyselte,  an  hasyll  nutte,  whose  ihe  tree  is  named  covldre: 
and  more,  bothe  for  a  mulbery  and  a  mvilbery  tree  ;  how  be  it  I  fynde 
also  morier. 

Excepte  also  roysin,  a  reysin,  whose  tre  is  named  uigne  :  and  noix, 
for  a  walnutte ,  maketh  noier  for  a  walnut  tree ,  chaungyng  x  into  er. 

Also  of  every  masculyne  nowne  verball  in  the  frenche  tong, 
whiche  ever  ende  in  evr,  maye  be  fourmed  bis  femyne  verball,  by 
chaungynge  of  evr  in  into  resse,  as  oi  tencevr,  tenceressc,  but  howe  the 
masculynes  nownes  verballes  be  fourmed  shall  hère  after  appere. 

Also  of  every  masculyne  substantyves  endynge  in  ier,  betokenyng 
the  name  of  a  man  of  crafte,  by  addynge  to  of  e,  maye  be  fourmed  a 
femynine  substantyve  betokenyng  the  wyfe  of  the  same  craftisman , 
or  a  woman  exercisyng  the  same  crafte,  as  oï  covstarier  a  tayllyour, 
covsturiere  a  tayllyour  wyfe  ;  bovlengier  a  baker ,  bovlengiere  a  bakars 
wyfe;  and  so  of  ail  suche  lyke. 

And  note  that  the  moost  parte  of  ail  suche  masculyne  substantyves 
be  fom-med  out  of  the  substantyves  whiche  betoken  the  thynge  that 
they  must  occupye  or  serve  for,  as  of  barbe  a  berde,  barbier  a  bar- 
bour  ;  of  bovrse  a  purse  ,  boursier,  a  pursar  ;  of  drap  a  clothe ,  dra- 
pier a  draper;  of  pot  a  potte,  pottier  a  potter;  so  that,  if  the  first 
substantyve  ende  in  e,  by  chaungyng  of  e  in  to  ier,  he  shall  forme 
his  name  of  crafte. 

And  if  the  first  substantyve  ende  in  a  syngle  consonant  by  doublyng 
of  the  consonant  and  addyng  to  of  ier,  he  shall  forme  his  name  of 
craft.  But  this  is  nat  generall,  for  I  fynde  chavssetier  a  hosyer,  coc- 
quetier  a  hucstar,  clovtier  a  nayle  maker,  pantier  a  panter,  whiche 
adde  a  t  before  ier,  for  their  substantyves  that  they  be  fourmed  of  be 
chavsse,  cocque,  clov,  and  pan  for  payn  ;  and  lingiere  addeth  to  g,  and 
as  for  boulengier  a  baker ,  freppier  an  upholstar,  and  menuysicr  a  joy- 
ner,  be  formed  of  no  substantyve  used  in  the  tong. 

And  note  that  ail  the  handy  craftes  in  the  frenche  tonge ,  and  also 
dyvers  names  of  offices  ende  outher  in  ier  as  tresourier,  a  treasourer, 
or  in  evr,  as  brodevr,   a  broderar,  or  elles  they  be  circumlocuted 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  187 

with  thre  vvordes  of  whiche  the  myddle  worde  is  a  preposytion,  as 
fayscvr  de  bahas  a  lether  coofer  maker  or  a  bouge  maker,  faysevr  de 
chapperons  hoode  maker;  but  escripuayn  a  scryvenar,  maçon  a  ma- 
sone  ,  charron  a  whele  wright ,  uigneron  a  tyllar  of  vygnes ,  paynire  a 
paynter,  tisserant  a  weaver,  mareschal  a  farrer  or  a  smythe  that  shoeth 
horses,  and  apothecaire  apothecary,  be  excepte. 

Also  ail  diminutyves  ende  outlier  in  ceav,  as  laronceav  a  iyteli 
thefe,  heronceav  an  hernshawe ,  or  in  el,  as  liuret  a  Iyteli  boke ,  corpset 
a  iyteli  body,  or  in  ette,  eis  femmélte  a  lylell  woman,  whose  gendre  is 
ever  suche  as  the  substantyve  that  they  be  formed  out  of,  as  I  hâve 
afore  declared. 

And  ail  that  ende  in  ceav  be  foiirnied  of  masculyne  substantives 
endyng  in  on  by  addyng  to  of  ceav,  as  lion  lionceav.  How  be  il  I  fynde 
homonceav  fourmed  of  homme,  and  rainceav,  a  Iyteli  bough,  formed  of 
rame,  differyng  in  gendre  from  his  priraityve,  as  I  hâve  afore  touched, 
and  garconet,  a  iyteli  boy,  oî garçon,  and  coyschonet,  a  lyteiipygge,  of 
coyschon ,  and  of  chancon,  a  songe,  and  mayson,  a  house,  chanconette, 
a  Iyteli  song,  and  maysonctte,  a  Iyteli  house,  by  cause  they  be  of  the 
femynine  gendre.  But  ail  masculyne  substantyves  endyng  in  e,  by  ad- 
dyng to  of  t,  forme  their  diminutyves,  as  sygne  a  signe,  signet  a  synet. 

Ali  whiche  ende  in  any  other  consonant,  by  addyng  to  of  et,  forme 
their  diminutyves,  as  corps  corpset,  so  that  ail  suche  substantyves  as 
ende  in  eav,  whose  olde  Romant  worde  dyde  ende  in  el,  by  addynge 
to  et  to  their  olde  Romant  worde ,  fourme  their  diminutyves ,  as  ai- 
gneav,  aignel,  aignelet,  a  iyteli  Ïambe  ;  oyseav,  oysel,  oysclet,  a  iyteli 
byrde  ;  tonneav,  tonnel,  tonnelet,  a  Iyteli  tonne,  and  so  of  ail  the  re- 
sydue,  and  in  lykewise  ail  femyne  substantyves  endyng  in  e,  by  ad- 
dyng to  of  tte,  forme  their  diminutyves,  as  oi folle  a  she  foole,/o/- 
lette  a  iyteli  foole  ;  muse  a  bagpype  ,  musette  a  iyteli  bagpype  ;  ail 
other  endyng  in  any  other  termynation,  by  addyng  to  of  ette  forme 
their  diminutyves,  as  pavr  feare,  pauorette  a  iyteli  feare,  but  of  brebys 
a  shepe,  I  fynde  brebiette  a  iyteli  shepe,  for  brebisette;  and  of  boitte  a 
boxe,  boytelette  a  iyteli  boxe;  and  many  I  fynde  in  the  termination  of 

a4. 


188  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

diminutyves  that  be  none,  sls  foret  a  gymlet,  chenet  an  aundyrone, 

and  suche  lyke. 

And  note  that  they  forme  diminutyves  also  of  proper  names,  as 
of  Jehan  Jehannet,  of  Jehanne  Jehannette,  oï  Estien  Estiennon,  of  Es- 
tiene  Estiennette. 

Also  of  dyvers' substantyves  betokenyng  tyme  be  formed  other 
substantyves  endyng  in  ee,  whiche  signifie  the  season  or  the  tyde  of 
the  same  tyme,  as  of  an,  a  yere,  année,  the  space  of  a  yere;  oï  jovr,  a 
daye ,  jovrnee ,  the  space  of  a  daye;  of  matyn,  a  mornyng,  matinée,  the 
season  of  a  mornyng;  of  uespre,  an  evenyng,  uesperee,  an  evenyng  tyde; 
of  nayt,  a  night,  nuytee,  a  night  tyde;  and  mo  I  fynde  nat  in  the  tong 
of  this  sort. 

Also  of  ail  suche  substantyves  as  ende  in  art,  if  they  betoken  any 
condicion  to  a  man  belongyng,  formera  feminyne,  by  toxu-nyng  t  in  to 
de,  as  oï  hastard  bastarde ,  braggart  braggarde ,  cocqiiart  cocqaarde,  pail- 
lart  paillarde,  fetartfeiarde,- and  suche  lyke  wherof  I  bave  spoken  hère 
before. 

Also  other  sortes  of  formations  of  substantyves  I  fynde  whiche  be 
nothyng  so  generall  nor  so  certayne ,  of  whiche  sorte  be  suche  as  ende 
in  aige,  as  of  corde  cordaige,  of  baggve  baggaige,  oï  frincl  frinctaige, 
oï  bende  bendayge,  and  some  that  ende  in  tie,  as  of  amy  amytie,  of 
enemy  enemytie,  and  some  that  ende  in  aille,  as  of  ribault  ribauldaille , 
cocquyn  cocquynaylle ,  covart  covardaylle  and  peavtraylle,  whose  symple 
is  nat  in  use ,  which  I  fynde  in  the  boke  of  the  four  ladyes  of  Alayn 
Chartier. 

Other  sortes  of  dirivatyons  there  be  wherof  I  bave  made  mencion 
hère  before ,  about  the  begynnyng  of  the  first  accident ,  where  I 
shewed  howe  the  gendre  of  substantyves  may  be  knowen  by  reason 
of  their  signification,  which,  by  cause  I  ean  bring  under  no  generall 
ruie,  I  passe  over,  reportyng  the  lemar  to  the  well  notyng  of  the 
same  substantives  in  the  sayd  place. 

And  as  for  abhomination ,  consolation ,  perdition ,  dissolution,  and  suche 
lyke ,  corne  directly  out  of  the  latyn  tong  by  addyng  to  onely  of  n. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  189 

WHAT  SUBSTANTYVES  BE  FOURMED  OF  ADJECTYVES. 
CAPITULUM  LVI. 

Of  every  adjectyve,  in  this  tong,  is  fourmed  a  substantyve  suche  as 
the  latyn  call  abstractis.  But  howe  they  be  formed  I  can  observe  no 
maner  generall  rule  to  be  certayne ,  and  therfore  I  shall  defarre  to 
speke  of  every  of  them  tyll  they  shall  corne  in  place,  in  the  table  of 
nownes  substantyves.  How  be  it,  for  the  moost  parte,  ail  suche  adjec- 
tyves  as  hâve  their  masculyne  gendre  and  femyne  bothe  endynge  in 
e,  by  addyng  to  of  te,  forme  their  abstractis,  as  of /acAeslacke,  lâcheté 
slackenesse;  oï  amyahle  amyable,  amyableté  amyablesse;  but  for  this 
thynge  our  tonge  is  moche  more  certayne ,  for  in  maner  ail  oure  abs- 
tractis ende  in  nesse,  as  «  fayrnesse ,  blackenesse,  goodnesse,  wyse- 
«  nesse ,  folysshenesse  « ,  and  so  of  ail  other,  except  they  be  suche  as  we 
take  of  the  frenche  tong  as  humilité,  fragilité,  graaite,  whose  right 
englysshe  wordes  be  humblenesse,  fraylnesse,  sadnesse,  after  the 
generall  nde. 

Also  of  some  femyne  adjectyves  may  be  formed  substantyves  by 
chaungyng  of  their  finall  e  in  to  avlt,  as  of  covrte  covrtault,  lourde 
lovrdault. 

But  note  ail  that  ende  in  ault  be  nat  ever  fourmed  of  suche  adjec- 
tyves, for  I  fynde  savlt,  bersavlt,  and  many  suche  lyke  whiche  be 
formed  of  no  adjectyves. 

WHAT  SUBSTANTYVES  BE  FORMED  OF  VERBES. 
CAPITULUM  LVII. 

Of  every  preterimparfitens  in  the  frenche  tonge  maye  be  fourmed 
a  masculyne  verball ,  by  chaungynge  oye  into  evr,  as  of  parloye  parleur, 
of  dansoye  danseur,  conuertissoye  conueiiisseur.  But  as  for  dominateur, 
gubernatear,  conducteur,  and  modérateur,  prenunciateresse  and  suche  lyke 
used  of  Johan  le  Mayre,  they  folowe  rather  the  latyn  formacion  than 
the  right  frenche  tonge. 


190  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

Also  of  every  prelerimparfitens  maye  be  fourmed  a  substantyve 
whose  englysshe  endeth  in  yng,  by  chaungyng  of  oye  in  to  ement, 
as  oï  parloje  parlement,  a  spekyng,  oî  conuertissoye  conuertissement ,  of 
sentoye  sentement,  and  suche  lyke. 

I  fynde  also  certayne  substantyves  fourmed  of  the  infinityve  modes 
whiche  ende  in  vre,  as  o(  engendrer  engendrvre,  of  novrir  novriture,  of 
escripre  escripture,  of  enfler  enjlvre,  of  murmvrer  murmvre,  of  descomfire 
descomfitvre ,  and  suche  lyke  :  but  the  formation  of  thèse  substantyves 
I  can  nat  bring  under  a  generall  rule  certayne. 
Régula.  And  note  that  it  is  moche  requisyte  for  the  lernar  to  bave  regarde 

to  thèse  rules  wherby  I  déclare  the  ryght  formation  of  substantyves 
in  the  frenche  tonge,  for  the  better  understandyng  of  my  frenche 
vocabular  wherby,  if  any  of  thèse  substantives  whiche  after  my  rules 
be  formed  of  other,  happen  to  be  lafte  unwritten,  if  he  call  to  mynde 
my  sayd  rules,  he  maye  forme  ail  suche  hymselfe  :  and  therfore  to 
*  put  ail  suche  in  the  vocabular  I  reken  it  but  superfluous.' 

ANNOTATIONS  UPON  THE  FYFTE  ACCIDENT. 
CAPITULUM  LVUI. 

Of  substantyves  some  be  symple,  as  homme,  a  main;  femme,  a  woman  : 
some  be  compounde ,  asgentylhomme,  a  gentlllman;  gentylfemme ,  a  gen- 
tylwoman.  And  of  compoundes  I  fynde  so  many  sondrie  sortes  as 
1  bave  rehersed  in  my  annotations  upon  the  first  accident  belongyng 
to  substantyves ,  where  I  shewed  howe  the  gendre  of  suche  substan- 
tyves shulde  be  knowen. 

And  hère  it  is  to  be  noted  that,  in  the  frenche  vocabular,  every 
substantyve  whiche  is  expressed  by  thre  wordes  of  whiche  the  myddle 
worde  is  a  préposition  shalbe  sette  forthe  in  the  worde  that  cometh 
before  the  préposition,  as  bec  de  favlcon  shall  folowe  after  bec  and 
chavlderon  de  mer  shall  folowe  after  chavlderon  :  and  therfore,  whan 
thelerner  hath  founde  out  bec  and  than favlcon,  and  yet  can  nat  fynde 
out  any  worde  of  suche  sence  as  he  loketh  for,  let  hyra  tourne  backe 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE.  191 

agayne  to  bec,  and  there  folowynge  he  shall  fynde  the  sayde  thre 
wordes  expressed.  But  hereof  I  shall  hâve  occasion  agayne  to  speke 
in  the  prologue  of  the  frenche  vocabular. 

ANNOTATIONS  UPON  THE  SIXTE  ACCIDENT. 
CAPITULUM  LIX. 

Where  we,  in  our  tonge,  use  to  putte  «  to  oure  substantyves  whan  we 
wyll  expresse  possessyon,  sayeng  n  a  mannes  gowne,  a  woman  hose  », 
and  suche  lyke,  so  that  our  substantyves  semé  to  hâve  a  genityve  case, 
with  them,  without  any  chaungyng  of  the  laste  letters  of  their  sub- 
stantyves, suche  spekynge  is  expressed  by  this  préposition  a,  as  where 
we  saye  «  a  mannes  gowne,  a  womans  hose  »,  they  saye  robe  a  homme, 
chavsse  a  femme;  and  in  lykewise,  if  we  adde  the  pronowne  possessyve 
to  any  suche  substantyve  as  «  this  is  my  maisters  gowne,  he  dyd  fette 
«  his  maisters  cloke  »,  they  say  cest  la  robe  a  mon  maistre,  il  alla  quérir  le 
manteav  a  son  maistre,  whiche  rule  is  well  to  be  noted,  and  howe  the 
adjectyves  and  participles  folowethe  the  gendre  and  nombre  of  the 
substantyves,  and  what  congruite  they  use  in  thatbehalfe,  shall  her- 
after,  in  every  of  the  sayd  partes,  as  they  corne  in  order,  more  playnly 
appere. 

And  nowe  that  I  bave  hère,  in  this  tbirde  boke,  declared  at  lengtb 
what  accidentes  and  properties  belong  unto  ail  the  substantyves  in 
the  frenche  tong,  I  shall  hère  consequently  set  forthe  what  and  howe 
many  substantyves  there  be  in  the  same  tong,  whiche  to  thentent 
they  may  of  every  lemar  the  more  easely  be  founde,  whan  he  hath 
any  sentence  or  mater  to  be  made  out  of  our  tong  in  to  the  frenche , 
I  shall  set  forthe  ail  the  englysshe  substantyves  in  our  tong,  after  the 
order  of  a,  b,  c,  and  in  the  same  lyne  shewe  what  substantyve  in  the 
frenche  tonge  is  of  lyke  signification. 

And  fardermore ,  for  a  more  helpe  and  spedy  forderyng  of  the  sayd 
lemar,  if  he  be  nat  parfyte  in  my  rules  hcrafore  declared,  I  shall 
expresse  in  the  same  lyne  what  letter  the  sayd  frenche  substantyves 


192  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

hâve  in  their  plurell  nombres,  and  what  gendre  they  be  of,  in  the  sayd 
frenche  tonge,  for,  if  they  be  of  the  masculyne  gendre,  the  lernar 
shall  fynde  after  the  letter  of  the  plurell  nombre  m  ;  if  they  be  of  the 
femyne  gendre,/. 

And  fardermore ,  if  we  in  our  tong  bave  but  one  worde  whiche 

the  frenche  tong  circumlocuteth  with  thre  or  four  wordes,  of  whiche 

one  of  them  is  a  préposition,  I  shall  set  forth  the  plurell  nombre  and 

the  gendre  of  the  fîrst  worde  onely,  whiche  shall  sufBce,  for  the 

other  wordes  remayn  unchaunged  for  bothe  the  nombres;  as 

where  we  saye  «  a  pollax  »  they  say  bec  defavlcon, 

of  whiche  thre  wordes  I  shall  onely  sette  forthe 

the  plurell  nombre  and  gendre  of  bec, 

as  bec  defavlcon  z,  m.  For,  as 

I  hâve  sayd,  the  other 

wordes  remayne 

unchaunged, 

and 

so  of  ail  suche 

other. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE. 


THE  TABLE  OF  SDBSTANTIVES. 


193 


A    BEFOBE    B. 

AbassLednesse  —  fraievr  s ,  f. 
Abasshment  —  e$tonnissemenl  s.  ni. 
Abatement  —  abatemenl  s,  m. 
Abbay  —  abbaye  s,  f. 
Abbesse  —  abbesse  s,  f. 
Abbot  —  abbé  z,  m. 
Abyding  dwelling  —  demevre  s,  f. 
Abyding  taryeng  —  attente  s,  f. 
Abbomynablenesse  —  abhominableté  z,  f. 
Abomyuation  —  abomination  i,  f. 
Abhorryng  —  horrevr  s,  f. 
Absence  —  absence  s,  f. 
Abrevialyon  —  abréviation  s,  f. 
Absolution  —  absolution  s,  f. 
Abstynence  —  abstinence  s,  (. 
Abundaunce  —  abundance  s,  (. 
Abusyon  —  oies,  m. 

A    BEFORE   C. 

Ache  in  ones  bones  —  govtte  s,  f. 
Acceptyng  —  aduev  x,  m. 
Acquayntaunce  —  accointance  s,  f. 
Accordyng  —  acordance  s,f. 
Accusation  —  accusation  s ,  f. 
Accusyng  —  acusement  j,  ni. 
Accorde  —  acort  s ,  m. 
Acorne  mast  for  swyne  —  gland  z,  m. 
Acre  of  iande  —  arpent  s,  m. 
Acte  a  dede  —  acte  s,  m. 
Action  in  the  lawe  —  action  s.  f. 
Aclivyte  quickenesse  —  actiuite  z,  f. 

A   BEFOnE    D. 

Adamant  a  precious  stonc  —  aymant  s,  m. 
Addyr  a  sarpent  —  covlevure  s,  [. 
Addircop  or  a  spinners  web  —  araignée  s .  f. 
Addis  a  coupers  instrument  —  dolovere  s,  (. 
Admyrali  on  the  see  —  admirai  s,  m. 
Advauntour  bostcr —  bobancicr  s,  m. 
Adventure  —  adaeniare  s,  (. 
Advent  before  Cbristmas  —  adaent  s,  m, 
Adversary  —  aduersaire  s,  m. 


Adversyte  —  aduersile  z,  {. 

Advertysing  —  aduertence  s,  f. 

Advyse  —  advis^  m. 

Advisyng  —  enhort  s,  m. 

Advocate  a  man  of  lawe  —  adaocat  z,  m, 

Advowyng  —  aduev  x,  m. 

Advoutrye  —  advltere  s,  m. 

Advoutrer  —  adultre,  avoistre  (reniant)  s,  m. 

Advouson  ofa  benifice  —  expedatif  z,  va. 

A    BEFOBE   F. 

Affadyll  a  yelowe  Iloure  —  affhdille  s,  f. 
Affection  —  affection  s,  f. 
Affermyng  —  affirmation  s,  f. 
Affynite  —  affinité  z,  f. 

A    BEFORE   G. 

Age  oidnesse  —  aage  s,  f. 
Agydncsse  —  ancienneté  z,  {. 
Agglet  ofa  lace  or  poynt — fer  s,  m. 
Agnayle  upon  ones  too  —  corret  z,  m. 
Agnus  dei  —  agnns  dei  s,  m. 
Agony  distresse  —  agonie  s,  f. 
Agrément  —  apoyntement  s,  ni. 
Agremony  an  herbe  —  aigremojne  s,  f. 
Ague  axes — fyfwe  s.  (. 

A    BEFORE    I. 

Aide  helpe  —  aide  s,  m. 

Aignelet  to  fasten  a  claspe  in  — porte  s,  f. 

Aire  an  élément  —  ayr  s,  m. 

A    BEFORE    L. 

Alabaster  —  alabastre  s,  m. 

Alebery  for  a  sicke  man  —  chavdeav  x,  m. 

Alcarayne  —  arqaemie  s,  f. 

Alderman  —  eschcain  s,  m. 

Aider  tree  —  iiirea»  x,  m. 

Aie  stake  —  le  moy  d'une  taaerne  s,  m. 

Aie  drinke  —  govdale  s,  f. 

Alegant  wyne  — ■  rosette  s,  (. 

.\legyauncc  —  aasselaigc  s,  m. 

Alley  to  walke  in  —  alee  s,  f. 

a5 


194 


LESCLARCISSEMENT 


Alfyn  a  man  ofthe  chesse  borde  —  avljin  s,  m. 

Aiyaunce  —  aliance  s,  f. 

Alyen  straunger  —  alien  s,  m. 

Alye  or  aiyaunce  —  aliance  s,  f. 

Alysandre  an  herbe  —  alisandre  s,  f. 

AHe  an  instrument  for  soulers  —  alaisne  Sj  f. 

Alsoulne  day  —  lejovr  des  morts,  m. 

Ml  maner  wylde  foule  —  uolaille  s,  f. 

Alhalowen  tyde  —  la  tous  sainclz,  f. 

AUedgynge  of  a  matter  — ■  allégation  s,  f. 

Almaygne  a  man  —  alemctit  s,  m. 

Almaygne  a  countre  —  alcmaigne  s,  f. 

Almery  to  put  meate  in  —  unes  almoires,  f. 

Aimysdede  —  avlmosne  s,  f. 

Almonde  fruyte  —  amande  s ,  f. 

Almonde  tre  —  amandier  s,  m. 

Almos  purse  —  bovrse  avlmosnieres ,  f. 

Alowaunce  for  money  —  alovuance  s,{. 

Altération  —  altération  s,  f. 

Altercation  —  altercation  s,{. 

Alume  to  dye  colour  withall  —  alam  s,  f. 

A    BEFOBE   M. 

Amasynge  —  stupéfaction  s ,  {. 

Aniatyst  a  precious  stone  —  amatistc  s,  f. 

Ambassade  —  ambassade  s,  f. 

Amblyng  borse  —  hacquenee  s,  f. 

Ambrose  an  berbe  —  ache  ckampeslre  s ,  f. 

Amendes  —  amende  s,  f. 

Amendement  —  amendement  s ,  m. 

Amyablenesse  —  amiableté  z,f. 

Ammyss  for  a  cbannon  —  avmusse  s,  f. 

Amytie  —  amitié  s ,  f. 

Ammell  for  golde  smytbes  —  esmael  z,m. 

Ammellyng  —  esmaillevre  s,  f. 

Amner  an  oflicer  —  avlmosnier  s,  m. 

A    BEFORE   N. 

Ancbre  a  religions  man  —  anchre  s,  ni. 
Anchres  a  religions  woman  —  anchresse  s,  f. 
Anvelde  for  a  smyth  —  enclume  s,  t. 
Angell  —  ange  s,  m. 
Angre  or  flersnesse  — félonie  s,  f. 
Angre  cbafyng  of  mynde  —  courroux,  m. 
Angle  rodde  —  uerge  a  pescher  s,  f. 
Angnayle  of  ones  toos  —  corret  i,  m. 


Anguyssbe  —  angoisse  s,  i'. 
Anguysshfulnesse  —  angoissetisetè  z,î. 
Anclc  of  the  fote  —  cheuille  du  pie  s,  f. 
Ancre  of  a  sliippe  —  ancre  s,  f. 
Annys  sede  —  anjs,  m. 
Answere  to  a  question  —  responce  s,  f. 
Answere  of  false  goddes  —  oracle  s,  w. 
Antéchrist — antechrisl  z,  m.  . 

Anteloppe  a  beest  —  antelop  z,  m. 
Anlemme  a  song  —  antiesme  s,  f. 
Anthetyme  —  thieme  s,  m. 
Antiphonar  a  boke  —  antiphonier  s,  ni. 
Antiquité  —  antiquité  z,  f. 

A   BEFORE   P. 

Ape  beest  —  cinge  s ,  m. 

Appoyntement  —  apoinlement  s,  m. 

Aposlata  —  apostat  z,  m. 

Aposlell  a  saynt  —  aposire  s,  m. 

Apostume  —  aposlume  s,  tn. 

Apotbecary  —  apolhecayre  s.  m. 

Appareyle  clothyng  —  appareil  z,  m. 

Appeyching  —  accusement  s,  m. 

Appeel  froni  a  judge  —  appcav  x,  m. 

Apperaunce  in  a  place  —  aparance  s ,  f. 

Apperyng  —  apparition  s,  f. 

Appetyte  to  meate  —  appétit  z,m. 

Appetyte  or  lust  to  a  thyng  —  enuye  s,  f. 

Apple  frute  —  pomme  s,  {. 

Apple  tree  —  pommier  s,  m. 

Apple  yarde  —  plante  de  pommiers  s,  t. 

Appiyeng  to  —  adition  s,  f. 

Aprill  moneth  —  apuril  z,  m. 

Apron  for  a  man  or  woman  —  tablier  s,  m. 

Aptnesse  to  lerne  —  docilité  z,  f. 

A    BEFORE   Q. 

Aquarie  one  of  the  twelve  signes  —  aguaire 
s,  m. 

A    BEFORE    R. 

Arage  an  herbe  —  aroche  s,  {. 
Araye  of  men  in  a  felde  —  ranc  z.  m. 
Araye  apparayle  —  apareil  z,  m. 
Araye  condicion  or  case — pojrnt  s,  m. 
Arbitour  a  judge  —  arbitre  s,  m. 


DE  LA  LANGUE 

Arbyterment  —  arbitrement  s,  m. 

Arcetour  —  arcien  s,ra. 

Archangell  —  archange  s,  m. 

Archebysshoppe  —  archeuesque  s,  m. 

Archebysshoprike  —  archeueschè  z,  m. 

Arche  of  buylding  —  arche  s,  f. 

Archepreest  —  archeprestre  s,  f. 

Arcbedeacon  —  archediacre  s,  m. 

Archeduke  —  archedac  z,  m. 

Arcbedukedome  —  archedachè  z,  m. 

Archer  a  shoter  —  archier  s,  va. 

Arcon  of  the  sadell  —  arcon  s,  m. 

Arerage  —  areraige  or  débet  s,  m. 

Argile  a  kynde  of  erthe  —  arg'dte  s,  f. 

Argument  —  argument  s,  m. 

Arithmetyke  —  arithmétique  s,{. 

Arme  of  a  man  —  bras,  m. 

Armehole  — aiscelle,  f.  or  aiscevl  z,  m. 

Armes  of  a  nobie  man  —  armes  f. 

Armet  a  heed  pesé  of  harnesse  —  armet  z,  m. 

Armye  of  men  of  warre  —  armée  s,  f. 

Armyng  —  armatvre  3,i. 

Armyne  a  beest  —  ermine  s ,  f. 

Armyns  a  white  furre  —  ermines .  f. 

Armourer  a  craAesman  —  armvrier  s ,  m. 

Armour  harnesse  —  armevre  s,  f. 

Arrowe  to  shote  with  — jleche,  sujette  s,  f. 

Arse  of  a  man  or  beest  —  cal  z,  m. 

Arsehole  —  le  trov  du  cul  x ,  m. 

Arsnycke  an  herbe  —  arcenic  z,  m. 

Arswyspe  —  torchecul  z,  m. 

Article  of  a  matter  —  article  s,  m. 

Arte  a  science  —  art  s,  f. 

A   BEFOnF.   S. 

Asshe  tree  — frcsne  s ,  m. 

Ashwednisday  —  mercredy  de  la  cendre  s,  m. 

Assbes  of  fyre  —  cendres,  f. 

Askyng  —  demande  s,  f. 

Askyng  for  Goddessake  —  mandiance  s,  (. 

Aspe  tree  —  tremble  s,  m. 

Aspecte  of  planettcs  —  aspect  z,  m. 

Aspycke  sarpent —  aspicq  z,  m. 

Assaut  agaynst  a  towne  —  assavlt  x ,  m. 

Asse  a  he  beest  —  asne  s,  m. 

Asse  a  she  beest  —  asnesse  s,i. 


FRANCOYSE. 


195 


Assendent  in  a  figure  of  astronomye  —  ussen- 

dent  s,  m. 
Assenycke  —  arsenicq  z,  m. 
Assent  —  consentement  s ,  m. 
Assystaunce  —  assistance  s,{. 
Assistent  —  assistent  s,  m. 
Assoyling  —  absolution  s,  f. 
Assuraunce  —  assurance  s,  f. 
Assuryng  —  assurément  s,  m. 
Astate  —  estât  z,  m. 
Astonysshednesse — frayevr  s,  f. 
Astonysshing  —  estonnissement  s, m. 
Astrolaby  an  instrument—  astrolabie  s,  f. 
Astrologer  —  astrologien  s ,  m. 
Astrologye  an  herbe  —  astrologie  s,  f. 
Astrology  science  —  astrologie  s ,  f. 
Astronomar  —  astronomien  s,  m. 
Astronomy — astronomie  s ,  {. 

A    BEFORE    T. 

Altendaunce  —  attendance  s,  f. 

Atyre  for  a  gentyiwomans  heed  —  atovr  s,  m. 

Attourney  in  lawe — procurevr  s,  m. 

A   BEFORE    V. 

Avayle  — prouffit  z,  m. 

Avantmurof  a  towne  —  auantmvre  s,  m. 

Avarice  covytousnesse  —  auarice  s,  f. 

Avaunsyng  —  auancement  s,  m. 

Avauntage  —  auantaige  s,  m. 

Auotorisyng  —  avctorisation  s ,  f. 

Auclorite  —  avctoritè  z,  f. 

Auctour  that  maketh  a  boke  —  auclevr  s,  m. 

Audacite  —  avdace  s,{. 

Audyence  —  audience  s,{. 

Audytour  —  clerc  des  comptes  z,  va. 

Aventurousnesse  —  auentvre  s,  f. 

Aventure  —  aduentvre  s,  (. 

August  a  moneth  —  avost  z,  m. 

Avysement — avisement  s,  m. 

Aulmoner  Ihatgyveth  almesse — avlmosnier  s^  m. 

Aulter  to  syng  masse  on  —  avltel  z,  m. 

Avoydaunce  —  uiydance  s,  f. 

Avowe —  ucv  X,  m. 

Avouter  —  avoistre  or  adultère  s,  m. 

Avoutryc  —  adultère  s,  m. 

25. 


196 


LESCLARCISSEMENT 


Awe  feare  —  crainte  s,  (. 
Augrym  —  cuigorisme  s,  m. 
Auke  stroke  —  reaers,  m. 
Aumbre  stone  —  ambre  s,  m. 
Aumbrye  —  unes  avlmoyres,  f. 
Aunie  or  marke  —  esme  s.  m. 
Aumbry  for  nieale  —  avlmaire  s,  f. 
Auncestour  —  ancestre  s,  m. 
Auncyentnesse  —  ancienneté  t,  ra. 
Aundyern  —  chenet  z,  m. 
Aunt  —  ianie  or  ante  s ,  f. 
Aunter  —  aduentvre  s,  f. 
Augustyne  frère  —  augvsùn  s,  m. 

A    BEFORE    X. 

Axe  a  loole  —  hache  s,  î. 
Aiilnayle  —  cheuilU  daixevl  s,  f. 
Axillre  —  aixsevl  x,  m. 
Axes  sickenesse — jieure  s,  f. 

A  BEFonE  y. 

A    BEFORE    z. 

Aiure  —  azur  s,  m. 

B    BEFORE    A. 

Babe  tbat  children  piay  with  — povppee  s,  f. 
Bable  for  a  foole  —  marotte  s,{. 
Babler  —  babillart  s,  m. 
Baliylling  —  quacqaet  t,  m. 
Babwyne  beest  —  baboyn.  s,  ta. 
Bace  golde  —  or  àe  tovche  s,  m. 
Bace  playe  — jev  aux  barres  s,  m. 
Bace  fysshe  —  ung  bar  s,  la. 
Bacon  —  bacon  s,  ni. 
Backelar  nat  maryed  —  bachelier  $,  m. 
Backe  of  a  beest  —  dos,  m. 
Backe  of  a  chymney — contrecuevr  de  la  chyminee. 
Backe  of  the  bande  —  le  dessus  de  la  main. 
Backe  a  beest  tbat  Qyeth  —  chavue  souris,  f. 
Backebyting  —  detraction  s,{. 
Backebonne  —  eschine  s,  f. 
Backeburden  — portée,  charge  s,  f. 
Backe  dore  —  hiys  de  derrière,  m. 
Badge  of  a  geatyiman  —  la  deaise  dang  seignevr 
s,{. 


Bagge  —  sachet  z,  m.;  sac  z ,  m. 

Baggagc  —  baguaige  s,  m. 

Baggcpyper  —  cornemasier  s,  m. 

Baggc  pype  —  cornemuse  s ,  f. 

Bagge  a  purse  or  a  fauconners  bagge  —  gihis- 
sière  s,  t. 

Bayart  a  horse —  bayart  s,  m. 

Bay  of  boundes — aboyement  de  chiens,  aboy  s,  m. 

Bay  frule  or  berry  —  grayne  de  lavrier  s,  t. 

Bay  tree  —  lavrier  s,  m. 

Bayly  an  offieer  —  badlif  z,  m. 

Baylyshyppc  —  bailliage  s,  m, 

Baygne  to  bath  one  in  —  baing  z,  m. 

Bayte  to  catche  fyssbe  —  amors,  m. 

Bayting  ofan  horse  —  repeve  s,  {. 

Bake  meate  —  uiande  en  paste  s,  f. 

Bakc  housc  —  boviengiere  s,  f. 

Baker  of  brcdde  —  bovlengier  s,  m. 

Balade  a  soug  —  balade  s,  f. 

Balays  a  prescious  stone  —  balé  s,  f. 

Balance  to  waye  wilh  —  balance  s,  f. 

Balast  of  a  sbyppe  —  lestage  s,  m. 

Baidrikc  for  a  ladyes  necke  —  carcan  s,  m. 

Baie  of  any  marchaundyse  —  baie  s ,  f. 

Balcngar  bote  —  balengier  s,  m. 

Bail  of  tbe  cbeke  —  pommeau  de  lajove  x,  m. 

Bail  of  tbe  eye  —  la  prunelle  de  loyl  s,  f.  ;  pu- 
pille s,  f. 

Bail  to  play  at  lennes  witb  —  estevf  z,  m. 

Bail  tbal  is  greatler  and  softer  than  a  tennes 
bail  —  plotte  s ,  f. 

Balkc  of  an  bouse  —  pousle  s,  f. 

Bauike  of  lande  —  separaison  s,  m. 

Basyiike  serpent  —  basilisque  s,  f. 

Basyle  an  herbe  —  basilique  s,  f. 

Basket  —  corbeille  s ,  f. 

Basketbearer  —  hochquetevr  s,  m. 

Basket  makcr  —  uannier  s,  m. 

Bassliement  —  esbahissement  s ,  m. 

Basyn  to  wassbe  in  —  bassin  s,  m. 

Bassynet  —  bassinet  s,  m. 

Basiardc —  basiard  s,  m. 

Bastarde  llourc  — folle  farine  s ,  f. 

Bastyng  of  meate  —  basliment  s,  m. 

Bastyng  of  clolbe  —  bastiment  s,  ra. 

Batayle  —  bataille  s,  f. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE. 


197 


Batche  of  brcdde  — Journée  de  pain  s ,  f. 

Batte  a  staffe  —  baston  s,  m. 

Balter  of  flourc  —  paste  s ,  t. 

Balfouler  a  takcr  of  byrdes — pipevr  s,  ni. 

Batfoulyng  —  la  pipée  s,  f. 

Bathe  or  bayne  —  baing  z,  m. 

Batyldore  —  battover  a  lessiue  s,  m. 

Batylmcnl  of  walles  —  bastimenl  s,  ni. 

Batylment  of  a  lowne  wali  —  auantmur  s,  m. 

Baucn  great  fagottes  — favllourde  s,  f. 

Baudeman  —  macquereau  x ,  m. 

Baudcwornan  —  macquerelle  s,  f. 

Baudrike  —  carquant  s,  m. 

BaWnesse  want  of  lieer  —  chavlueté  z,  ni. 

Baume  an  berbe  —  hauslme  s ,  (. 

Baume  oyle  —  baaslme  s,  f. 

B   BEFORE    E. 

Beautie  —  beavlté  z,  f. 

Beautifulnesse  —  beavlté  z,  l. 

Bec  a  flye  —  mouche  a  miel  t,f. 

Bcehyve  —  ruche  s,  f. 

Bêche  tree  —  hesire  s,  m.;f<n)  x,  m. 

Becke  —  signe  de  lateste,  s,  m. 

Bedde —  lit  z,  m.;  couche  s,  m. 

Bcdde  borde  —  sponde  s,  f. 

Bedde  stede  —  châlit  z,  va. 

Beddyng  —  acconstremenl  de  lict  s,  m. 

Bedell  —  bedeav  x,  m. 

Beddes  lieed  —  clicuet  du  lict  z,  m. 

Beed  of  stonc  or  «ode  — patenostre  s,  f. 

Beedman  —  oralevr  s,  m. 

Beane  corne  — feue  s,  f. 

Befe  meate  —  chair  de  beuf  s,  f. 

Begettyng  —  engendrure  s,  f. 

Beggarman  —  belistre  s,  m. 

Beggar  woman  — belislresse  s,  f. 

Beggary  —  blisterie  s,{. 

Bcggyng  —  mandiance  s,  {. 

Begyling —  tromperie  s,  t. 

Begynnyng  —  commencement  s,  ni. 

Beholdyng  —  regart  s,  m. 

Beholder  —  regardevr  s,  m. 

Bebest  —  promesse  s,  f, 

Behavour  —  maintien  s,  m. 

Beyng  —  essence  s,f. 


Beakyn  — Jev  au  guet  x,  m. 

Becke  witb  tbe  beed  —  signe  de  la  teste  s,  m. 

Beckeryng  scriniysshe  —  meslee  s,  f. 

Beldame  —  mercgrant  s,  f. 

Beldyng  —  édification  s,  f.;  bastiment  z,  m. 

Bell  of  snevyll  at  one,5  nose  —  rovpie  s,  f. 

Bell  in  a  steple  —  cloche  s,  f. 

Bell  founder  — fondevr  de  cloches  s,  m. 

Bell  for  a  morres  —  sonnette  s,  f. 

Bellfray  —  heavfroy  s,  t. 

Bell  facioned  lyke  a  peare  for  chyldren  lo  playe 

witb  — poyrette  s,  (. 
Beily  —  aenire  s,  m. 
Bclowes  —  ungz  su£letz  aufev,  m. 
Belsyre  —  grant  père  s,  m. 
Belweder  a  becst  —  bellin  s,  m. 
Beame  of  an  bouse  —  tref  s,  m. 
Beame  of  tbe  sonne  —  raye  de  soleil  s,  I. 
Beamyng  knyfe  for  a  tanner. 
Benche  —  banc  z,  m. 
Bende  of  men  —  roi  te  s.  f. 
Bcndyng  bowyng  —  arcure  s,  f. 
Bendyng  for  a  crosbowe  —  bendage  s,  m. 
Benefyce  — -  bénéfice  s,  m. 
Benêt  order  —  ordres  s,  f. 
Benyvolence  —  beniuolcnce  s,  f. 
Berall  fyne  glasse  —  beril  z,m. 
Beere  driake  —  bière  s,  f. 
Berde  of  man  or  beest —  barbe  s,f. 
Beare  a  be  beest  —  ovrs,  m. 
Beare  a  sbe  beest  —  ovrse  s,  f. 
Bear  warde  —  gardevrdovrs  s,  m. 
Beere  for  deed  men  —  bière  j,  f. 
Beryengofa  corps —  enterrement  s,  m. 
Beryall  —  sépulture  s,  t. 
Berry  of  any  tree  —  graine  s,  f. 
Beryll  a  precious  slone  —  beril  z ,  m. 
Berkyng  of  a  dogge  — aboyenient  s,  m. 
Bernacle  a  byrde  —  bernac  z,m, 
Berne  to  put  corne  in  —  granche  s,  f. 
Besecbyng  — •  deprecalion  s,  f. 
Besynesse  labour  —  labovraige  s,  f. 
Besynesse  occupation  —  besoigne  s,(, 
Besome  —  balay  s,  m.  ;  ramon  s,  m. 
Bestysshnesse  —  besterie  s,  f. 
Beest  —  beste  s ,  f . 


198 


LESCLARCISSEMENT 


Beestbearyng  bornes  —  teste  a  corne  s,  f. 
Beestes  stall  —  crèche  s,  F. 
Bestowyng  —  emplojement  s,  m. 
Betany  an  herbe  —  bettoyne  s ,  (. 
Bethynkyng  —  appenscmcnt  s,  m. 
Betyll  lo  bete  clothes  witb  —  battoyr  $,  m. 
Betlle  ablacke  flyc  —  escargot^  z,  m. 
Beatyng  downe  of  nien  in  batayle  —  abatis. 
Beatyng  downe  of  any  buyldynge  —  (UmoU- 

tion  s,  t. 
Beatyng  —  baterie  s,  [. 
Bever  batte  —  chappeav  de  bieure  x,  m. 
BewayJing — deploration  s,  f. 
Bewrayeng  —  détection  s,  t. 
Beautie  fayrnesse  —  beavlté  z,  f. 
Bcautyfulnesse  —  speciosité  z,  f. 

B    EEFOUE   J. 

Byas  of  an  hose  —  bias,  m. 

Byble  —  bible  s,  f. 

Byce  a  colour  —  azar  s,  m. 

Byding  taryeng  —  attente  s,  (. 

Biggayne  a  woman  tbat   lyvetb  cbaste  —  be- 

gvinc  s,  f. 
Byggen  for  a  chyldes  beed  —  beguyne  s ,  f. 
Bygge  corne — far  s,vct. 
Bygnesse  of  any  thyng  —  grandeur  s,  (. 
Bygnesse  quantité  —  moyson  s,  (. 
Bygnesse  ofones  body  —  corpsage  s,  m. 
Bygnesse  of  a  thyng  in  brcad  —  grossevr  s ,  f. 
Bicker  Cghtyng  —  escarmovche ,  bescovsse  s ,  f. 
Byldinge  —  structure  s,{.;  édifice  s,  m. 
Bylding  agayne  —  reedijication  s,  f. 
Byil  a  lelter  —  lettre  s,  f. 
Byle  a  sore  — fronde  s,  (.;  clov  x,  m. 
Byll  of  dette  —  ceduU  s,  f. 
Byll  of  a  byrde  —  becq  z,m. 
Byli  to  fyght  witb  —  uotge  s,(. 
Bylman  in  a  batayle  —  halebardier  s,  m. 
Byll  of  a  mattocke  —  le  manche  s,  m. 
Byllet  shydc  of  woode  —  bûchette  s,  f. 
Byn  to  kepe  breed  or  corne  —  hache  a  pain  s,  f. 
Byeng  —  achapt  z,  m. 
Bypathe  —  sente  5,  f. 
Byrcbe  tree  —  bouUiav  x,  m. 

'  SanF  (loitte  etcarlot. 


Byrde  —  ojseav  x,m. 

Byrde  boite  —  mail  crus ,  m. 

Byrde  lyme — glev  x,m. 

Byrlyngyron  —  unes  espinces,  f. 

Byrlingof  clothe  — pinsure  s,  f. 

Byrthe  —  naiscance  s,  f. 

Byrlhe  of  a  man  or  a  woman  —  natiuité  2 ,  f.  ; 
portée  s,  f. 

Byssboppe  —  euesque  s,  m. 

Bysshoppyng  of  chyldren —  confrmation  s,  f. 

Bysshoprike  —  euesché  z,Ta. 

Bysshoppes  ring  —  pontifical  x,m. 

Bysshoppes  crosse  —  crosse  s,  f. 

Businesse  —  affaire  s,  m.  ;  empeschement  s ,  m. 

Bysket  bredde  —  biscvit  z,  m. 

Bytche  a  slic  dogge  —  chienne  s,  f. 

Bytche  Ihat  gothe  a  saute  —  lice  s ,  (.;  chienne 
chavlde  s,  f. 

Byting  of  any  beest  —  morsure  s,  f. 

Byting  of  the  brideli  —  rongevre  s,  f. 

Bytte  of  a  brideli  —  mors,  m. 

Bytternesse  —  aigrevr  s,  f.  ;  amertume  s,  {,;  as- 
presse  s,  f. 

B    BEKOKE    L. 

Blabbe  —  cacijuetevr  s,  ra. 

Blacke  chery  —  merise  s ,  f. 

Black  chery  tree  —  merisier  s ,  m. 

Blacke  sope —  sauon  noir  s,  m. 

Blacke  frère — jacobin  s,  m. 

Blacke  bery  — framboise  s,  (. 

Blacke  byrde  —  estovrneav  x,  m. 

Black  liorse  —  moreav  x,  va. 

Blacke  byll  to  fyght —  uovlge  s,  m. 

Blacke  smytbe  —  mareschal  x,  m. 

Blacke  of  the  eye  —  le  nojr  de  lojl  s,  m. 

Blade  of  corne  —  le  ble  uert  s,  m. 

Blade  of  a  knyfe  —  alumelle  s,  f. 

Bladder  in  a  beest  —  uessie  Sj  f. 

Blades  to  wynde  yarne  on  —  tovrnettes,  f. 

Blâme  —  blasme  s,  m.  ;  covlpe  s,  f. 

Blayne  sore  —  escharboncle  »,  f. ;  uczie  s,f. 

Blanket  clothe —  blanchei  z,  m. 

Blasphemar  — blasphcmcvr  s,  m.;  blasphéma- 

tevr  s,  m. 
Blasphemyng  —  blasphème  5,  f. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE. 


199 


Blase  of  fyre  —  flamme  s,  f. 

Blasyng  of  armes  —  blason  s,  m. 

Blasyng  starre  —  commette  s,{. 

Blast  of  wynde  —  bovffee  de  uent  s,  f. 

Blaundrelle  an  apple —  brandureav  œ,  m. 

Bleke  a  lyteil  fysshe  —  able  s,  m. 

Blcche for souters — attrament  s,m.;noyr  s, m. 

Blemysshe  —  macule  s,  f. 

Blessyng  —  bénédiction  s,  f. 

Blynde  nettell  —  ovrlie  blanche  s,  f. 

Blyndnesse  —  auevglerie  s  ,  (. 

Blysse  — joye  s,  f. 

Blysfulnesse  - — ■  béatitude  s,  f. 

Blober  upon  water  —  bovteillis,  f. 

Blode  worte  herbe. 

Blode  of  any  beest  —  sang  z,  m. 

Blode  hou n de  —  limier  s,  m. 

Blody  mensyn  sickenesse. 

Blocke  of  tree  —  tronchei  z,  m.;  tronc  z,  m. 

Blocke  of  tynne  —  savmon  deslain  s,  m. 

Blocke  or  byllet — 6i7ot  z,  m. 

Blome  a  flour  — Jlevr  s,  f. 

Blossome  of  a  tree  — flevr  defrvict  s,  f. 

Blottc  with  ynke  —  poste  s,  f. 

Blottyng  —  broillerie  s,  f. 

Biovve  on  the  cheke  — jovee  s,  f. 

Blowbole  —  jraroigne  s,  m. 

Blowe  wilh  onej  fysl  —  siifflet  z,  m. 

Bluntnesse  of  anyedged  toole  —  agasseté  z,  f.; 

agassurc  s,  f. 
Blustryng  of  wyndcs  —  behovrdis,  m. 

B    BEFORE   O. 

Bobet  on  the  heed  —  covp  de  poing  z,  m. 
Bobbyn  fora  gylke  woman —  bobin  s,  t. 
Bocher  that  kylleth  fleshe  —  bovchier  s,  m. 
Bochery  —  bovcherie  s,  (. 
Body  —  corps,  m. 

Body  of  a  cburche —  nef  de  lesglise  z,  f. 
Body  of  a  tree. 

Bodkyn  instrument  —  poynson  s,  m. 
Boye  —  garçon,  jilz  s,  m. 
Boy  of  an  ancre  —  boyee  s,i. 
Boysluousnesse  —  roydevr  s,  f. 
Boke  that  sbeweth  the  actes  and  order  in  a 
journey  —  uoyagier  s,  m. 


Boke  —  liure  s,  m. 

Boke  othe  — jvrement  de  droict  s,  m. 

Boke  bearer  in  a  ployé  —  prothocoUe  s,  m. 

Bokesellar  —  libraire  s,  m. 

Bokebynder  —  relieur  de  liures  s,  m. 

Bokeram  —  bovgueram  s,  m. 

Bockette  for  a  well  —  seav  x,  m. 

Bokette  maker  — Jaisevr  de  bahaz  s,  m. 

Bokyll  —  blovque  s,  f. 

Boclcr  for  defence  —  blovquier  s,  m. 

Bolas  frute  — prunelle  s,  f. 

Bolas  tre  —  espine  noire  s,  t. 

Boldnesse  hardynesse  —  hardiesse  s ,  f. 

Boledysshe  or  a  bole  — jatte  s,  f. 

Boikyng  of  the  stomake  —  rovttement  s,  m. 

Bolstarre —  trauersin  s,  m.;  cheuecel  z,  m. 

Bolsteryng  sluHyng  — fulsement  s,  m. 

Boite  or  shacle  —  entraue  s,  f. 

Boite  of  a  dore  —  uerrovl  x,  m. 

Bombarde  a  kynde  of  a  gon  —  bombarde  s,  f. 

Bonde  a  lace  —  latz,  m. 

Bondage  —  seruitmle  s,  f. 

Bonde  to  bynde  with —  lyen  s,  m. 

Bondell  of  russbes —  bondeav  dejoncz   Cj  m. 

Bondeman  —  serf  z,m. 

Bonne  ofa  beest  —  os,  m. 

Bonne  fyre  — fev  de  behovrdis  x,  m. 

Bonet  ofa  sayie  —  bonette  dung  Iref  s,  f. 

Bonnet  maker  —  bonnettier  s,  m. 

Bonnet  a  cappe — ■  bonet  z,  m. 

Bonnet  for  a  gentylwoman  —  coguille  s,  f. 

Bonhom  a  religiousman  —  bonhomme  s,  m. 

Bone  a  request  —  requeste  s,  L 

Bourage  herbe  —  borache  s,  {. 

Boore  beest  — sanglier  s,  m. 

Boore  spere  —  espiev  x,  m. 

Boores  heed  —  hevre  s,  f. 

Boores  brislell  —  saye  de  povrceav  s,  (. 

Boorde  for  buylding  —  ays,  m. 

Boorde  a  table  —  table  s,{. 

Borde  clothe  —  nappe  s,î. 

Bourde  or  game  —  jev  x,  m. 

Bourdayne  — fais,  m. 

Bordell  house  —  bovrdeav  x,  m. 

Border  ofa  garment  —  brodevre  s,  {. 

Boorder  that  gothe  to  borde —  commensal  x,  m. 


2Q0  LESCLARC 

Border  rounde  about  a  thyng  —  brodvtr  s,  f. 

Bordering  of  a  garment — brodevre  s,  f. 

Borowe  or  thorowe  fare  —  boarc  z,  m. 

Borde  knyfe  —  covteav  de  escuier  x,  m. 

Borowe  a  pledge  —  pleigc  s,  m. 

Bosarde  byrde  —  biisart  s,  m. 

Bosomc  of  a  parsone  —  seyn  s,  m. 

Bosse  of  a  bocler  —  bosse  s,  f. 

Bosse  of  a  bridell  —  bosselle  s ,  f. 

Bosse  of  a  gyrdle — ferrevre  diine  tressovcre  s,  f. 

fiost  crakyng  —  uanteric  s ,  f 

Boster  —  uantevr  s,  m. 

Bostyng — uanlance  s,i. 

Botcher  of  old  garmenls  —  rauavderr  s,  m. 

Botche  a  sore  —  bosse  de  peslilence  s,  f. 

Boite  to  rowe  in  —  nasselle,  bateav  x,  m. 

Botleman  —  batlelier  s,  m. 

Bottcll  to  kepe  drinke  in  —  boteille  s,  (. 

Bottel  of  baye  —  bolteav  dejayn  x,  m. 

Botyfelowe  — parsomncr  s,  m. 

Boty  that  nian  of  warre  take  —  butin  s ,  m. 

Botiar —  bovtellier  s,  m. 

Bottras  of  a  wali  —  parlant  s,  m. 

Bottrye  -^  despence  s,  f. 

Bottome  of  a  sblppe  —  lasovlc  s,  f. 

Bottome  of  any  tbyng  — fous,  m. 

Bollonie  of  threde  —  gliceav  x,  ni.;  plotlon  de 

Jil  s,  m. 
Bottes  a  sickenesse  in  ahorse — iranchajon  5,  ni. 
Boote  of  ietbcr  —  houseav  x,  ta. 
Boothe  of  canvas  —  tente  s,  f. 
Boothe  —  hanieav  x,  m. 
Boothe  ofbowes — rainée  s,  L^fveillcc  s,  f. 
■Boclc  ihat  beareth  the  byt  — portemors,  m. 
Builyon  in  a  womans  girdle  —  clov  x,  m. 
Boultyng  clotbe  or  bulter  —  blvteav  x,  m. 
Boultyng  tubbe  —  husche  a  bluter  s ,  f. 
Burryon  or  budde  of  a  tree — germe,  burjon  s,  m. 
Bowe  to  sbote  witb  —  arc  z,  m, 
Bowyer  that  makes  bowes  —  arctiller  s,  m. 
Bouke  of  clothes  — -  buée  s  ,  {. 
Bowell  gutle  —  bojaa  x,  m. 
Bowelles  of  a  man  or  beest  —  entrailles,  f. 
Bowleyne  of  a  shippe  —  bolingue  s,  f. 
Boweshotte  the  space  that  one  maye  shote  — 

archee  s,  f. 


ISSEMENT 

Bowstryng —  corde  s,  f.  ;  cordeau  x,  m. 

Bowstryng  vasikcr — jaisevr  de  cordes  a  lare  s,  m. 

Boughe  branche  —  rame  s,  f. 

Bought  of  the  arme  —  l^  plj  du  bras  s,  m. 

Bougettc  —  bovgette  s,  f. 

Bougetmaker — faisevr  de  bahnz  s,  m. 

Bouge furreromnienis — pcavx  de  Lonibardie,  f. 

Bowle  to  playe  wilh  —  bovle  s,{. 

Bowle  to  playe  at  the  byles  —  bille  s,  f. 

Boulnyng  swellyng — injlalion  s,  f. 

Bounde  or  marke  —  bourne  s,  f. 

Bowre  —  salle  s ,  f. 

Bourdyng  jestyng — joncherie  s,  f, 

Bousshell  measure —  boisseav  x,m, 

Boustuousncsse  —  impétuosité  z ,  f. 

Boxeof  a  messangere  —  escvisson  s,  m. 

Boxe  for  medicyns,  or  to  put  any  other  thyng 

in  —  boile  s,  f. 
Boxe  trc  —  boix  s,  f . 

B   BEFORE    R. 

Brabiyng — tencerie  s,  t. 

Brace  of  an  house  —  bracc  s,  f. 

Bracelet  for  a  ladies  arme  —  bracellet  z,  m. 

Bracer  to  shote  witb  —  brassellet  z,  m. 

Brace  of  gray  houndes. 

Brache  a  kynde  of  houndes  —  brachel  z,  m. 

Braggar  — fringuereav  x,  m. 

Brayde  or  hastynesse  of  mynde —  colle  s,  f. 

Braydes  of  a  womans  heer  —  tresses,  f. 

Brayne  —  cerneav  x,m. 

Brayne  of  a  mannes  heed  —  ceruelle  s,  f. 

Brayne  pan  —  taje  de  la  teste,  crâne  s,  m. 

Brake  au  instrument  —  braje  s,  f 

Brake  ferne  that  groweth  — fasiere  s,  f. 

Brake  in  clothe  —  rentreturc  s,  f. 

Bramble  or  brere  —  ronce  s,  f. 

Branne  of  mcale  —  son  s,  m. 

Branche  ofatree —  branche  s,  f. 

Branched  damaske  —  damars figuré  s,  ni. 

Brandeof  fyre  —  brandon  dejev  s,  m. 

Brasse  metall  —  arain  s,  m. 

Brasell  tre  to  dye  with  —  bresd  z  ,  m. 

Brasyer — fondeur,  brassevr  s,  m. 

Brauler a chyder  —  criart  s,  m. 

Brauling — crierie  s,  f.  ;  tencon  s,  f.  ;  noise  s,  f. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE. 


201 


Brawne  of  a  boore  —  lart  3,  m. 

Brawne  of  the  hande  —  le  gras  de  la  main,  m. 

Brawne  of  an  arme  or  legge — la  sovris  dv  bras ,  f. 

Brawne  of  ail  maner  of  llesshe — chaymnre  s,  f.; 
lart  s.   m. 

Brèche  wliere  water  breke    in  —  brèche  j,  f. 

Brèche  of  hosen — braiette,  braie,braie,  braies  s,  f. 

Bree  of  the  eye  —  poil  de  loiel  z,  m. 

Bredde  locale  —  pain  s,  m. 

Bredlhe  of  any  ihyng  —  largeur  s,  (. 

Bredyng  of  byrdes  —  covuee  s,  (. 

Brede  or  squarenesse  —  croisure  s,  f. 

Brere  that  blacke  berres  growe  upon  —  fram- 
boisier s,ra. 

Brest  plate  —  escreuice  s,  f. 

Breke  of  the  daye  —  adjoumement  s,  m.;  laube 
creuant,  laube  du  jour  s,  f. 

Brekefasl  —  desjeuner  s,  m. 

Breking  of  an  aray  in  a  felde  — froissis,  va. 

Brème  fysshe  —  bresme  s,  f. 

Brere  —  ronce  s,{. 

Brere  or  hethe  —  bruyère  s,f. 

Bresea  long  flye  —  prestre  s,  f. 

Brest  of  a  man  — Jovrcelle  s,  f.  ;  pis,  m. 

Brest  of  a  man  or  beest  —  poictrine  s,  f. 

Brethe  of  a  man  —  alaine  s,L 

Brewar  of  aie  —  brasseur  s,  m. 

Bribour  —  briheur  s,ia. 

Bribrye  —  briberie  s,  t. 

Bridait  —  unesnupces,  f.  ;  espoasailles,  t. 

Bridell  for  a  horse  —  bride  s,  f. 

Bride  grome  —  espoux,  m. 

Bride  woman  —  espousee  s,  f. 

Bridge  over  a  dyke  —  planche  s,  f. 

Bridge  of  stone  — pont  z,  va. 

Bridge  of  the  nose  —  os  du  nez,  m. 

Brighlnesse  —  luisance,  resplendevr,  clarté  s,{. 

Bringyng  to  thraldonie  —  subjugation  s,  f. 

Bringyng  in  of  a  malter  —  discours,  m.   . 

Brinke  of  any  thyng  —  ior(  s,  m.  ;  riae  s,  (. 

Brine  sallevvater  —  saulmevre  s,  f. 

Bristell  of  a  boore  —  saye  de  pourceav  s,  t. 

Brittylnesse — fragilité  z,  f. 

Broche  for  ones  cappe — broche  s,  (.  \ymage  s, 
{.;  ataiche  s,  f.\afjicquet  z,    m. 

Broche  wilh  a  scripture  —  deuise  s,  f. 


Broche  maker  —  bambelottier  s,  m. 
Brocke  a  beest  —  taxe  s,  f. 
Brood  of  byrdes  —  covuee  doiseaux ,  niée  s,  f, 
Broode  arrowe  —  rallion  s,  m. 
Broode  daye  —  grqMjour  s,  m. 
Broode  axe  —  hache  large,  dolovere  s,  i. 
Broderar  —  brodevr  s,  m. 
Broderyng  of  a  garment —  broderie  s,  f. 
Broker bylwene  to  marchauntes — coureiiers,  m. 
Broker  that  speketh  many  languages  —  truche- 
ment s,  m. 
Broken  meate  — fragments,  m. 
Brome  to  swepe  with  —  balay  s,  m. 
Brome  tree  —  genest  s,  m. 
Bronde  of  fyre  —  tison  s,  m. 
Broke  a  lytell  water  —  rvisseav  x,  m. 
Brosyng  or  broose  —  briseare  s,  t. 
Brothe  potage  —  hrovet  z,  m. 
Brothe  of  fysshe  or  flesshe  —  bro'vel  z,  m. 
Brothcll  —  pailliarde,  putayn  s,  f. 
Brothellcshouse  —  bordel  z,m. 
Brother — frère  s,  m. 
Brother  in  lawe  —  searourge,  beau-frere. 
Brotherheed  — fraternité,  confrairie  s,  f. 
Brother  germayne  — frère  germain  s,  m. 
Brother  worte  herbe. 
Browe  above  the  eye  —  sourcil  z ,  m. 
Browne  bredde  —  pain  bis,  m, 
Brunt  hastynesse  —  chavlde  colle  s,  f. 
Brusshe  to  brusshe  with  — uerge  a  nettoyer  s,  f. 
Brushe  to  make  brusbes  on  —  brvycre  s,  f. 
Brewes  —  brovet  z,  m. 

B    BEFOItE    U. 

Bubble  in  the  water  —  bovteille  s,  i. 

Budde  —  bovton,  bourgon  s,  m. 

BuDctte  —  baffee  s,  f,;  covp  de  poing  z,m, 

Budgette  —  bovgette  s,  t. 

Bugle  beest  —  bepgle  s,  m. 

Bugle  horne  —  cor  de  bevgle  s,  m. 

Bucke  hounde  —  limonier  s ,  m. 

Buckc  beest  —  dain  s,  m. 

Buckeram  —  bovgueram  s,  m. 

Bucket  to  drawe  water  with  —  seai  .r,  m. 

Bucke  to  wasshe  clothes  in  —  cvuier  s,  m. 

Buccle  for  a  shoo  —  blovgue  s,  f. 

i6 


202 


Boeder  for  defeoce  —  H— ^lirr  s,  va. 

Bail  a  beest  —  tanm.  tar  *,  m. 

Bull  tbatoommetli  froa  tbe  pope  —  balte  s,{. 

Buliocke  —  betf  s,  m. 

Bull  rrsshe  — /— cjl»w"«i,jwic  fafauOe  t,  wêl. 

Bulwarke  —  itmkmert  s,  m. 

Booche  of  gariike  or  soch  other  —  fcoMe  »,  f. 

Banleil  —  htaim  x,  m. 

Bu^  «f  *  taaae  or  pype  —  ktmià.  z,m. 

Df  yng      <lti«wnr,«Aw   *,  f.;  Wrrr  t,  f. 

Bamrng  heate  —  arinr  s,  f. 

Bumyng  of  any  tliyag  —  c—itafti»»  «.  f. 

Burrage  berbe  —  itmmtjttf  f. 

Barbie  in  tke  water  —  imhtUe  t,  f. 

Bordajne  — ;>ori«e  *,  f.;  mMtmn  s,'f. 

Borre  tfaat  devetk  lo  —  gUlmm  s.  m. 

Burgesse  a  man  —  iearyoù  $,  ■>. 

Borgesse  wyfe  —  teryoùc  »,  f. 


».  1 


LESCLARCISSEMENT 

Caytife  wretche  —  ckftif  î,  m.  ;  mmUstn  »,  m. 

Cake  —  fastett  x,m. 

Cake  of  (yite  floore  made  in  a  print  of  yron  — 

forfre  »,  f. 
Cackelyng  bablyng  —  oacfaet  :,  m. 
Cail  fbrquaylles  —  cffaitltt  !,  m. 
Callamynt  heriie  —  cal— hil  »,  a. 
Call  for  maydeos  —  reu  ^  »oy«,  f. 
Caidrone  —  ckaaUrm  »,  m. 
Caleodre  —  iminulner  t,m. 
OlengeorproTokyng  to  doatmes— cfcainjc  x,f. 
Calfe  beest  —  B«ae  x,  va. 
CdHeofalegge  —  ftmmum itUjamke  x,  m.; 


tofoyakiasbe  fetbers — ^baiart 
Bussbell  measore  —  iaiijwi  x,  m. 
Boakjng  —  hvit^aàt  »,  ta. 
nmililMial  —  tmhmckr  »,  f. 
Bnstanle  ahjrde. 
BoUe  ffaalie  —  fljt  »,  t 
Balte  to  sbote  at  —  iatte  »,  f. 
Butteras  for  a  mil  —  porruat  »,  m. 
Butlocke  of  a  man  or  beest  — fesse  ».  f. 
Bnttour  a  bjrde  —  iatar  »,  m. 
Butter  to  eale  —  berrre  »,  m. 
BatterflTC  —  papUlom  »,  m. 
Butlar  —  drspaisatnr, 
Batton  for  a  garment  — 
Botlrre  —  itspemct  »,  il 

C   BEPOBE   A. 

Case  to  put  arowesia  —  cattoie  t,  f. 
Case  for  nedelles  —  ■jKjiffiir  s,  m. 
CaUe  for  a  shjf^  —  ckaUt  »,  f. 
Cabbyn  in  a  shyppe  —  cckaa  »,  m. 
Cabbrssbe  rote  —  cAo*  jr,  m.  ;  cmias,  m. 
Cace  to  close  a  thyng  io  —  oatte  »,  f. 
Caddas  or  cmle  —  sayeUe  »,  f. 
Caddawe  a  bjrde  —  clouas  f ,  f. 
Cade  of  heerryng  —  esettde  »,  C 
Cage  for  a  bjrde  —  cai^  »,  £. 


Ir  mut  de  lajaaAe  z,  n. 
Calyoo  stone  —  caHov  *,va. 
Callyagaga|ae — MMoaftaa  «,L 
Callyng  nanrfng — ^iBirr  »,  f. 
Callyng  upon  —  ùaocatio»  t,  f. 
Calme  styll  wbelba-  —  carme  s,  m. 
Calstorle  — pie  de  chn  s,  va. 
Cahr^ipe  —  ckarssetrappe  »,  f. 
Criver  of  saulmon  —  etemme  d*  laiémoa  s,  t. 
Cammamyll  berbe  —  caïaiiHr  s,  f. 
Camfocie  a  gamme  —  caa^n  »,  m. 
CamfoT^e  berbe  —  la  graadt  tannUt  s,  t. 
Cammell  a  beest  —  ckamiea»  x,  m. 
Camuse  precious  stone  —  dtamakitax,  va. 
Canapy  to  be  borne  over  the  sacrament  or  over 

a  kynges  beed — paUe  »,  m. 
CaodeU  — dUMkBe  ».  f. 
Candelmasse  feest  —  la  ttamiitu  »,  f. 
Candelstycke  —  duatidia-  »,  an. 
Canell  ^iee  —  caKeUe  »,  f. 
Canndl  in  tbe  streie  —  rrûiea»  dtUrae  x,m. 
Cancker  sore  —  cioacne  »,  m. 
Cancker  worme  —  ner  de  clumcrt  »,  m. 
Cannon  lawe  —  le  droit  caaoa  z,  va. 
Canop;  —  ciel  i,  m. 
Canidl  or  shyrer  —  ckaatÊam  x,  m. 
Canlell  of  bredde  —  étamlem  ie  ptàa  x,  m. 
Canvas  —  cannas ,  m. 
Car>par  —  4o«ii«tt«>r  »,  m. 
Cqipe  with  a  double  tnrfe  —  harttte  »,  C;  lao- 

^m  de  wùdlmm.  z,  f. 
Cappe  —  \ivmei  :,  m. 
Cappe  of  fenœ  —  styreMr  de  mtailie  »,  f. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE. 


203 


Cappe  of  a  flayle  —  liasse  danjlaiav  s,  f. 
Capitayiie  —  capilaine  s,  m. 
Capitayns  banner  —  ensigne  s,  (. 
Captivité  —  chateuoison  s,  f. 
Capone  fouie  —  chapon  s,  m. 
Capuil  a  horse  —  rovssin  s,  m. 
Carracte  in  priclte  soog  —  minime  s,  f. 
Ceirawayes  smail  confetles  —  draggee  s,  f. 
Carboncle  stone  —  escharboncle  s,  m. 

Carboncle  a  blayne  —  escharboncle  s,  f. 

Carde  to  worlte  with  —  carde  s,  f. 

Cardynall  —  cardinal  x,  m. 

Cardes  to  play  with  —  cartes ,  f. 

Carder  of  wolie  —  cardevr  s,  m. 

Carde  malcer  —  cardier  s,  m. 

Carde,  clothe  for  brides  :  they  use  none. 

Carefuinesse  —  sollicitude  s,  f. 

Care  thought  —  chagrin  s,  m.  ;  soing  z,  m. 

Carre  a  carte  —  chariot  z,  m. 

Carre  a  lytell  carte  with  two  wheles — char  s,va. 

Carryar  of  staiTe  by  faorsbacke  —  noictarier  s,  m . 

Carryar  by  carte  —  charron  s.  m. 

Carryage  —  baggaige  s,  m.;  aoicture  s,  {.;  ap- 
port s,  m. 

Carrycke  a  greal  shippe  —  caraque  s,  (. 

Caryen  —  charoigne  s,  (. 

Carkes  of  a  foule  —  gnmche  s,  f. 

Carie  chorle  —  uilain  s,  m. 

Carole  a  son  g — chancon  de  noel  s,  f.  ;  corolle  s.  f. 

Carpe  fysshe  —  carpe  s,  {. 

Carpette  —  tapis,  ra. 

Carpen tar  ^  cfca/]pen<i<r  s,  m. 

Carsey  clothe  —  cresy  s,  m. 

Carter  —  charrecton  s,  m.;  chartier  s,  m. 

Carte  —  charette  s,  f. 

Carte  clout  of  yron  — plalin  de  fer  s,  m. 

Carte  wright  —  charron  i,m. 

Carte  wave  —  charriere  s,  f. 

Carte  Iode  —  chartee  s,  ï. 

Carte  rode  —  ornière  s,  f. 

Case  of  lether  to  put  a  combe ,  a  recorder  or 
any  suche  lyke  thyng  in  —  estuj  s,  m. 

Case  for  pynnes  or  suche  like — esplinguier  s,m. 

Casket  or  hamper  —  escrayn  s,  m. 

Casket  or  fosar  —  escrain  s,  m. 

Caste  or  throwe  — ject  z,m. 


Castell  —  chiuteav  x,  va. 

Caste  of  faaukes  —  niée  doiseaax  s,  {. 

Catchepole  —  sergent  s,  m. 

Castyng  to  — ■  adition  s,  f. 

Castyng  toppe  —  toppee  s,  f. 

Caterpyllarworme  —  chattepellevse  s,  {. 

Cathedrall  churche  —  esglise  cathedralle  s,  f. 

Catte  a  beest  —  chat  z,  m. 

Cattistayle  herbe — Jallot  z,  va. 

Catour  of  a  gentylmans  bouse — despensier  s,  m. 

Cattell  —  bétail  z,  m. 

Caudell  —  chaadeax  x,  m. 

Caudron  —  chavldiere  s,  f. 

Cavyllation  —  caeillation  s,  f. 

Causion  pledge  —  cavtion  s,  f. 

Cause  —  cavse  s,  f. 

Cautell  fleyght  —  cavielle  s,(. 

Causey  in  a  hye  way  —  chavsee  z,  {. 

C    BEFORE    E. 

Cedar  tree  —  cèdre  »,  m. 
Cellar  for  a  bedde  —  ciel  de  lit  z,  m. 
Ceale  a  fysshe  —  chavlderon  de  mer  s,  m. 
Cellandyne  herbe  —  celidoine  s,  f. 
Celestyn  a  man  of  religion  —  celestin  s,  m. 
Cell  a  lytell  bouse  —  demevre  s,  (. 
Cellar  for  wyne  —  cellier  s,  m. 
Cellerar  an  oDicer  —  celerier  t,  m. 
Cendell  thynne  lyonen  —  sendal  x,  m. 
Cène  of  clerkes  —  conuocation  s,  (. 
Cens  —  ensent,  m. 
Censar  —  ensensier  s,  m, 
Centuarie  herbe  —  centaure  s,{. 
Ceptre  for  a  kyng  —  ceplre  s,  ra. 
Cerclel  for  a  womans  beed  —  ciercle  s,  m. 
Ceremony  —  cerimonie  s,  f. 
Cercle  or  compassé —  cercle  t,m. 
Certayntie  —  certaineté  z,  f. 
Cessyng  —  intermission,  cessation  s,  t. 
i     Cesterne  —  puleav  x ,  va.  ;  cisterne  s,{. 

C    BEFORE   H. 

Chaflie — paille  s,  {. 

Chaflre  ware  —  marchandise  s,  f. 

Chafer  to  heate  water  in  —  coquemerl  s,  m. 

Cbafyngdysshe  —  eschavjfette  s,  (. 

26. 


204 


LESCLARCISSEMENT 


Chafyag  frettyng — cale/action  s,  f.  ;  eschavffe- 
ture  s,  {. 

Cbal'yng  of  the  mynde  —  eschavffoison,  stoma- 
chation  s,  f. 

Chayre  to  sytte  in  —  chaiere  s,  f. 

Chayne  for  ones  necke  —  chaync  s,  f. 

Cbalenge  or  clayme  —  chalenge  s ,  f. 

Chalenger  in  anyjustyng  —  assaillant  s,  m. 

Chalys  to  syng  masse  with  —  calice  s,  m. 

Chalke  —  craje  s,  f. 

Chambre  —  chambre  s,  (. 

Chamberer  —  chambrière,  pedisseque  s,  (. 

Chamberlayne  —  chambellan  s, m. 

Chamlet  sylke  —  camelot  z,n\. 

Champyon  —  champion  s,  m. 

Chandeilar  that  maketb  chandelles  —  chande- 
lier s,  m. 

Chanelle  of  a  flode  —  chanel  z,  m. 

Chanel)  of  a  slreame  —  le  jil  de  Veave  z,  va. 

Cbangyng  —  uariement  s,  m. 

Chanon  a  religions  man  —  chanoine  s,  m. 

Chantyng  of  songe  —  renyoiserie  s,  f. 

Chape  of  a  shethe —  bovterolle  de  gayne  s,  f. 

Chapell  —  chapelle  s,(, 

Cbapplayne  —  chappelain  s,  m. 

Chapelet  —  chapellet  t,  m. 

Chapmaa  —  marchant  s,  m.  ;  châtiant  s,  m. 

Chapiter  —  chapitre  s,  m. 

Charcole  —  charbon  s,  m. 

Charge  —  charge  s,  f. 

Charger  a  great  platter — ung  grant  plat  z ,  m. 

Charret  —  carre  s,  m. 

Charryet  —  chariot  branlant  s,  m. 

Charyte  —  charité  z,  f. 

Charme  an  enchauntment — charme  s,  m. 

Chamelhouse  —  charnière  s,  f. 

Charter  a  pardon  —  grâce  s,  f. 

Chase  of  tennys  —  chasse  s,  (. 

Chastysiug — chasloiement  s,  m. 

Chaslyte  —  chastité  z,{. 

Chastuesse  of  body  —  chasteté  z,  (. 

Chatteryng  of  byrdes — j'^'yn  s,  m. 

Chafyng  of  the  skynne  —  rejovlevre  s,  {. 

Chawe  hone  —  machovere  s,  f. 
Chaufrayne ,  a  pece  of  harnesse  for  a  horse  — 
chaufroin  s,  m. 


Chaunce  fortune  —  aduenture  s ,(.;  accident  s, 

m.  ;  chance  s,  f. 
Chauncell  of  a  churche — cunr  desglise  s,  m. 
Chauncellar  —  chancellier  s,  m. 
Chauncery  —  chancellerie  s,  (. 
Chauncynge  —  aduenant  s,  va. 
Changer  of  money  —  changevr  s,  m. 
Chaungyng  —  entrechangement  s,  m.;  «iterarion 

s,  f.  ;  maance  s,  (. 
Chaunler  —  chantre  s,  m. 
Chaunlery  —  chanterie  s,(. 
Cbefe  baron  of  the  cschequer  —  président  de 

generaulx  s,  m. 
Chefe  capilayne  —  gênerai  de  larmee  x,  m. 
Cbefe  rular  of  a  gally — patron  de  la  galee  s,  m. 
Cbefe  officer  of  meane  estate   —  maistre  es- 

cuier  s,  m. 
Cbefe  origynall  —  capital  x,  m. 
Chefe  capitayne  —  cheuetain  s,  va. 
Chefenesse  —  singularité  z  ,  f. 
Checke  a  mery  taunl  —  lardon  s,  m. 
Checker  —  eschecquier  s,  va. 
Cheke  of  a  man  — jove  s,(. 
Cbekynwede  herbe  —  movron  s,  ta. 
Chekebonne —  los  de  la  jove,  m. 
Cbekyn  — povssein  s,  va. 
Cheyne  —  chayne  s,(. 
Chepe  —  marché  z,  m. 
Chère  —  acveil  z,  m. 
Chery  frute  —  cerise  s,  f. 
Chery  tree  —  cerisier  s,  m. 
Cherystone  —  noiav  de  cerise  x,  m. 
Cherne  to  make  butter  in  —  bevrrette  s ,  (. 
Chesse  borde  —  tableav  aux  eschecz  x,  m. 
Chesloppe  a  worme  —  cloporte  Sj  f. 
Chese — fromage  s,  va. 

Cbese  casten  in  a  molde-/romHiaige  déformes,  m . 
Cbese  cake  —  gasieav,  torleav  .r,  va. 
Chese  rake  —  caisier  afrommages  s,  va. 
Chese  fatte  —  presse  afrommages  s,  f. 
Chysell  a  toole  for  carpentars  — siseau  x,  m. 
Chesyblc  for  a  preest  —  chasuble  s,(. 
Chestayne  frute  —  chestaigne  s,{. 
Chestayne  tree  —  chestaignier  s,  va. 
Chest  —  coffre  s,  m. 
Cbestnut  frute  —  chestaigne  s,  f. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE. 


205 


Cbest  of  a  maii  — fovrcclle  s,  f.  ;  pis,  m. 
Chcvyn  a  fysshe  —  cheuenne  s,  f. 
Chevereil  letlier  —  clieacrotin  s,  m. 
Chevorell  an  h,erbe  —  cerfoil  z,  m. 
Chevesaunce  —  cheuisance  s,  f. 
Chebole  a  yong  ouyon  —  ciaol  z,  m. 
Chidyng  —  altercation,  noise ,  tencon  s,  f. 
Chefe  chauncellar  —  archichancelier  s,  m. 
Cliefe  chaplayne  —  archickapelain  s,  m. 
Cliilaiidre  —  chilandre  s ,  {. 
Cliylde — enfant  s,  m. 
Chyldehode  —  enfance  s,  (. 
Cliildes  ratle  to  plây  with  —  hochette  s,  f. 
Chyldcbedde — accovchement  i,m.  ;  gesine  s,  t. 
Chylde  or  beest  borne  aforc  the  tynie  —  auor- 

tin  5,  ni. 
Chyme  of  belles  —  gamme  s,  f. 
Chymney — chiminee  s,  f. 
Chynneof  a  visage — menton  s,  m. 
Chyne  of  a  beest  —  eschine  s,  f. 
Cliyppe  of  wode  —  coupiav  x,  m. 
Chippynges  ofbrede  —  chappelis  de  pain,  m. 
Cbyppyng  of  oncs  bandes  or  face — gersure  s,{. 
Chyve  of  safron  or  sucbe  lyke. 
Churche  wardeyne  —  gardien  s,  m. 
Churche  —  esglise  s,  t.\monstier  s,  m. 
Churche  yarde  —  semitiere  s,  m. 
Churche  porlche  —  auant  portail  z,  m. 
Chyrkyng  of  byrdes  — ji-^gon  s,  va. 
Chysl  a  great  cofer  —  arche  s,  f. 
Chyterlyng  —  endoile  s,  f. 
Cbivairy  —  cheaallerie  s,  f. 
Chyve  an  herbe  —  due  s,  f. 
Choyse  —  achoison  s,  f.;  eslite  s,  f.  ;  option  s,  f. 
Cboke  pcarc  —  estranguiUon  s,  m. 
Chaungyng  —  transmutation    ,  f. 
Chosar  —  electevr  s,  m. 
Chosyng  —  élection  s,  f. 
Chougho  a  yong  crowe  — corneille  s,  f. 
Chuffe  —  boiffe  s,  m. 
Cburle  carie  —  ailain  s,  m.;  hvdicr  s,  m. 
Churlysshenesse  —  rusticité,  uillainie  s,  f. 

C  BEFORE  y. 

Cyment  lo  hylde  with  —  ciment  s,  m. 
Cydar  a  drinke  —  cidre  s,  va. 


Cynders  of  coles  —  hreze  s,  f. 

Cynamome  a  spyce  —  cinamome,  canelle  s,  (. 

Cyrcute  —  pourprise  s,  f. 

Cyprès  a  kynde  of  wode  —  cyprès  s,  m. 

Circumsicion  —  circumsicion  s,  f. 

Cyrcumstance  of  a  luatter  —  circamstance  s,  f. 

Cyprès  for  a  womans  necke  —  crespe  s,  m. 

Cyprès  tree  —  cyprès  s,  m. 

Cysme  divysion  —  cisme  s,  m. 

Citron  frute —  citron  s,  m. 

Citron  tree  —  citronnier  s,  m. 

Cytie  —  citez ,  f. 

Cityng    of  one   to  the   court  —  adjovrnement 

s,  m. 
Cityien  of  a  cytie  —  citoyen  s ,  m. 
Cyve  to  syfte  with  —  crible  s,  m. 
Civyll  iawe  —  droict  ciuil  z,  m. 
Cyves  an  herbe  —  dues,  f 

C    BEFORE    L. 

Clamour  —  clamevr  s,  f. 

Clappe  on  the  hced  —  sajfflet  z,  m. 

Clappe  on  the  necke  —  colee  s,  f. 

Clappe  with  ones  hande  —  bovffèe  s,  f. 

Clappe  of  a  myll  —  clacqiut  de  movlin  z,m. 

Clappcr  for  a  bell  —  battant  s,  m. 

Clapper  of  connys  —  clappier  s,  m. 

Oappyng  or  noyse  —  chapplys,  m. 

Clarry  wyne —  cleré  s,  f. 

Clarry  herbe  —  tovlte  bonne  s,  f. 

Claryon  truinpel  —  cleron  s,  m. 

Claspe  for  a  garnnnent  —  ograffe  s,  m.;  crfi- 
chet  z,  m. 

Claspe  for  a  boke  — fermoier,  fermail  z,  m. 

Clasteryng  —  cax:tjuet  z,  la. 

Claricymballes  —  cimballes  s,(. 

Clause  —  clause  s,  {. 

Claweof  a  byrde  —  ongle  s,(. 

Clawe  of  a  man  or  best  —  gfipe  s,  f. 

Clay  erthe  —  aryille  s,  f. 

Clay  pylte  —  fosse  d'argille  s,  (. 

Clay  wall  —  paroy  daryille  s,  f. 

Clenlynesse  —  netteté,  pureté  z,  f. 

Clerenesse  of  any  thyng  that  sbyneth  —  clar- 
té z,  {. 

Clerenesse  of  welher  —  sérénité  z,  f. 


206 

Clergy  —  clergie  s,  m. 

Clerke  that  is  lettred  —  clerc  z,  m. 

Cierke  of  the  closet  —  clerc  de  chappelle  t,  m. 

Clerke  of  the  kechyn  —  despencier  s,  m. 

Clerke  of  tlie  comptes  —  auditevr  s,  m. 

Clergy  a  jiombre  of  clerkes  —  clergie  s,  va. 

Clerkes  lernyng  —  clergise  s,  (. 

Clevyng  to  —  adiiesion  s,  (. 

Clewe  of  thred  —  (jliceav  x,  m.;  ploton  s,  m. 

Ctiffe  of  a  hyll  —  crevx  dune  moiitaigiie,  m. 

Clyfte  of  any  thyng  ryven  — fente  s,  (. 

Clyft  of  a  tree  —  crevx,  m. 

Clyft  or  chyn  in  any   thynge — fendure,  fen- 

dasse  s,  {. 
Clyfte  in  a  wall  —  brèche  s,  f 
Clycket  of  a  dore  —  clicquelte  s,  f. 
Clyppes  —  eclypse ,  recovsse  de  soleil  s,f. 
Clyppar  of  money  —  rongevr  dor  s,  m. 
Clodde  of  erthe  —  monceav  de  terre  x,  va. 
Clocke  of  a  hose. 
Clogge  —  hillot  z,  m. 
Cloyster  —  cloystre  s,  nj. 
Cloystrer  —  cloistrier  s,  m. 
Clocke  to  shewe  the  boures  —  horiioge  s,  m. 
Clocke  maker  —  horilogier  s,  m. 
Cloke  agarment  —  manteav  x,  m. 
Cloke  with  a  hode. 

Close  a  grounde  enclosed  —  pre  s,  m. 
Closet  for  a  lady  to  make  her  redy  in  —  cham- 

berette  Sjf. 
Closyer  —  clos  ,  m. 
Closyng  of  a  grounde  with  hedgc  or  pale  — 

closlure  s,  f.  ;  cloyson  s,  f. 
Closes  —  praerie  s ,  f. 
Closet  —  chapelle  s,  f. 
Closyng  orshillynge  —  enclo: ,  m. 
Clothe  woHen —  drap  z,  m. 
Clothe  lynen  —  toylie  s,  f. 
Clothe  maker  —  drappevr  s,  m. 
Clothe  of  golde  —  drap  dor  z,m. 
Clothe  of  tyssue  —  drap  dortrait  z,  va. 
Clothe  ofarras —  tapisserie  s,  (. 
Clothe  of  sylver  —  drap  dargeat  z,  m. 
Clothe  sacke  —  bahus,  m. 
Clothe  to  put  on  a  herce  whan  a  inan  is  bu- 

ryed — poilte  s,  m. 


LESCLARCISSEMENT 


Clothyng  —  abillement,  parement  s,    m.;  ucs- 

tare  s,  f.;  appareil  z,  m. 
Clove  spyce  —  clou  de  girojle  x,  va. 
Clove  of  garlyke  —  teste  dail  s,  (. 
Cloude  —  nue,  nuée  s,  f. 
Cloute  of  a  ragge  of  clothe  —  hation  s ,  m.  ; 

torchon  s,  m. 
Cloute  of  a  sho  — ung  talon  s,  m.;   ung    de- 

uant  s,  m.;  ung  debout  z,ai. 
Clubbe  —  massue  s,  f.  ;  mace  s,  f. 
Clewe  of  yarne  or  threde  —  plotton  s,  m. 
Clustre  of  grapes  —  grappe  s,  f. 

C    BEFORE    O. 

Coartyng  —  efforcement  s,  m. 

Cohhlar —  sauctier  s,  va. 

Cobbylslone  —  caillou  x,ni. 

Cockeatrice  a  serpent  —  côcatris,  m. 

Cocke  a  he  byrde  —  coq  z ,  m. 

Cocket  a  byll  of  tbe  customehouse  —  estic- 
quette  s,  f. 

Coccle  a  reed  floure. 

Coccle  fysshe  —  coquille  s ,  (. 

Cockes  combe  —  creste  de  cocq  s,  f. 

Codde  of  a  man  —  coaillon  s,  m.;  boursel- 
te  s,  f. 

Codde  of  a  beane  or  pesé  —  escosse  s,  (. 

Codde  a  fysshe  —  cableav  x,  m. 

Codiyng  frute — pomme  cvite  s,  t. 

Codpese  —  braiette  s,  (. 

Codde  of  a  nette  —  le  col  dune  retz,  m. 

Cofer  to  put  stuffe  in  —  cofre  s,  va. 

Coflyn  —  grant  boiste  s,  f. 

Coy fe  for  ones  heed  —  coyfve  s,  {. 

Coyte  to  playewith  —  palet  z,va. 

Coyle  of  stone  —  bricoteav  x,  va. 

Coyne  money  —  monaye,  pecune  s,  [. 

Coynar  of  money  —  monayevr  s,  va. 

Coke  that  selleth  meate  —  cvisinier  s,  m. 

Cockcbote  to  rowe  with  —  cocqaet  z,  m.  ;  nos- 
selle  s,  f. 

Cocke  of  hey  —  mulon  defoyn  s ,  vn. 

Cockerell  —  cochet  z,va. 

Cokell  shell  —  coquille  s,  f. 

Cokell  of  the  clothe  —  nev  de  drap  x,  va. 

Cockesshote  to  take  wodcockes  with  —  uolee  s,  f. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE. 


20: 


Cokowe  a  byrde  —  qnocquev  z,  m. 

Cokolde  —  qaocqttev  s,  m. 

Cokes  vcne. 

Colour  for  a  horse  —  licol  z,  m.;  collier  s,  m. 

Colour  for  a  liounde  —  coUer  a  chien  s,  m. 

CoUarforagentylman — coller  s,tn,;  chaîne  s,  f. 

Coldnesse — froidure  s,f. 

Colour  the  complexion  in  a  man  —  colère  s,  f.  ; 

cole  Sj  f. 
Coles  —  colis,  m. 
Coleworte  an  herbe  —  chov  x ,  m. 
Cole  of  fyre  —  charbon  s,  m. 
Colenesse  — Jreschevr  s,  f. 
Colledge  house  —  collège  s,  m. 
Collégial  churche  —  esglise  collegialle  s,  (. 
Colendre  to  strayne  with  —  covleresse  s,  f. 
Collet  the  seconde  order  —  acolile  s,  m. 
Collyke  a  sickenesse  —  colique  s,  f. 
Collyer — charbonnier  s,  m. 
Collar  angre  —  chavlde  cole ,  cole  s,  f. 
Colloppe  meate  —  oevf  au  lard  x,  m. 
Colour,  as  white  or  blacke  —  coulevr  s,  f. 
Couloured  peace  — paix  fourrée  s,(. 
Coulour  a  fayned  matter  —  coalevr  s,  t. 
Colcrake  —  ralissover  s,  m. 
Coite  a  yong  horse  —  pollayn  s,  m. 
Columbyne  (loure  —  cocqaeloarde  s,  f. 
Commaundement  —  commandement,  edictz,m. 
Combe  to  kcmbc  with — jiiemjne  s,  m. 
Combe  maker — piengnier  s,  m. 
Combrance  distrouble  —  combrance  s ,  {. 
Comète  a  slarre  —  cornette  s,  f. 
Confortyng  —  alegement,  allégeance  s,  l. 
Commedy  of  a  cfaristmas  playe  —  commedie 

s,{. 
Commyng  nere  —  approche  s,  f. 
Commyng  to  ■ —  accès,  adaenue  s,  f. 
Commyng  —  adaenement,  uenue  s,  f. 
Comynaitic  —  communalté  z,{. 
Commyn  sedc  —  comyn  s,  m. 
Comnant  appoyntment  — •  conuenant  s,  m. 
Commissary  —  commissaire  s,  ni. 
Commodyte — comodité  z,  m. 
Common  peopie — populaire  s,  m. 
Common  welthe  —  bien  publique  s,  m.;  chose 

publique  s,  t. 


Common  dyet  in  a  mannes  house — ordinaire  s,  m. 

Common  standards  of  a  measure  —  maistresse 
mesure  s,  L 

Common  law  —  droit  commun  z,  m. 

Conimonesse  —  communitè  z,  f. 

Communication — sermon  s,  m.;  communication 
s,{. 

Company  —  compaignie  s,  f. 

Company  assembled  —  monde,  tourbe  s,  {. 

Company  of  lordes —  seigneurie,  bamaige  s,  f. 

Company  of  noble  men  —  consistoire  s,  m. 

Company  of  gentylmen  —  gentillesse  s,  (. 

Company  of  knaves  —  uillainie  s,  f. 

Company  of  misérable  fofkes  -^  mardaille  s,  f. 

Company  of  dogges —  chiennaille  s,  f. 

Company  or  meyny  of  shippcs  — flotte  s,  f. 

Company  of  thre  —  trinité  z,  f. 

Company  about  a  great  man  —  brigade  s,  f.  ; 
bende  s,  f. 

Company  of  wylde  foule  —  uol  z,  m. 

Companyon  a  felowe  —  compaignon  s,  m. 

Comparyng  —  comparution  s,  f. 

Comparison — comparison  s,  f.;  comparution  s,  f. 

Compas  a   cercle  or  rondell  —  compas,  m.; 
cercle  s,  m. 

Compas  for  a  carpentar —  compas,in.;ceme  s,f. 

Compassyng  of  tyme  —  reuolation  s,  [. 

Compassynggoyngaboutathyng — circmtions,f. 

Compassyng  a  matter  farre  of  —  circumbages ,  m . 
Compassion  —  compassion  s ,  f.  ;  pitié  s ,  f 
Compellyng —  efforcemenl  s,  m. 
Complayning  —  querimonie  s,  t. 
Complaynt  — complayntes,  m.;  plainct  z,  m. 
Complexion  —  comjilexion  s,  f. 
Coniplayne  in  the  churche  —  compiles. 
Composition  —  composition  s,  {. 
Conipremyse  —  compromis  s,  m. 
Conception  —  conception  s,{, 
Conceyte — fantaisie  s,  (. 
Conceyving  —  conception,  f. 
Concludyng  — ■  discussion  s ,  (. 
Conclusion  brifely  doue  —  somme  s,  f. 
Conclusion  —  consequens,  conclusion  s,{. 
Concorde  — concord  s,  va. 
Concubyne  —  concubine  s,f. 
Condycion  —  condition  s,  f. 


208 


LESCLARCISSEMENT 


Condicyon  a  pioperlic  — propriété  z,  f. 
Condycions  maners — mears ,  f. 
Condyte  of  water  — Jonlajne  s,i. 
Conduyf  —  onyane  s ,  m, 
Condicyon,  a  custome  or  maner —  tayche  s ,  f. 
Conduycle  of  a  mater —  condaycle  s,  f. 
Confection  — conjection  s,  f. 
Confederyng  —  confédération  s,(. 
Confessyon  — confession  s,{. 
Confesseur  a  goostly  father  —  confessevr  s,  m. 
ConfyrmatioD  —  confirmation  s,  (. 
Confyrming  —  confirmation  s,  f. 
Confort  —  confort  s,  m.;  consolation  s,  f. 
Confusvon  —  confusion  s,  t. 
Congar  fysshe  —  congre  s,ia. 
Congrégation  —  congrégation  s,  f. 
Cony  a  beest  —  conin  s,  m. 
Conyhole  or  clapar — taisniere  s,{.;  terrier  s,  m. 
Cony  garthe  —  garenne  s,  f. 
Conjuration  —  conjuration  s,  t. 
Connyng  scyence  —  science  s,  f. 
Conjunction  —  conjunction  s,  f. 
Conjecture —  conjecture  s,  f. 
Conquest  —  conqueste  s,(. 
Conquerour  —  conquesteur,  conquerear  s,  m. 
Conscience  —  conscience  s,  f, 
Counsell — secret  t,vtt.;aduis  m.:  consejl  z,Ta. 
Counsellyng  to  any  tbyng  —  instigation ,  con- 
sultation Sj  f. 
Counsell  chambre  —  chambre  de  parlement  s,{. 
Consent  —  accord,  consentement  s,  m. 
Consentyng  to  a  tbyng  —  aduev  x,  m. 
Conserve  niadeof  llouresor  frute — conserae  s,  f. 
Conservyng  —  conservation  s,{. 
Consydering  of  a  tbyng  —  circunspeclion  s,  f. 
Consystorie  a  courte  —  consistoire  s,  m. 
Constable  an  oflicer  —  conestable  s,  m. 
Constablesbyppe  —  coneslablee  s,  f. 
Constantnesse  —  constance  s,  f. 
Constytution  —  constitution  s,{. 
Constrayning  —  cohertion  s,  f. 
Conslraynt  —  contraincte  s,  [. 
Consumption —  cousumption  s,  {. 
Contaglousnesse  —  infection  s,  f. 
Contemplation  —  contemplation  s,  f. 
Conteyning  —  contenement  s,  m. 


Contention  stryfe  —  contens  s,  m. 

Content  of  a  mater  —  teneur  s,{. 

Contentes  of  writyng  —  contenue  s,  f. 

Conterpoynt  —  contrepoynt  s,  m. 

Contynuing  —  continuation  s,[. 

Countrey — teritoire  s,m.;contree  Sj{.\paisjm. 

Contrary  parte — partie  diverse  s,{. 

Contrariousnesse  —  contrariété  z,  f.  ;  contra- 
rienseté  z,  f. 

Contrition  —  contrition  s,  f. 

ControHer  —  controlleur  s,  m, 

Conveyeng  —  conuoyement  s,tn. 

Covenaunt — conuenant,  pact  z,  m. 

Cole  —  charbon  s ,  m. 

Coles  sucbe  as  be  gyven  in  ténèbre  wcke  — 
afferendons ,  m. 

Coke  —  rojliceiir  s,  m. 

Coke  tbat  byelb  meate  to  seit  agayne  —  rôtis- 
seur, charcuitier  s,  m. 

Copc  for  a  preest  —  cliappe  s,  f. 

Coupe  or  coule  for  capons  or  other  poultric 
ware  —  caige  aux  chappons  s,  (. 

Coppar  metall  —  cviure,  souldure  s ,  m. 

Coppy  of  a  boke  —  double  s ,  ra. 

Copy  of  any  otber  tbyng  —  copye  s ,  f. 

Copyousnesse  —  copieuselé  z,  (. 

Coupyli  of  any  thyng  —  paire,  f. 

Copwebbe —  araigniee  s,  f. 

Copras  for  ynke  —  couperose  s,  (. 

Corail  stone  —  coral  x,  m. 

Corandre  a  herbe  —  coriandre  s,  {. 

Corde  —  cordeav ,  corde  s,  f. 

Corde  a  lace  —  cordon  s,  m. 

Cordiall  medicyne  —  cordial  x,  m. 

Cordwayner  —  cordaanier  s,  m. 

Cordwayncrs  threde  —  chief  gros,  ra. 

Cordwayne  lether  —  corduain  s,  va. 

Corellar  in  reason  tbet  folowelh  another  — 
corlaire  s,  m. 

Corne —  ble,frument  s,  m. 

Core  of  frute  —  troignon  s,  m. 

Cornalyn  a  pale  reed  stone  —  cornaline  s,  f. 

Cornar  —  angle  s,va.;  cornet  i,  m. 

Correction  —  correction ,  punition ,  discipline  s,  f. 

Curryour  of  lether —  covrayevr  s,  m. 

Coriandre  sede  —  coriandre  s,  f. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE. 


209 


Corke  for  slyppars  —  liège  s,  ui. 

Cormeranta  hebyrde  —  cormerant  s,  m. 

Cormerant  a  slie  byrde  —  cormerande  s,  (. 

Cornet  to  put  spice  in  —  cornet  z,  m. 

Corner  ofa  tliing  —  coing  z,m.;  canton  s, m. 

Corner  ofthe  eje  —  coing  doeyl  z ,  m. 

Corne  felde  —  champ  de  ble  s,  m. 

Cornet  a  home  —  cornet  z,  va. 

Coronation  —  coronement  s,  m. 

Corownc  —  corone  s,  f. 

Corruption  —  corruption  s,  f. 

Corporas  for  a  châles  —  corporeav  x,m. 

Corporation  —  corporation  s,  f. 

Corse  of  a  gyrdell  —  tissu  x ,  m. 

Corse  weaver  —  tissutier  s,  m. 

Corse  a  deed  body  —  corps,  m. 

Courser  of  horses  —  covrtier  de  chevaulx  s,  m. 

Corvyser —  cordovanier  s,  m. 

Cosshe  a  sorie  house  —  caueme  s,  f. 

Cosyn  kynsman  —  cousin  s,  m. 

Cosyn  kynswoman  —  cousine  s,  (. 

Cosyn  brolhers  children  —  cousin  germain  s,  m. 

Cost.or  costage  —  covstage  s,  f. ;  dépense  s,(.; 

covstz ,  m. 
Costes  charges  — Jraiclz,  m. 
Cost  mary  herbe —  coste  marine  s,  (. 
Cost  of  a  countrc  —  couste  s,f.\  cousiiere  s,  f. 
Coslardmongar  — Jmyctier  s,  m. 
Costyousnesse  —  snmptaositi  z,t. 
Cote  a  byrde. 

Cote  with  slevesor  without  sleves  —  saion  s, m. 
Cote  for  a  ladde  —  jacquette  s,  f. 
Cote  armour  —  cotte  d'armes  s,  f. 
Cotelar —  coutellicr  s,  m. 
Cotidien  axes  —  fièvre  quotidienne  s,  f. 
Collon  for  weke  —  cotton  s,  la. 
Courbe  to  courbe  a  borse  with  —  courbe  s,{. 
Cokestole  —  selle  a  ricaldes  s,  f. 
Covent  relygious  folke — cornent  s,  m. 
Covcr  for  a  potte  —  covueleque  s,  f. 
Coveryng  for  a  boke —  chemisette  s ,{. 
Coveryng  for  a  bedde  —  eotiuertoir  s,  m. 
Coverlet  for  a  bedde —  covucrture  de  lict  s.f. 
Covert  —  recelée  s,  f. ;  covuerture  s,  f. 
Covetyse  —  covuoitise  s,  (. 
Covetousnesse  —  cupidité  z,  f. 


Coite  a  yong  horse  —  povllain  s,  ni. 

Cowavdnesse  —  pusillanimité  z,  (. 

Covvarde  —  covart  s,  m. 

Cowardyse  —  lâcheté  z,ï, 

Cowe  a  beest  —  uache  s,  f. 

Couche  bedde  —  couche  s,  t. 

Cowe  house  —  uacherie  s,  (. 

Courchefe  —  qaevuerchief  z,  m. 

Coupborde  —  unes  almoires,  t. 

Coughe  disease  —  tous,  f. 

Coide — froit  z,  m. \  froidure  s,  f. 

Coldnesse  —  morjondure  s,  f. 

Coule  for  a  monke  — froc  z,  m. 

Colynge  or  makynge  colde  —  réfrigération  s,  1.  ; 

refroidure  s,î. 
Cobbya  of  an  ele  or  any  fysshe  —  dalle  s,  f.  ; 

tronson  s,  m. 
Combe  of  corne  a  measure  —  mine  s,  f. ;  mi- 

not  z,  m. 
Comfyte  swete  spyce —  confie  s,  f. 
Com forte  —  confort  s,  m. 
Counsaylers  of  a  cytie  —  consavlx,  m. 
Count  a  womans  shappe  —  con  s,  m. 
Count  a  rekenning  —  compte  s,  m.;jecl  z,  m. 
Count  botche  —  bosse  chancrevse  s,  {. 
Countynaunce  —  contenance  s,  f  ;  lèvre  s,  f.; 

geste  s,  m.  ;  semblant  s,  m.  ;  semblance  s,  f. 
Countynaunce  laughyng  —  rys,  m. 
Counterbase  in  song  —  contrebasse  s,  m. 
Counlerfayt  gentylman  —  genlillatre  s,  m. 
Counterfayt  heer  — perreiicque  s,  f. 
Counterfayling  —  contrej'aicture  s,  f. 
Counterpayse  —  contrepoys  s,  m. 
Countesse —  conlesse  s,  {. 
Countie  an  erledome —  conté  z,i. 
Countyng  a  somme  of  money  —  calculation  s, 

f.  ;  computation  s,[. 
Counture  —  contever  s,  m. 
Counlers  to  caste  a  count  with  —  jecl  z,  m.-, 

jecton  s,  m. 
Counter  a  countyng  house  —  comptoyr  s,  m. 
Countrey  —  contrée  s,  f. 
Counirey  man  or  woman  —  contreyman. 
Coupar  a  craftesuian  —  tonnelier  s,  m. 
Couple  of  any  thynges  —  covple  s,  m. 
Couple  of  houndes  —  laisse  s,  t. 

37 


210 


LESCLARCISSEMENT 


Coupe  for  capons  —  caige  à  chappons  s,  f. 
Courbe  for  a  bridell  —  govrmette  s,  t. 
Courfewe  a  ryngyng  of  belles  towarde  evenyng 

—  covurefev  x,m. 
Courar  a  poste  — poste  s,  m.;  covrrevr  s,  m. 
Courrar  of  lether  —  covrayevr  s,  m. 
Course  —  covrs,  m.;  course  s,  f. 
Course  of  nieate  —  assiette  s,  f. 
Course   of  a   shippe   whan   she    sayleth    — 

laisse  s,  (. 
Cours  of  order  —  tovr  s,  m. 
Course  ofronnyng  —  covrse  s,  f. 
Course  of  frute  —  assiette,  jssue  de  la  table. 
Course  lowe  —  tanure  s ,  (. 
Coursar  horse  —  covrsier  s,  m. 
Coursar  of  horses  —  covrtier  de  chm'oulx. 
Court  —  court  s,  f. 

Court  where  men  plede  —  avditoir  s,  m. 
Courtall  a  kynde  of  gonnes  of  horses  —  covr- 

tavlt  X,  m. 
Courten  for   a  bedde  —  custode  s,  f.  ;  covr- 

tine  Sj  {. 
Courtery  —  urbanité,  covrtoisie  s,  f. 
Courtesnesse  —  bénignité  z,  (. 
Courture  —  covrtisan  s,  m. 
Courtyers  —  gens  de  covrt,  t. 
Coustrell  that  wayteth  on  a  speare  —  covsteil- 

lier  s,  m. 
Covey  of  partriches  —  uolee  s,  {.;  co^mee  j,  f. 
Covent  lofe  —  miche  s,  f. 
Coveryng  of  a  sadell  —  hovsse  s,f. 

C    BEFOBE    R. 

Crabbe  fysshe  —  crabbe  s ,  f. 

Crabbe  frute  —  pomme  de  boys  s,  f. 

Craches  herbe  — -  movron  s,  m. 

Cradell  —  berseav,hers  x,  va. 

Cradell  bande  —  bendie  de  berseav  x,  m. 

Craker  aboster —  bobancier  s,  m. 

Crafte  sleyght  —  malengin  s,  m.;  regnardie  s ,  f. 

Crafte  science  —  art  s,  m.;  artifice  s,  t. 

Crafte  sublylte  —  asluce  s,î. 

Crafte  of  multypiyeng  —  alquenemie  s ,  (. 

Crafte  of  huntyng  —  uenerie  s,  f. 

Craftisman  —  mécanique  s,  m. 

Craftie  felowe —  regnart  s,  m. 


Craftie  dcaiyng —  trajjicque  s,  m. 

Cragge  —  roche  s,  f. 

Cracke  breakyng  — fente  s,  f. 

Crake  a  bostyng —  uanle,  uanlerie  s,  f. 

Craker  a  boster  —  aanlevr  s,  m. 

Crakyng  bostyng  —  uantance  s,  f. 

Crakyng  felowe  —  cocquart  s,  m. 

Crackenell  —  cracquelin  s,  m. 

Crampe  —  govte,  crampe  s,  f. 

Crâne  colour  —  gris  cendré,  m. 

Crâne  of  a  wharfe  —  grue  s,  f. 

Crany  or  ryst —  cravasse  s,  f. 

Crapaude  a  precious  stone  — crapaudine  s,  (. 

Cratcbe  for  horse  or  oxen  —  crèche  s,  f. 

Créature  a  poore  soûle  —  créature  s,  (. 

Crede  belue  —  credo  s,  va. 

Credence  —  créance  s,f. 

Credytour  that  trusteth  one  —  créancier  s,  m. 

Creke  where  water  commeth  inat — brèche  s,  f. 

Creame  to  eate  —  crcsme  s,  f. 

Creame  holly  oyie  —  cresme,  m. 

Creasc  encrease  —  reuenaes,  augmentation  s,  t. 

Cresses  herbe  —  cresson  s,  m. 

Cresseut  the  newe  mone  as  long  as  it  is  nat 

rounde  —  cressant  s,  m. 
Cresset  a  lyght — Jlambeav  x,in.\  falhl  z,va. 

Crest  of  a  helmet  — -  creste  s,  f. 

Crest  of  a  house —  coypeav  de  la  maison  x,m. 

Cruelnesse  —  felonnie,  ferocilté  s,  {.;  cruallé 
z,  f. 

Crevés  a  fysshe  —  escreuice  s,  {, 

Crulc  or  caddas  —  sajeite  s ,  f. 

Cruse  to  drinke  in  —  pot  de  Beavuais  z,m. 

Crye  noyse  —  cry  s,  m. 

Cricke   to  bende  a  crosbowe   with  —  crane- 
quin  s,  m. 

Cricket  a  worme  —  cricquet,  gresillon  s,  m. 

Cryeng  of  people  —  acclamation  s,  f. 

Cryeng  —  braierie,  clamevr,  crierie  s,  f. 

Cryeng  out  of  beestes  —  ululation  s,  (. 

Cryme  an  ofience  —  crime  s,  va. 

Grymosin  colour  —  cramoisy  s,  m. 

Crymosen  in  grayne  —  cramoisy  en  graine, 

Crypple —  boitei'X,  m. 

Crysolite  a  precious  stone  —  crisolite  s,  f. 

Crysome  for  a  yong  chylde  —  cresmeav  x,  m. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE. 


211 


Crystall  stone  —  cristal  x,  m. 
Christen  man  —  cristien  s,  m. 
Cfaristen  woman  —  cristienne  s,  (. 
Christendome  —  cristienneté  z  ,{. 
Crystraas  a  hye  feest  —  Noël  z,  m. 
Crystmas  evyn  —  nùiU  de  Noël  s,  t. 
Crossed  frère  — frère  de  Saincte-Croix  s,  m. 
Crochet  in  song  —  crochette  s,  f. 
Cronycle  an  bystorie  —  croniqae  s,  t. 
Croke  —  crocq  z,m.;  crochet  z,  m. 
Croppe  of  a  byrde  —  poche  s,  t. 
Croppe  of  corne  —  leuee  de  terre  s,f. 
Crosse  —  crovi,  f. 

Crosse  of  coyne  —  la  croix  d'une  pièce  d'ar- 
gent, f. 
Crosbowe  —  arcbalestre  s,  va. 
Crosse  for  a  bysshoppe  —  crosse  s,  f. 
Crosbowe  case  —  carqnas,  m. 
Crosbowe  maker —  arcbaleslrier  s,  m. 
Crosweke  gangeweke  —  rowajrson  s ,  f .  ;  roga- 
tions, f. 
Crossyng  —  croisée  s,{. 
Cropar  for  an  horse  — crovpiere  s,  f;  culiere  de 

cheual  s,  f. 
Croude  an  instrument  —  rebecq  z,  m. 
Croudar  —  jeaevr  de  rebecq  s,  m. 
Crowe  a  byrde  —  corneille  s,{. 
Crowne  —  corone  s,  f. 
Crowne  a  pcce  of  goide  —  esca  s,  m. 
Crowne  of  a  preest  —  corone  s,  f. 
Crowne  of  tbe  heed —  le  sommet  de  la  leste  z, 

m.;  copeav  de  la  teste  x,  m. 
Crucifixc  —  crucifix,  m. 
Crualte  —  crualté  z,  f. 
Cruddes  of  myike  —  malles,  f. 
Cruelnesse —  craalté  z,  t. 
Crcwet  for  water  or  wyne  —  burette  s,  f. 
Cromme  of  bredde  —  miette ,  miche  de  pain  s,  f. 
Crust  of  bredde  —  crovste  de  pain  s,(. 
CrotcLe  for  a  iame  man  — potence  s,f. 

C    BEFORE   U. 

Cubbe  a  yong  foxe. 

Cubyt  a  kynde  of  measure  —  covldee  s,  f. 

Cudde  of  a  beest. 

CuOe  over  ones  bande  — poignet  z,  m. 


Cuysshen  —  cocssyn  s,ia. 

Cucke  stole  —  selle  a  nbanldes  s ,  va. 

Cultar  for  a  ploughe  —  covltre  s,  m. 

Culveryng  gonne  —  culuerine  s,  f. 

Cummyng  of  a  parsone  unloked  for  —  surae- 
nue  s,(. 

Cupborde  of  plate  or  to  sette  plate  upon  —  buf- 
fet z,  va. 

Cuppe  to  drinke  in  — covppe  s,  f.;  hanap  s, 
va.  (Romant.  ) 

Cuppe  bearer  —  eschanson  s,  m. 

Cupborde  to  putte  meate  in  —  dressover  s,  m. 

Curate  —  curé  z,  va. 

Curiousnesse  —  curieasité  z,  f. 

Curlewe  a  byrde —  cuAiev,  curlis. 

Curlydnesse  of  ones  heer  —  crespure  s,  t. 

Curnell  of  a  nutte —  amende  de  noix  s,  f. 

Currage  —  covrage  s,  va. 

Currar  a  man  ibat  ronneth  —  currevr  s,  m. 

Curre  dogge  —  maslin  s,  m. 

Curryar  of  letber —  couraievr  s,  va. 

Curryfavell  a  flalterar  —  estrille  faaeav  x,  va. 

Curse  —  malédiction,  mavldisson  s,  f. 

Cursyng — excomuniment ,  interdict  z,  va.!^' ex- 
communication s,  {. 
Custarde  —  dariolle,fian  s. 
Custome  —  stile,  covstume,  usaige,  droit  covs- 

tamier. 
Customer  tbatuseth  to  by  ware  of  one —  chai- 

lant  s,  va. 
Customar  tbat  taketb  custome — covstamier  s,  va, 
Customar  of  tbe  salte — grenetier  s,  m. 
Cutpurs,  coupevr  de  bourse  s,  m. 
Cutte  or  lotie  —  sort  s,  va. 
Cultes  lo  playe  with — covrtfestu  x,  m. 
Cutte  a  wounde  —  covppevre  s,  f. 
Cuttayled  beest  —  qucve  courte  s,  t. 
Cuttynge  of  asore  —  incision  s,f. 
Cuttyng  ofa  vyne — serment  de  uigne  s,  va. 
Cullar  —  covstellier  s,  va. 
Cutter  ofthrotes  —  covpevr  de  gorges  s,  va. 

0   BEFOItE   A. 

Dale  a  lowe  place — ualee  s,  f. 

Daggar  —  dagve,  covrte  dagve  s,  f.  ;  poignarl  s,  m. 

Daye  — jour  s,  m. 

37. 


212 


LESCLARCISSEMENT 


Daylight — adjovrnement  s,  m. 

Dayrie  place — meterie  s,  t. 

Daysman  —  arbitre  s,  m.;  composilevr  s,  m. 

Daysy  a  floure  —  marguerite  s,  f. 

Dalyaunce  —  déduit  z,  m. 

DaniDie  of  a  myll  —  esclase  s,  f. 

Dammage  —  damaige  s,  m. 

Damaske  —  damars,  m. 

Damasynfrute  — prune  de  Damas  s,  f. 

Dame  a  lady  —  dame  s,  f. 

Damosell  a  mayde —  damoiselle  s,{. 

Dampnation  —  dampnation  s,(. 

Dandelyon  an  herbe  —  dandelion  s,  m. 

Daunger  ou  the  see  —  navfraige  s,  n\. 

Dangerousnesse  —  dangerevseté ,  dangier,  f. 

Dapyrnesse  propernesse  —  mignotterie  s,  f. 

Darcyell  —  herbe. 

Darkenesse  —  opaceté  s,  f. ;  ténèbres,  (. 

Darte  a  wcapen  —  dart  s,  m. 

Dastarde  —  estovrdy  s, m.;  butarin  s,  m. 

Date  a  kynde  of  frute —  datte  s,  f. 

Date  in  a  writyng  —  date  s,  m. 

Date  tree — dattier  s,  m. 

Dauber  —  placquevr  s,  m. 

Dawe  a  foule  —  corneille  s,  {. 

Dawyng,  geltyng  of  lyfe  —  resuscitation  s,  f. 

Daunce  — daHce  s,  f. ;  trepade  s,  m. 

Dauncer —  dancevr  s,  m. 

Daunsyng  —  balerie,  dancerie  s,  f. 

Daunyng  of  ihe  day —  lavlbe  dajour  s,  f. 

Daunger —  dangier  s,  m. 

D    BEFOBE    E. 

Debate  —  question  s,  f. ;  contens,  m.;  sédition 
s,  f.-,  litige  s,  m.;  débat  z,  va,  ;  noyse  s  j  f. 

Debytie  —  député  z,  m. 

Decayeng  of  a  thyng  —  ruine,  décadence  s,  f. ; 
décline  s,  m. 

Deceyvar,  begyiar  —  deceuevr  s,  m. 

Deceyving  —  déception  s,  f.;  deceuance  s,  f. 

Décembre  a  moneth  —  décembre  s,  m. 

Decesse,  departyng  —  deces,  m. 

Déclaration  —  explication,  exposition,  déclara- 
tion s,  f. 

Déclarer,  expounder  —  declarevr  s,  m.;  expo- 
sevr  s,  m. 


Declaryng  of  a  noble*  mannes  stocke — généalo- 
gie s,  f. 

Declaryng  of  a  thyng — déclaration  s,  f.  ;  osten- 
tation, relation,  declarance ,  elacidation  s,  f. 

Declaryng  of  armes —  blason  s,  m. 

Deaken  boly  orders — diacre  s,  m. 

Deere  —  décret  i,m. 

Decretall  —  dccretalle  s,  f. 

Dede — acte  s,m.\Jaict  z,va. 

Deed  body  —  corps,  va. 

Deed  man  —  dejunct  s,  va. 

Deed  cole  —  charbon  s,  m. 

Dedication  a  feestfuU  day —  dédicace  s,  f. 

Deducyng —  discovrs,  m. 

Deane  of  a  cburche  —  doyen  s,  va. 

Défaite —  default  z.  m.  ;  defavlte  s,  f.  ■,favlte  s,  f. 

Defaltynesse — Javle  s,(, 

Defence  —  dejension,  defence  s,{. 

Defender  —  protectevr,  tatevr,  defensevr  s,  m. 

Deferryng  —  delay  s,  va. 

Defnesse  lacke  of  heryng  —  sovrdesse  s,(. 

Degree,  dignyte  —  dignité,  estât  z,  m. 

Deyrie  bouse  —  meterie  s,  (. 

Dey  wyfe  —  meterie  s,  (. 

Deyntinesse — friandise  s,  f. 

Delay —  delay  s,  va,;  délation  s,  {. 

Deyntie  —  deUcatie  s,  f. ;  novueav  x,  ta.;  pré- 
sent s,  m. 

Delectablenesse  —  dclectablctè  z,f.;  aménité  z, (. 

Délectation ,  pleasure  —  délectation  s,  f. 

Delycates,  deyntie  meates — uiandes  délicates. 

Delycatenesse  — friandise  s,  (. 

Delygence  —  debuoir  s,  m.;  diligence  s,  f. 

Delygentncsse  —  diligence  s,  [. 

Delyte  —  délectation  s,  (, 

Delyvcrnesse  of  body  —  sovplessc  s,(. 

Delyverance  —  deliverance  s,  f. 

Demande  —  demande  s,f. 

Demaundyng  ofcounsayle —  consultation  s,  f. 

Demeanour —  contenement  s,  m. 

Demycent  for  a  womans  gyrdell  —  demyceinct 
z,  va. 

Demyng  judgyng  —  pensement  s,  va. 

Den  a  hole  in  the  grounde  —  caaeme  s,  f. 

Dcanry  —  deannerie  s,  f. 

Denyer  of  a  thynge — escondissevr  s,  m. 


DE  LA  LANGUE 

Denyeng  of  a  thyng  —  redicte  s,  f.;  escondictz,  m. 

Departyng  froin  a  place  —  départie  s,  f. 

Deparlyngfromlyfe  lo  Jetbe  —  trespas,  déces,va. 

Departyngeof  manand  wyfe — répudiation  s,  f.; 
diuorse  s,[. 

Departyng  of  one  thyng  from  another  —  sépa- 
ration s,  {. 

Depe  hole  —  ahisme  s,  i. 

Depncsse  of  any  ihyiig — profunditè  z,  f. 

Depe  sloughe  — fondrier  s,  m. 

Depravyng  or  missayeng  by  a  thyng — depraaa- 
tion  s,  {. 

Derenesse  —  chierté  z,  f. 

Derlyng  a  man —  mignon  s,  m. 

Derlyng  a  woman  —  mignonne  s,{. 

Dernell  herbe. 

Description  —  description  s,{. 

Deysy  floure —  marguerite  s,  f. 

Deceyving  —  deceuance  s,  f. 

Deseeyt —  baraterie  s,{.;  déception  s,  f.  ;  60- 
rat  z,  m. 

Desceitfulnesse  —  deceuance  s,  f. 

Desceyvabtenesse  —  deceuahleté  z,(. 

Desceyvar  —  baratier  s,  m. 

Descent  of  iynage  —  descente  s,  f. 

Désert  wyidernesse —  désert  s,  m. 

Deservyng  of  rewarde  —  mérite  s,  (. 

Desyre  or  wysshyng  —  soahait  z,  m.  ;  enuie  s,  f.; 
appétit  z,  m.;  désir  s,  m.;  concupiscence  s,  f . 

Despyle  —  despit  z,  m.;  contumeYie  s,  f. 

Desteny  — destinée  s,î. 

Destroyeng  —  deffaict  z,  ni.;  démolition  s,  (.; 
extermination  s,  [. 

Destruction  —  destruction  s,  f.  ;  dépopulation  s,  f. 

Désolation — désolation  s,  f. 

Desyrer  —  requerevr  s,  m. 

Dethe  —  trespas,  m.  ;  mort  s,  f. 

Dette  —  debte  s,  C 

Detter  thatowetha  duetie  —  debtetr  s,  m. 

Determyner  —  determinevr  s,  m. 

Determyning — ierminances,  f.;  détermination  s,  (. 

Detraction  bacbyting  —  detraction  s,  f. 

Detie  made  inryme  —  romants,m.;dictons,m. 

Dewe  droppes  of  water  —  rovsee  s,  f. 

Devyse  —  deuise  s,  f . 

Devyning  —  deainalion  s,  f. 


FRANCOYSE.  213 

Divynite  —  divinité  z,  {. 

Deridyng,  laughyng  to  skorne  — dérision  s,  l, 

Devisyng  —  deuis,  m. 

Devorsyng  of  man  and  wyfe  —  diuorse  s,  {. 

Dévotion  holynesse  —  deuotion  s,  f. 

Devoutnesse  —  deuotion  s,  f. 

D   BEFORB    I. 

Diadème  of  laureli —  laureole  s,  (. 

Diadème  a  crowae  —  diadème  s,  m. 

Diall  to  Inowe  the  houres  by  the  course  of  the 

sonne  —  quadrant  s,  m. 
Diamont  stone —  diamant  s,  m. 
Dier  of  colours —  taincturier  s,  m. 
Dice  to  playe  with  —  de  z,m. 
Dice  maker  —  dessier  s,  m. 
Diche  — fossé  z,  m. 
Diette  —  dxette  s,  f. 

Diffame  —  diffamcment  s,  m.;  diffame  s,  f. 
Différence  —  différence  s ,  {. 
Diffyning  —  dijjinissement  s,  m.  ;  dijinition  s,  I. 
Digest  a  boke  in  lawe —  digeste  s,  (. 
Digestyon  —  digestion  s ,  t. 
Dignyte  —  dignité  z,  f.  ;  magistrat  s,  m. 
Dignyle  of  a  prelate  —  prelature  s,  f. 
Dignité  above  another — preheminence  s,  f. 
Died  lawny  —  tanny  garensé  s,  f. 
Dieng  with  colour  —  tainctare  s,{. 
Dieng  faite  or  leed  —  cvuier  s,  m. 
Digression  —  digression  s,  f. 
Dike — fosse  s,  t. 

Dilygence  —  attention  s,  f.  ;  diligence  s,  f. 
Dill  an  herbe —  anys,  m. 
Dyrae  tytbe  —  disme  s,  f. 
Dimynisshing  —  diminution  s,  f. 
Dynne  noyse  —  bruyt  z,  m. 
Dint  of  swerde. 
Diner  mealc  —  disner  s,  m. 
Diphthonge  —  diphtiiongae  s,  f. 
Directyng  —  adresse  s,  f. 
Dirige  servyce  —  uigiles,  f. 
Disavauntage  —  desauantaige  s ,  m. 
Discention  —  uariance  s,  f. ;  discention  s,  i, 
Discase  —  mesaise  s,  f. 
Disconfort  —  desconfort  s,  m. 
Disconfortyng  —  desconfeture  s,  f. 


214 

Discorde  —  descord  s,  m. 
Discordyng  —  discordance  s,  f. 


Discrelenesse  —  discrétion  s,  f. 

Disdayae —  desdaing  z,m, 

Dishoneslyng — aaitement  s,  m. 

Dishonour  —  dishonear  s,  m. 

Disshe —  escttelle  s,  f. 

Disshebearer  —  porUscuelle  s,  va. 

Disshecloute  —  souillon  s,  m.;  torchon  s,  m. 

Discention  —  discort  s,  m.;  discention  s,  f. 

Dissimuliiig — fiction  s,  f. ;  dissinialalion  s,  t. 

Disconfylure —  disconfitare  s,  f. 

Discrétion  —  discrétion  s,  {. 

Discussyng  —  discussion  s,  f. 

Disobeydience  —  desoheisance  s,f. 

Disorder  of  a  thyng  —  desbavlx,  m.  ;  desordre  s, 
i. ;  desordonnance  s,  î, 

Dissar  a  scoffer  —  saigefol  z,  m. 

Dispeyre  —  désespérance  s,  f. 

DispeDce  —  despence  s,  f.  ;  despens,  m. 

Dispensation  —  despensation  s,  f. 

Displeasure  —  desplaisyr  s,ra.\  indignation  s,  f. 

Displeasure  of  mynde —  marrisson  s,  m. 

Displeasyng — :  remors,  m.;  offention  s,  f. 

Disposytion  —  disposition  s,  f.  ;  govuernement  s, 
m.;  ordre  s,,  f. 

Disposition  of  the  flesshe  —  charnure  s,  f. 

Disposyng — administration  s,  f. 

Dispulation — disputation  s,  f. 

Disarey  out  of  order  —  desaroy  s,  m. 

Distafl'e  to  spynne  with  —  quenouille  s,{. 

Distance  of  place  —  entredeax,  m. 

DistauDce  —  distance  s,  f. 

Distaunce  debate  —  débat  z,  m. 

Distemperauuce  —  desatemperanee  s,  f. 

Distrayeng  —  distraction  s,  f. 

Distresse — disette  s,  f.  ;  effort  s,  m.;  perplexe  s,  f. 
subuertion  s,  f.;  souffrance  s,  f.  ;  destresse  Sj 
{.;  esmojr  s,  m.;  disette  s,  f. 

Distrouble  —  destoarhier  s,  va. 

Ditany  —  herbe. 

Ditche  — fosse  Sj  f.;  lac  z,  m.;  digue  s,  f. 

Dytcber — fiy^r  s,  va,;  fossevr  s,  va. 

Dilie  of  song  —  dicton  s,  m.;  dictée  s,  f.  ;  mo- 
tet z,  m.  ;  dictie  s,  f.;  diclier  s,  m. 
Diversy te  —  diverseté  z,  (. 


LESCLARCISSEMENT 

Divyding  of  any  thyng  —  partaige  s,  m. 
Divell  he  —  diable  s,  m. 
Divell  she  —  diablesse  s,  f. 
Divelles  worke  —  diablerie  s,  f. 
Divellysshnesse  —  diablerie  s,  f. 
Disjoynyng  —  disjunclion  s,(. 


D    BEFORE    0. 

Doublenesse  —  duplicité  z,  f.  ;  doubleure  s,  f. 

Doctour  —  doctevr  s,  m. 

Doctryne  —  doctrine  s ,  f. 

Docke  a  wede  —  docque  s,(. 

Dogge  a  beest  —  chien  s,  va. 

Dogge  a  mischevous  curre  —  dogue  s,  va. 

Dogge  brere. 

Doggednesse  —  cruavlté  z,  {. 

Doggcfysshe' — chien  de  mer  s,  m. 

Doggcbee  —  bourdon  s,  va. 

Doggestong  or  horehoside  an  herbe. 

Doggeslorde  —  estron  de  chien  s,  m. 

Doyng  in  lawe  —  action  s,  f. 

Doyng  or  makyng  —  efficient,  actiuité  s,  f. 

Doo  a  beest —  biche  s,  (. 

Dokelyng — petite  canne,  cannette  s,  f.;  cannet- 

ton  s,  va. 
Dole  —  aulmosne  s,  f.  ;  donee  s,  f. 
Dolefulnesse  —  tristesse  s,(. 
Doulphyn  a  fysshe  —  doulphin  s,  va. 
Doulphyn  the  frenche  kynges  eldest  sonne  — 

doulphin  s,  va. 
Dôme  jugement  — jugement  s,  m. 
Domenesse  —  mvetté  z,  {. 
Donge — fiant  s,  va. 
Dong  hyU  —  aoirie  s,  t.;Jvmier  s,m. 
Donge  forke — fourche  afian  s,  f. 
Donge  pyke  — fourche  a  fiant  s,  f. 
Donge  carte  —  chariot  a  fiant  z,  va. 
Doppar  byrde. 
Dorrey  a  see  fysshe. 
Dore  a  gâte  —  huis ,  va . 
Dormeuse  a  beest  —  leyrot  z,va. 
Dorneckes. 

Dortour  for  relygiousmen  —  dortoyr  s,  m. 
Doseo  a  nombre  —  douzaine  s,  f. 
Dowary  —  douaire  s,(. 
Doublet  —  pourpoint  s,  va. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE. 


215 


Dow  ne  of  any  yong  byrde  — follet  z,  m. 
Downeof  a  byrde — poilfolacje  z,m. 
Downe  fethers  —  dviiet  z,  m. 
Downeright  stroke  • —  taille  s,  f. 
Dove  a  byrde  —  coulomb  s,  m. 
Dove  bouse  —  columbier  s,  m. 
Dowe  rybbe  —  ratissevr  a  poste  s,  î. 
Doughter — Jilk  s,  f. 
Dougbter  in  lawe  —  belle  JiUe  s,  f. 
Doughe  troughe  —  husche  a  pestrir  s,  f. 
Douselte  a  lytell  flawiie  —  darioUe  s,  f. 
Doute — doatance  s,  t.;  dovbte  s,  f.;  dubita- 

tion  s,  f. 
Doutfulnesse  —  ambiguïté  z,{.;  double  s,(. 

D    BEFORE    R. 

Drabbe  —  truande,  loudiere  s,  (. 

Drabbe  a  slutte  —  mlotiere  s,  f. 

Dradge  spyce  —  dragée  s,  f. 

Draffe  —  dracque  s,  f. 

Draggons  berbe  —  dragons,  m. 

Dragboke  —  crocq  z,  va. 

Drake  a  byrde  —  canart  l,  m. 

Drake  tbat  is  tame  —  anel  z,  m. 

Dramme  measure  —  dramme  s,  f. 

Dram  a  kynde  of  weight  —  dragme  s,  f. 

Drane  or  humble  bee  —  bourdon  s,  va. 

Draper  —  drappier  s,  m. 

Drapery  of  wollen  clotbe —  drapperie  s,  f. 

Draubridge — pont  leajs  s,  m. 

Draught  a  prevy  —  ortraict  z,  m. 

Draught  or  pull  —  traxcl  z,va. 

Drawyng  nere  —  accès,  m.  ;  approche  s,  f. 

Drawyng  to  —  actraict  z,  m. 

Drawyng  of  an  ymage — portraicture  s,{. 

Drawyng  toguyder  —  contraction  s,  f.;  congré- 
gation s,  (. 

Drawyng  up  of  water  —  espuisment  s,  m. 

Drede  fcare — paour  s,  f. 

Dregges  —  lie  de  bière  ou  de  uin  s,  f. 

Dremar  —  musart  s,  m. 

Dreme — -songe  s,vn. 

Drepyng  of  rost  meate  —  la  gresse  du  rost. 

Dressar  where  meate  is  served  eut  at. 

Dressar  of  gownes  or  otber  gamientes  —  re- 
gretevr  s,  va. 


Dressar  of  wole  —  rabillevr  de  layne  s,  m. 

Dressyng  —  acovstrement  s,  m.;  dressevrr. 

Drestes  of  oyle  —  lie  dhaillc  s,  f. 

Drinesse  : —  sechesse  s,  f. 

Drifle  crafle  —  sabtillité  s,  f. 

Drifte  of  wether  or  snowe  —  undec  de  playe 

s,  f. 
Drighnesse  —  chaline  s,  {. 
Drinke  —  brevuaige  s,  m. 
Drinke  a  medycine  —  brevuaige  s,  m. 
Driver  of  a  carte  —  chartier  s,  m. 
Drivar  of  a  chariot  —  arrigateur  s,  m. 
Drivar  of  cameiles  —  chamelier  s,  m. 
Drivell  —  sovillon  s,  m. 
Drivelarde  a  lyer  —  baueresse  s,  f. 
Drivelar  that  driveleth  —  baueux,  m. 
Dromedary  a  beest  —  dromedaire  s,  va. 
Dromslade ,  sache  as  almayns  use  in  warre  — 

bedon  s,  va. 
Drone  a  bagpype  —  cornemuse  s,(. 
Drone  bee  flye  —  bourdon  s,  m. 
Droppe  of  water  or  lycour  —  goutte  s,  f. 
Dropsy  — ydropisie  s,  f. 
Droppyng  of  lycour  —  distillation  s,  f. 
Droppyng  out  of  a  guttar  —  agout  z,  m. 
Drosse  of  mctall  —  rejus,  m. 
Drostynesse — lievseté  z,î. 
Drove  of  beestes  —  troupeau  x,  m. 
Drudgea  woman  servaunt  —  druge  s,  f.  ;  mes- 

chine  s,f. 
Dronkarde  — yuroigne  s,  m. 
Dronken  woman  — yueresse  s,  ('. 
Dronkennesse  — yueresse  s,  f. 
Drought  drie  wether  —  chaline  s,f. 

D   BEFORE    U. 

Duale  an  herbe. 

Dublet  a  garment  —  pourpoint  s,  m. 

Duchesse  —  duchesse  s,  f. 

Duchy  —  duché  z,  f. 

Dufhouse  —  columbier  s,  m. 

Duke  —  duc  z,  m. 

Dukedome  —  duché  z,  t. 

Ducke  a  foule  —  canne  s,  f. 

Duke  of  tbe  ryver  —  cannette  s,  f. 

Duckelyng  —  cannetton  s,  m. 


216 


LESCLARCISSEMENT 


Duliardle  —  hoardin  s,  m.;  songeart  s,  m.,  bu- 

larin  s,  m.;  lourdault  z,  m. 
Dulnesse  of  edge  —  agassure  s,  f. 
Duni  man  that  can  nat  speke  —  muet  2  ^  m. 
Dunge  fyllhe  — fient  s,  m. 
Dunge  carte  —  car  a  fiant  s,  m. 
Dungyon  of  a  castell  —  dongeon  s,  m. 
Dust  or  poudre  ■ —  pouldre  s,  (. 
Dutie  dette  —  debte  s,  f. 
Dûtes  or  eaxction  —  exaction  s,  (. 
Dwarfe  a  lytell  parsone  —  najn  s,  m.  ;  najrn- 

tre  s,  {. 
Dwellar  —  habitant  s,  la. 
Dwellyng  place — domicilie  s,  m.;  demevre  s,  f. ; 

habitacle  s,  m. 

E    BEFORE    A. 

Eare  of  a  man  or  beest  —  oreille  s,  f. 

Eare  of  a  pot  —  oreille  dung  pot  s,  (.;  anse  s,  f. 

Eare  of  any  vessel  —  oreille  s,  f. 

Earwaxe  —  ordure  de  loreille  s,  f. 

Ease  resl  —  aise  s,  f. ;  aisément  s,  m. 

Easynesse  —  aisément  s,  m. 

Easment- — aisément  s,  m. 

Easler  a  hye  feest  —  la  résurrection  nostre  sei- 

gnevr  s,  f. ;  Pasqaes ,  f. 
Easter  evyn  —  samedj  de  Pasqaes ,  m.;  la  ueille 

de  Pacque  s,  m. 

E    BEFORE   B. 

Ebrewe  a  langage  —  hebriev  x,  m. 

E    BEFORE   C. 

Eclypse  of  the  sonne  and  moone  —  éclipse  s, 
f. ;  soleil  absconsse  s,{. 

E    BEFORE    D. 

Edder  —  aspicq  z,  m.  ;  covhvure  s,  f. 

Eddercoppe  —  arraignee  s,  (. 

Edge  of  any  lole  or  weapen  —  trenchant  s,  m. 

E    BEFORE   G. 

Egalnesse  —  eqitipollance  s,  f. 
Egle  a  foule  —  aigle  s,  m. 
Egernesse  bytlernesse  —  aigrure  s,  [. 
Egge  —  œvf  z,  m. 


Eggeshell  —  coqae  s,  {. 

Eglantinc  swete  brere  —  églantier  s,  m. 

Eglantyne  tree  —  avbespin  s,  m.  ;  églantier  s,  m. 

E    BEFORE    I. 

Eye  or  egge  —  œvf  z.  m. 
Eye  to  se  wilh  —  œil,jevlx,  m. 
Eyelydde — paulpiere  s,  (. 
Eymbres  bote  assbes  —  brasiers,  m. 
Eye  browes  —  sourcille  s,  î. 
Eye  tothe  —  dent  oreilliere  s,  {. 

E    BEFORE    L. 

Elbowe  —  coude  j,  m. 
Ele  a  fysshe  —  anguille  s,  f. 
Elde  tree  —  sus,  sureau  x,  m. 
Eleber  a  rote  —  elehere  s,  {. 
Electyon  —  option  s,  f. ;   achoison  s,  f.  ;  élec- 
tion s,  î. 
Elne  to  meate  with  —  aulne  s,  (. 
Elegaunce  fayre  specbe  —  élégance  s,f. 
Elément  —  élément  s,  m. 
Elfe  or  dwarfe  —  nain  s,  m. 
Elypbant  a  beest  —  eliphant  s,  m. 
Eime  Irec  —  orme  s,  m. 
Eloquence  —  éloquence  s,  f. 
Eloquentnesse  — facunditd  z,  f. 
Elson  for  cordwayners  —  aXesne  s,  f. 

£    BEFORE    M. 

Embassadoure —  légat  z,xa.\  ambassadevr  i,m. 
Embasset  —  embassade  s,  [. 
Eme  uncle  —  oncle  s,  m. 
Embyrday  fastyng  day  — jevne  s,  m. 
Emeroudes  or  pylles  a  sickenesse  —  les  broches 

emmeroides,  f. 
Emeraude  a  precious  stone  —  esmeraulde  s,(. 
Emperour  —  emperevr  s,  m. 
Empyre  —  empire  s,  m. 
Empresse  —  empresse,  emperiere  s,  (. 

E    BEFORE   N. 

Encrease  —  encroissement  s,  m. 
Encreasyng  —  encroissement  s,  m.;  croissance 
s,  f.;  ampliation  s,  f. ;  accroissement  s,  m. 
Ende  of  a  matter  —  issue  s,  (. 


DE  LA  LANGUE 

Ende  of  a  felde  or  corner  —  canton  s ,  m. 
Ende  or  borde  of  a  thyng  —  bovrne  a,  f. 
Ende  of  any  ihyng  — fin  s,  f. 
Ende  of  an  acte  or  tyme  —  consammation  s,  f. 
Endyng  —  cessation,  acheuissance  s,  f.;  dejfine- 

ment  s,  m.;  termination  s,  t. 
Endyve  an  herbe  —  endive  s,  f. 
Enforcesyng —  enforcement  s,  m.;  efforcement 

s,  m. 
Encmy  —  aduersaire ,  ennemy  s,  m. 
Enemy  woman  —  ennemie  s,  f. 
Engendring  —  engendrvre,  genitare  s,  f. 
Engyn  frame  —  engin  s,  m. 
Engyn  to  tbrowe  stones  —  martinet  s,  m. 
Engyn  for  warre  —  pringalle  s,  f. 
Englysshman  —  anglais,  m. 
Englysshewoman  —  anglesche  s ,  {. 
Englande  —  angleterre  s,{. 
Enherytauncc  —  heriiaige  s,  m. 
Enjoynyng  of  a  thyng — jovissance  s,  f. 
Ensample  —  exemple  s,(. 
Enrichyng  —  enrichissement  s,  m. 
Entent  purpose  —  entente  s,  f. 
Enterprise  —  emprinse  s,  f  ;  entreprise  s,  f. 
Entre  into  a  place  —  entrée  s,  f. 
Entrye  ofa  gâte  —  auantportail  z,  m. 
Entry  into  a  matter  —  introite  s,  m. 
Envy  hatered  —  enuie  s,  f. 


E    BEFOBE    P. 


Epystoler  at  tbe  masse  - 
Epystle  letters  myssyve  • 


■  epistolier  s,  m. 
-  epistre  s,  (. 


E    BEFORE    Q. 

Equaiite  evynnesse — egallité  z ,  {.  ;  eqnalité  z,f. 
Equalnesse  —  eqmperation  s,{. 
Equy valence  —  équivalence  s,  f. 

E    BEFORE    R. 

Ere  of  a  man  or  beest  —  oreille  s,  f. 
Ere  of  corne  —  espy  de  ble  s ,  m. 
Ere  ofany  corne  —  espy  s ,  m. 
Erle  —  conte  s,  m. 
Erldome  —  conté  z,  m. 
Ermyne  a  beest  —  ermyne  s,  f. 
Ermyns  furre  —  ermines,  f. 


FRANCOYSE.  2J7 

Ernest  of  a  bargayne  —  arres,  f. 
Ernest  nat  sporte  —  cvissant  s,  m. 
Erlbe  an  élément  —  (erre  s,  f. 
Erthen  potte  —  pot  de  terre  s,  m. 
Erwygge  a  worme  —  persoreille  s,{. 

E    BEFORE   S. 

Especiall  coursar  — fievr  de  courser  s,f. 

Est  a  quarter  of  tbe  worlde  —  orient  s ,  m. 

Elstate  a  kynde  of  lyveng  that  oneis  called  lo  — 
uocation  s,  î. 

Essaye  tast  or  profe  —  essaj  s,  m. 

Estemyng  —  estimation  s,  f. 

Estymation  a  val  nation  —  estimation  s,  C. 

Estwynde  —  le  ueni  de  est  s,  m.;  le  uent  da- 
mant s,  m. 

E    BEFORE    U. 

Evangelyst  —  euangeliste  s,  m. 

Evenyng  —  uespre  s,  m.  ;  soir  s,  m. 

Eventyde  —  uespree  s ,  f. 

Evensong  —  nespres,  m. 

Evydence  declaryng  of  atbynge —  euidence  s,  f. 

Evyll  lucke  —  malevr  s,  m. 

Evylfavoured  face  —  grimace  s,  ï. 

Evyll  sayer  —  maldisant  s,  m. 

Evyll  tourne — maluais  tour  s,  m. 

Evyll  —  mal  x,  va. 

Evylnesse  —  improhiiè  z,  f.  ;  malice  s ,  f . 

Evyll  wyll  —  atlajne  s,[.;  maliuolence  s,  L; 

maltalent  s,  m. 
Evennesse  —  eqaalité  z,  (. 
Ewe  a  shepe  —  brebis,  f. 
Ewer  to  wasshe  with  —  aigvier  s,  f. 

E    BEFORE   X. 

Exaction  or  trybute  —  exaction  s,i. 

Examynacion  —  examination  s,  f. 

Exampler  for  a  woman  lo  worke  by  —  exem- 
ple s,  f. 

Example  of  a  boke  —  copie  s,  f. 

Example  a  symililude  of  a  thyng  —  exemple, 
exemplaire  s,  m. 

Exaltyng  a  lyftyng  up  —  exaltation  s,  f. 

Exchaunge  of  money  —  change,  eschange  s,  f. 

Exchaunge  ofany  thyng  —  eschange  s,  (. 

28 


218 

Excedyng  —  excès,  m. 

Excedyng  in  spence — prodigalité  z,  f. 

Excedyng  in  speche  —  locjuacité  z,î. 

Excedyng  pleasure  —  montjoye  s,  f. 

Exceptyon  —  exception  s,  l. 

Exersyse  use  —  exercice  s,{. 

Exersysing  of  the  body  —  exercitalion  s,  t. 

Excesse  —  ennrmité  z,  {.\  excès,  fs\.\  aehemen- 
ce  s,  f. 

Excuse  for  nat  apperyng  before  a  judge  —  es- 
soine  s,L 

Excuse  of  a  faut  —  excuse  s ,  (.iexcasation  s,  t. 

Excusyng  — excusation  s,  (. 

Excommunycation  —  excommvnication  s,  f. 

Excomunement  —  excommenge  s,{. 

Execution  of  justyce  —  exécution  s,  f. 

Executoure  of  a  testament  —  executevr  s,  m. 

Exortation  —  enhortement  s,  m.  ;  exhortation  s,  f. 

Expences  —  expences,  coustz ,frays ,  m. 

Experyence  —  expérience  s,  t.;  practKjue  s,  f.; 
experiment  s,  m. 

Exposytion  —  exposition  s,  f. 

Expounder  of  a  tliyng  —  expositevr  s,  m.;  ex- 
posevr  s,  m. 

Expoundyng — interprétation  s,  f.;  exposition  s,  f. 

Expressyng  declaryng  of  a  matter  —  explica- 
tion s,  (.;  expression  s,  î. 

Extorcyon  — •  extortion,  extorce  s,  (. 

Extorcioner  —  torconnier  s,  n). 

Extremenesse  —  extrémité  z,  f. 

F    BEFORE    A. 

Fable  a  lyghl  laie  — fable  s,  f. 

Face  —  aisage  s,  m.;  face  s,  f. 

Fader  —  père  s,  m.  ;  géniteur  s,  m. 

Faderless  chylde  —  orphelyn  s,  m. 

Fader  in  lawe  as  a  man  is  to  his  doughters  hus- 

bande  or  to  his  sonnes  wyfe  —  beau  père 

s,  m. 
Fader  in  lawe ,  as  he  is  that  maryeth  a  wyfe 

whiche  hath  chyldre  by  auother  man  — 

parastre  s,  va. 
Fader  and  mother  —  parents,  m. 
Fagot  of  lyght  brusshe  —  bovrree  s,  f. 
Fagot  of  sadder  and  rounde  styckes  —  cottret 

z,  m. 


LESCLARCISSEMENT 


Fagot  stycke  —  haste  s,{. 

Fayle  an  upparmost  gannent  of  a  woman  — 

faille  s,  {. 
Fayle  or  fauite  — faille  s,  t. 
Fayling  fautyng  —  deffailance  s,  f. 
Fayning  — fiction  s,  f.  ;  simulation  s,  f. 
Fayned  peace  —  paix  fourrée  s,  t. 
Faynlnesse  of  hart  —  lâcheté  de  cueur  z,  f. 
Fayre  to  bye  and  sell  in  — foin  s,  f. 
Fayresyr  —  beau  sire  s,  m. 
Fayrespeche  — doulcilocqae  s,  m.;  éloquence  s,  f. 
Fayrnesse  —  beaultc ,  formosilé ,  speciosité  z,  f. 
.Fayriean  elfe  — fee  s,{. 
Faythe  —  crédulité,  feaulté,foy  s,  f. 
Fallyng  sickenesse —  la  maladie  caducque,  le 

mal  sainct  Jehan  x,  m. 
Fall  —  cheute  s,  f. 
Fallaxe  or  desceyt  — falace  s,{. 
Falowelande —  terre  labourable  s,  (. 
Falsc  bulwarke  —  barhacane  s,  f. 
False  cast  of  jouglyng  — passe  passe  s,  f. 
Falsheed — faulceté  z,£. 
Falsnesse  —  caulele, faulceté  s,  L 
False  posterne  gâte — false  posterne  s,  {. 
Famé  nanie  —  renommée ,  famé  s,  f. 
Famyliarite  —  accointement ,  priuavllé. 
Fane  of  a  stepie  —  uirsoet  z,  m.;  betniere  s,  f. 
Fanne  to  fanne  with  —  uan  s  ,m. 
Fanne  to  blowe  with  —  estovillon  s,  m. 
Fannell  for  a preestes arme — fanon  s,m. 
Fantasy  — phantasie  s,  f.;  phantosme  s,  m. 
Farcion  a  dysease  of  horses  — farcin  s,  m. 
Fardell — fardeav  x, m.;  fais,  m. 
Fare  at  meate  —  chiere  s,  f. 
Farnesse  —  eslonguer  s,  f. 
Farte  of  ones  arse  —  pet  z,  m. 
Farthyng  coyne — ferdin  s,  m. 
Fasyll  of  clothe  —  cassure,  casure  s,  f. 
Fasyon  — façon  s,  f.  ;  mode  s,  f .  ;  taille  s ,  {. 
Fast  abstynence  — jevne  s,  m, 
Fastyng  —  abstinence  s,  f. 
Fatche  corne  —  vesse  s,  f.;  lentille  s,  {. 
Fatte  in  the  belly  —  le  molet  du  uentre  z,  ta. 
Fathome  measure — brasse  s,[.;  toise  s,  (. 
Faite  a  vessell  —  quevue  s,  f. 
Fatte  to  dye  in —  euaier  o  taindre  s,  m. 


1 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE. 


219 


Faite  bacon  —  lart  s,  m. 

Fatnesse  —  gresse  s,  f.  ;  svjf  s,  m. 

Fatnesse  of  the  grounde  — fertilité  z,  f. 

Faucet  to  drawe  wyne  — Jaucel  z,  m.;  irocAe 
a  estovper  le  uin. 

Fauchyon  a  vvepen  —  marguy  s,  m.;  baslon  de 
jvif  s.  m. 

Faucon  a  liauke  — faulcon  s,  m. 

Faucon  a  gonne — faucon  s,  m. 

Fauconner — faulconnier  s,  m. 

Faulte  —  covlpe,  favlte   s,  {.\  Jaxlie   s,  m.; 
uice  s,  m. 

Falsnesse — favheté  z,  {. 

Fawne  a  yong   dere — faut,   sailUuit  s,   m.; 
faon  s ,  ra. 

Faveur  — fauevr,  affection  s,  f. 

Favouryng  —  acception  s,  t. 

Favour  of  a  meane  man  with  a  greatman  — 
recommendation  s,  f. 

Faute — faulte  s,  f.  ;  démérite  s,  {. 

Fautynesse  — favtuseté  z,  f. 

Feaultie  — feaalté  z,  [. 

Febiencsse  —  débilité,  flebesse ,  faiblesse ,  imbe- 
cilité  z,f. 

February  a  moneth  -^février  s,  f. 
Fec  by  the  yere  —  certayn  s,  ni. 
Feanyng — faincte  s,  î. 
Feanyng  dissymulyng — faintise  3,  f. 
Feate  of  armes  — faict  darmes  z ,  m. 
Feates  of  armes  — faictz  darmes. 
Featysshnesse  propernesse — feactise  s,  f. 
Fclcbe  a  lytell  pesé  —  aesse  s,  f.;  lentille  s,  f.; 

ueche  s ,  {. 
Fedyng  pasture  —  posture  s,  (. 
Fcdyng  place. 
Fedder — plume  s,  (. 
Fedderfewe  an  berbe  —  espargovtte  s,(. 
Fedder  of  a  shafte  —  empennon  s,  m. 
Fedderyng  of  a  shafte  — coiche  s,  f. 
Feffement  —  possession  s,  f. 
Feynnesse  gladnesse  — joievteté  z,{. 
F.eythe  trouthe  — foy  s,  i. 
Feyrie — faee  z,  f. 

Feiowe  in  war  —  compagnon  de  guerre  s,  m. 
Feldes  enclosed  —  praerie  s,  f. 
Felde  —  champ  z,  m. 


Felde  a  batayle  — jovrnee  z,{. 

Feldefare  a  byrde. 

Felowshyppe  —  compaignie  s,  f. 

Fciyog  —  sentement  s,  m. 

Felmongar — megissier  s,  m. 

Felyng  with  the  bande  —  tastement  s,  m. 

Félon  a  sore  —  entracq  z,m. 

Felyng  of  any  good  or  grefe  —  sentement  s,  m. 

Felnesse  —  despiterie  s,  (. 

Fellon  a  thefe  —  larron  s,  m. 

Felony  —  larrecyn  s,  m.;felonnie  s,  f. 

Fell  a  skyn  of  a  shepe  —  peav  a  layne  s,  t. 

Feltryke  an  herbe. 

Felt  of  a  batte  — fevltre  s,  m. 

Feiowe  a  stoute  man  —fallot  z,  m. 

Feiowe  of  égal  power  —  collegat  z,  m. 

Feiowe  man  —  compaignon  s,  m. 

Feiowe  woman —  compaigne  s,  f. 

Felowsbyppe  —  société  z,  {. 

Femall  a  she  — femelle  s,  f. 

Femetorie  an  herbe — femetoyre  s,  f. 

Fenne  —  marécage  s,  m. 

Fence  —  defence  s,  {. 

Fende  a  devyll  —  diable  s,  m. 

Fenyxe  a  byrde  of  Araby  — fenix,  m. 

Fenell  an  herbe  — fenoil  z,  m. 

Fenestrall  —  châssis  de  toille  ou  depaupier. 
Fent  of  a  gowne  — fente  s,  (. 
Fearfulnesse  —  craintivité  z,  f. ;  timidité  z,  f. 
Ferry  man  — passevr  s,  m.  ;  maistreduport  s,  m. 
Fearyng  —  terrification  s,  (. 
Feare  abasshyng  —  horrevr,  paour  s,  f. 
Feare  dred  —  crainte,  cremevr,frayevr  s,  f. 
Ferry  barge  — •  batleav  a  passer  x,  m.;  barque , 

barc  s,  (. 
Feryage  —  chariage  s,  m. 
Ferraary — ferme  s,L 
Fermary  in  a  monastery  —  enfermerie  s,  ù 
Ferme,  a  lordshippe  ferme  —  meterie  s,(. 
Fermour  — fermier  s,  m. 
Ferne  an  herbe — fevsiere  orfougiere  s,  f. 
Ferne  that  groweth  upon  walies. 
Ferthyng  — ferdyn  s,  m. 
Ferventnesse — feruevr  s,  f. 
Fesant  coke — faisant  s,  m. 
Fesant  henoe  — faisante  s,  f. 

28. 


220 

Feest  — feste  s,  f.;  conuiue  s,  m. 
Feslue  lo  spell  with  — festev  x,  m. 
Fetherbedde  —  licl  de  plume  z,  m. 
Felher  —  plume  s,  f. 
Fettar  for  a  prisonar  —  govjons,  ni. 
Fetterlocke  —  serrure  a  goujons  s,  {. 
Fewell  fyre  — fevaille  s,  m. 
Fevar  an  agewe  —  fieure  s ,  f. 
Fevar  a  foule. 
Fewnesse — parcité  :,f. 

F    BEFOBE    J. 

Fyddell  —  rebeq  z,  m. 

Fydlar  or  crouder  —  rebecquet  z,  m. 

Fiersnesse — aigrevr,  aasterilé  z,  {.^Jierté  z,(.\ 
félonie  s,  f. 

Fight  for  lyfe  and  dethe  —  champ  mortel  s,  m. 

Fight — fiomhat,  débat  z,  va. 

Fightyng  —  conjlict  z,  m. 

Fighter  or  warryour  —  combatevr  s,  m. 

Figge  frute  — figue  s,{. 

Figge  tree — figuier  s,  m. 

Figure  — figure  s,  f. 

Filberde  —  noisette  franche  s,  f. 

Filberde  tree — noisettier  s,  m  .\franc  covldre  s,  m . 

Fylde  where  an  hoost  lyeth  —  champ  s,  m. 

Fyilet  for  a  maydens  heed  — fronteav  x,  m. 

Fyle  an  instrument  —  lime  s,  f. 

FyUippe  with  ones  fyngar  —  chicquenode  s,  f. 

Fylme  that  coveretb  the  brayne  —  taye  s,  f. 

Filosopher  —  philosophe  s ,  m. 

Filosophy  —  philosophie  s,  (. 

Fylthe  a  vyle  woman  —  loudiere  s,  f. 

Fylthe  of  the  eye  —  chassie  s,  m. 

Fylthe  ofthe  nose  —  morne  s,  m. 

Filthynesse — sovillevre  s,Li  uilité  z,{.feterdise  s,{. 

Finche  a  byrde  —  pinçon  s,  m. 

Findyng  of  a  thyng —  inuention  s,  f. 

Finger  —  doigt  z,  m. 

Fingerlyngoflcther — delot  z,Tn.;poulcier s,  m. 

Finesse  of  golde  or  sylver  at  thé  touche  —  ha- 
ras, m. 

Fynne  of  a  fysshe  —  barbe  de  poisson  s,  f. 

Fynest  floure  of  meale  — folle  farine  s,  f. 

Fynysshing  —  terminance,  acheuissance  s,  f. 

Finyssher  — determinevr  s,  m. 


LESCLARCISSEMENT 


Fyrre  a  tree  —  sappin  s,  m. 

Fyrsbusshe — jovmarin  s,  m. 

Fyre  an  élément  —  fev  x,  m. 

Fyre  forke  — fovrche^  a  fev  s,  f. 

Fyre  panne — poille  a  fev  s,  C. 

Fyre  yron  to  stryke  fyre  with  — fusil  z,  m. 

Fyre  crycket  —  cricquet  z,  m. 

Fyre  stone  —  pierre  a  fev  s,  f. 

Fyrken  —  cartal  x,  m. 

Fyrken  a  lytell  vessell  — filette  s,  t. 

Fyrret  a  beest  — ffrei  z,  m. 

Fyrmament — Jirmament  s,  to. 

Fyrst  order  or  tonsure  —  benêt  s,  m. 

Fysse  catcher  —  peschevr  s,  m. 

Fyssher  —  peschevr  s,  m. 

Fysshe — poisson  s,  m. 

Fysshebonne  —  aresie  s,  (. 

Fyssbepoole  — fosse  a  poisson  s,  f. 

Fysshe  mongar  —  poissonnier  s,  m. 

Fysshing — peschement  s,  m. 

Fyssheponde  or  poole  —  estang  z,  m. 

Fisnomy — filosomye  s,  f. 

Fyst  a  hande  —  poing  z,  m. 

Fyest  with  the  arse  —  uesse  s,  t. 

Fitche  corne  —  uesse,  lentille  s,  f. 

Fytten  —  mensonge  s ,  to.  ;  menterie  s,  f. 

Fyve  leaved  grasse. 

F    BEFORE    L. 

Flag  or  baner  of  a  felde  —  guidon  s,  m. 

Flagge  that  groweth. 

Flaget  — fiacon,fiaccon  s,  m. 

Flagon — fiaccon ,  fiaston  s ,  tn. 

Flake  of  snowe. 

Flame  of  fyre  — flambe  de  fev  s,  f 

Flame  or  blast  — fiamesche  s,  f. 

Flame  — flamme  s,  f. 

Flancke  of  a  beest  — flanc,  flanche  z,  m. 

Flappe  a  stroke  —  coup  de  plat  z,  m. 

Flappe  for  flyes  —  chassover  a  mouches  s,  m. 

Flappe  of  a  gowné" — cappe  s,  f. 

Flappe    that    covereth   the  wyndepypc  —  la 

loette  de  la  gorge  s,  C. 
Flatte  pece  —  tasse  s,  (. 
Flalerar — flalevr  s,m. 
Flateryng — advlation,  blandice ,  flaierie  s,  f. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE. 


221 


Fiatering  of  ibe  court  —  blason  de  covrt  s,  m. 

Flatnesse  —  phttevre  s,  f. 

Flauiie  meate — flanel,jlan,jlaon  z,ra. 

Flee  a  lytell  beest — puche  s,  f. 

Flécher  —  arlilUer  s,  m. 

Fleame  spyttell  — jlevme  s,  f. 

Fleyle  for  corne — jleav,flael  x,  m. 

Flemme  spylteli — jlevme  s,  f. 

Flemmyng  — Jlammant  s,  m. 

Flese  of  woile  —  toyson  de  layne  s,  f. 

Flesslie  —  chair  s,  f. 

Flesslie  flye  —  grosse  movche  s,  f. 

Flesshe  hoke  —  croq  a  chair  z,m. 

Flete  where  water  cometh — brèche  s,  f. 

Flete  of  shippes  — jlotte  de  nauires  s,  f. 

Flete  a  prisone  for  gentylmen  —  consergerie  s,  f. 

Flaie  wyfe — liniere  s,  f. 

Flaxe  —  lin  s,  m. 

Fiaxe  redy  to  spynne — fillace  s,{. 

Flewe  a  nette  —  retz  a  pécher,  f. 

Flye  —  mâche  s,  (. 

Flye  that  bredeth  in  floures  —  puce  s,  f. 

Flyggenesse  of  byrdes  —  plumevselè  z,  f. 

Flyglil  of  an  hauke  —  uol  z,  va. 

Flyght  a  shafte  —  permet  s,  m.  ;  aolet  z,  m. 

Flyght,  flyeng  away — jvite  s,  f. 

Flyght  of  byrdes  —  uolee  s,  f. 

Fiynge  of  an  horse  —  raade  s,  f. 

Flyntstone  —  cailliov  bis,caiUiov  x,m. 

Flyeng  dragon,  a  long  flye  —  prestres,  m. 

Flyxe  a  diseasc — Jlux  de  ventre,  m.^fojre  s,  f. 

Flocke  — jloc  z,  m.\jloqtie  s,  f. 

Flocke  of  shcpe  —  troupeau  de  brebis  x,  m. 

Floode  or  streame  — Jlvue  s,  m. 

Floode  of  thesee  —  déluge, Jlot  z,  m.;  marée  s,  f. 

Floode  of  water  that  cometh  from  ihe  skye  — 

raume  deave  s,  (.•,-undee  s,  f. 
Floode  gale  —  escluse  s,  f. 
Florayne  a  kynde  of  money  — Jlorin  s,  m. 
Flocke  of  bestes  —  troupeau  de  bestes  x,  m. 
Flocke  of  shepe  —  ovaille  s,  f. 
Flooke  a  kynde  of  pleas —  fymande  3,{. 
Flockes  of  clothe  — ■  hovrre  s,  f. 
Fiorthe  of  a  house  —  astre  s,  m. 
Flore  of  a  chambre  —  planche  s,  f. 
Floure  an  herbe  — fleur  s,  f.  ;  floron  s,  m. 


Fleure  of  meale  — fine  fleur  s,  f. 

Flourdelyce  — fleur  de  lis  s,  f. 

Floure  of  a  tasyll  that  flyeth  about  ail  rounde 

barbedieu  x,  m. 
Flowyng  of  waters  — flot  z,  m.\flote  s,  f. 
Floundre  a  fysshe  — flondre  s,  f. 

F    BEFORE   O. 

Focer  or  a  cofer —  cojre  s,  m. 

Fode  meate  —  nourriture  Sj  f. 

F'oddre  — fourrage  s ,  va. 

Foyne  with  a  swerde  —  estoc  z,  m. 

Foyns  a  furre — foynnes,  f. 

Foyst  tocarry  marchaundyse  —  fusle  marchande 
s,  f. 

Foyst  a  bote  lyke  a  gallye  —  faste  s,  f. 

Foidc  of  shepe  —  parc  de  brebis  z,  m. 

Foie  —  badin  s,  m.;  sot  z,  va.;  fol  z,  m. 

Foole  a  coite  —  poulain  s,  va. 

Folchardynesse —  témérité  z,  (. 

Folly  —  musardie ,  folye ,  comardie  s,  f.  ;  sot- 
tie s,  [. 

Folysshnesse  —  slolidité  z,  (.■,follevr  s,  f. 

Folysshnessc,  beestysshnesse  —  besterie  s,  f. 

Folke  people  —  gent  s,  f. 

Folowyng  of  another  mannes  condycions  — 
imitation  s,  (. 

Folowyng  bringyng  in  —  déduction  s,  f. 

Foome  —  escume  s,  f. 

Fondelyng  —  enfant  trovue  s,  va. 

Fonnell  to  fyll  a  bottell  or  vessel  with  —  aulon- 
noyr  s,  va. 

Font  to  christea  chyldre  in  — fons,  m. 

Font  in  a  churche  — font  desglise  s,  f. 

Foo  or  enemy  —  ennemy  s,  w. 

Foode  —  alimentation  s,  (. 

Forbearyng  —  abstinence  s ,  f. 

Forbydding  —  deffence  s,  f. 

Force  or  outrage  —  effort  s,  m. 

Focer  a  lyttcl  cofer  —  cofret ,  escrin  z,  va. 

Foreknowyng  of  a  thyng — prescience  s,{. 

Foreshapen  beest —  monstre  s,  m. 

Forell  for  a  bokc  —  couerlevre  de  Hure  s,{. 

Foresight  —  prouision  s,  f. 

Foreshout  of  the  sayle  in  a  shyppc  —  lescoull 
de  deuant  i,m. 


222  LESCLARCISSEMENT 

Foreshippe  —  deiiant  de  nauire  s,  va. 
Foreman  of  a  slioppe  —  maistre  uarlet  z,m. 
Forehorse  —  cheual  de  deuant  x,m. 
Foreryder  —  rimevr,  precursevr,  auaiUcourrevr 

s,  m. 
Foreseyng — preueance  s,  f. 

Forde  a  watryng  place  —  abrvuoyr  s ,  m. 

Forrest  — forcst  z,  f. 
Forefather  —  deuantcier  s,  m. 

Forrennara  stranger — forayn  z,  m. 

Foresiglit  —  regart  s,  m.;  iieve  s,  f. 

Forfayte  —  amende  s,  {,;  Jorfaict  2,  m. 

Forefather  —  ancestre  s,  ta. 

Forfaytour — forfaicture  s,  f. 

Forge  of  a  smythe  — forge  s,  t. 

Forgetfulnesse  —  oubliaiice  s,  f. 

Forelieed  — front  s,  m. 

Forke  of  yrone  — fourche  de  for  s,  f. 

Forked  heed  of  an  arowe  —  ciseav  x,  m. 

Forke  — fourche  s,  f. 

Forme  shappe  — forme  jj  f. 

Forme  a  maner  —  manière  s,  f. 

Forme  to  sytte  on  — forme  s,  (. 

Formast  parte  of  the  faeed  —  deuant  de  la  leste 
s,  m. 

Formast  fyngar  —  le  doigt  de  deuant  z,  m. 

Formour  or  grublyng  yron. 

Formast  parte  of  the  shyppe — prore  s,  f. 

Formast  parle  ofasadell  — arcon  s,  m. 

Forne  or  frolhe  of  water  —  cjcunie  s,f. 

Fornesse  lo  make  fyre  in  — fournaise  s,  (. 

Forowe  in  a  lande —  royere  de  terre  s,  f. 

Forsakyng  —  répudiation  s,  f.  ;  abandonnement 
s,  m.;  désolation  s,  f.;  desercion  s,  f. 

Forse  — ybrce  s,  f.  ;  uehemence  s,  {. 

Forster  —  uerdier,  forestier  s,  m. 

Forsakyng  of  relygion  —  apostasie  s,  (. 

Forsweryng — parjure  s,  m. 

Fornication,  lechery  — fornication  s,  f. 

Forlheryng  —  auancement  s,  m. 

Forinyght  —  quinze  jours,  m. 

Foretolhe  —  deni  de  deuant  s,  f. 

Forelop  of  a  shyppe  —  hune  de  bourset  s,  f. 

Fortresse  or  grounde  madestronge — fortifica- 
tion s,  (. 

Fortresse  a  strongeboide — forteresse  s,  f. 


Fortune  — fortune  s,  f. 

Fortunatncsse — bienhevreti  z,  f. 

Forwarde  of  a  batayle  —  auant  garde  s,  f. 

Fote  — pied  z,  m. 

Fote  of  a  pyllar  or  ymage  —  sombasse  s,  (. 

Fote  of  a  stole  or  of  a  bedde  or  of  any  other 

thyng  —  pie  z ,  m. 
Foteman  to  a  kyng  or  to  a  great  man  —  lac- 

quet  z,  m. 
Foteman  in  batayle  —  piéton  s,  va. 
Foie  steppe  —  pas,  m.;  marchepie  s,  f. 
Fote  slole  —  marchepied  s,  m. 
Fother  of  lande. 

Folher  of  leed  —  sanlmon  de  plomb  s,  m. 
Fowyng  beest — foynes,{. 
Foulde  for  shepe  —  parc  li  brebis  z,  m. 
Foule  a  byrde —  oiseav  x,  va. 
Fouler  —  pipevr  doiseavx,  m. 
Foulnesse  —  laidevre,  laideté  z,  {. 
Foulnesse  of  visage  —  laidevre  s,  f. 
Founder  of  a  reiygious  bouse  — fondevr  s ,  m. 
Founder  of  metall  — fondevr  s,  va. 
Foundacyon  of  a  bouse  —  bas ,  fondement  s,  m. 
Fondement  of  the  arsc  — fondement  s,  va. 
Fountayne  a  well  or  springe  — fontayne  s,  t. 
Fourbyssber — fourbyscher  s,  va. 
Fournysshing  or  storing — foumitvre  s,  f. 
Forlonge  spacc  —  eslade  s,  va. 
Foxe  —  regnart  3,  va, 
Foxe  erthe  —  taisniere  s,  f. 

F    BEFOnE    R. 

Frayeng  —  casiUle  s,  f. 

Fraye  or  outrage  —  ^ffroy,  hatin  s,  m. 

Fraydnesse  —  esmoy. 

Frayle  for  fygges  —  cabas,  cabache  s,  va. 

Fraylnesse — fougiliti ,  fresletè  z,  f. 

Fraytour —  refoaytoir,  refoctoyr  s,  m. 

Frame  or  ordynaunce  —  machine  s,  f. 

Frame  to  worke  in  —  métier  s,  m. 

Francke  archer  — foanc  archier  s,  m. 

Fraunce,  a  countre —  France  s,  f. 

Frankensence — fov.nc  encens  s,  m. 

Fransey  madnesse  —  phrenaisie,  phrenesie  s,  f. 

Fraternylie  or  gylde  —  confoairie  s,  f. 

Fraude—-  malengin  s ,  m.;  fraude  s,  f. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE. 


223 


Frowardnesse  : — peruersités,  f. 

Frauncbyse  — franchise  s,(. 

Fredome,  lybertie — franchise  s,  f. 

Frenesse — franchise,  liberté  s,  f. 

Frecken  or  freccles  in  ones  face  —  lentille  s,  f., 

or  brand  de  Judas. 
Freyght  of  a  shyppe — lefrect,  Imiierdune  nefz,m. 
Free  man  — franc  homme  s,  m. 
Freoche  spoken  in  Burgondy  — •  wallon,  s,  m. 
Frenche  kynges  eldest  sonne  —  doulphin  s,  m. 
Frenche  man  —  François,  m. 
Frenche  pocke  —  gorre,  grosse  uerolle  s,  f. 
Frende  a  man  — estrangier  s,  m. 
Frende  —  amy  s,  m. 
Frenesse  of  gyfte  —  libéralité  z,  {. 
Frendsliyppe  —  amitié  z,  f. 
Freng  for  a  bedde  or  horsc  harnesse  — frenge 

s,{. 
Frère  or  brother  — fivre  s,  m. 
Frère  a  relygious  man  — frère  s,  m. 
Fryse  roughe  clothe  —  drap  frisé  z,  m. 
Frenesse  —  loisibleté  z,  f. 
Fresshnesse — freschevr,  frescheté  r,  f. 
Fret  of  golde — frisevr  dor  s,  f 
Fret  of  a  lute. 
Fretyng  angre  —  covrroax,  m.  ;  sfomachation  s, 

f. ;  calefaction  s,  {. 
FrewyU  of  a  man  or  woman  —  franc  arbitre 

s,  m. 
Friday  —  uendredy  s,  m. 
Frère  —  religieux,  m. 
Frère  Augustyne  —  Augustin  s,  m. 
Fryeng  panne  —  poille  à  frire  s,  f. 
Fry tter  pancake  —  bygnje ,  fritier  s,  f, 
Frogge  —  grenaille  s,  f. 
Froyse  of  egges  —  uovte  doevfz  s,  f. 
Frocke  for  a  carter  —  garnache  s,f. 
Frocke  fora  monke  —  frocq,  rochet  z,  m. 
Front — front  s,  m. 

Fronters  orniarchesofcounlrees — frontière  s,(. 
Frontlet — fronteav  x,  m. 
Frothe  of  an  egge  — jiette  j,  f. 
Frothe  of  the  see  —  escame  de  mer. 
Frost  —  gelée  z,{. 
Frowardnesse  —  atayne,  obstination  s,  f. ;  per- 

uersiié,  proteniité  s,(. 


Frounsyng  — froncement  s,  m. 
Fractyon  breakyng  — fraction  s,  f. 
Frute — friiict  z,  tu.  ;  fruictage  s,  m. 
Frutefulnesse  — fractuevseté  z,{. 
Frutrar  — fritier  s,  m. 
Fruirer  that  seiieth  frute  — frayctier  s,  m. 

F    BEFORE    U. 

Fullar  a  craftesman  — foulon  s,  m. 

FuHars  crafte —  mestier  défoulions  s,  m. 

Fulfyllyng  —  supplément  s,  m. 

Fulmarde  a  beest. 

FuH  moone — plaine  lune  s,  f. 

FuH  power  —  puissance  planiere  s,  f 

Fulnesse  of  ihe  stoniake  —  sacieté  z,  f. 

Furaygation  — fumigation  s,  t. 

Fulnesse  —  planere  s,  f. 

Fundacyon  of  a  house  — fundement  s,  m. 

Fundlyng  —  enfant  trouve  s,  m. -,  alumpne  s,  m. 

Furgone  for  an  ovyn  —  uavldree  z,  f. 

Fury  that  a   man  is  in  whan  he  is  chafed  — 

chavlde  colle ,  fureur  s,  L 
Furre  of  armyns  —  armines ,  f. 
Furre  — fourrure  s,  f. 
Furred  gowne  —  robe  fourrée  s,  f. 
Furryar  — fourrevr  de  robes  s,  m. 
Furlonge  —  deniy  quart  de  lieve  s,  m. 
Furmente — potage  defruments,m.\fmmenttez',  f. 
Fustar  that  iiiaketh  saddell  trees  —  bustier  s,  m. 
Fustyan  — fnlainc  s,  f. 

G   BEFOHE    A. 

Garde  for  a  garment  —  garde  s,  f 

Garde  or  kepyng  —  garde  s,  f. 

Gaberdyne  to  ryde  with  —  gauerdine  s,  f. 

Gable  wall. 

Gable  rope  of  a  shippe  —  chable  s,  f. 

Gadde  of  yrone  —  qaarreav  de  fer  x,m. 

Gadde  for  oxen  —  esgaillon  s,  m. 

Gadde  bee  a  flye  —  bourdon  s,  m. 

Gadde  of  steele  —  quarreav  dacier  x,  m. 

Gaddre  as  a  calfes  gadre  or  a  shepes  — Z'^''- 

sure  de  ueaii  o»  de  motton  s,  f. 
Gagge  to  sette  in  ones  mouthe  —  bâillon  s,  n.. 
Gage  a  pledge  —  <;aije  s,  m.\  plaige  s,  f. 
Gayler  a  kepar  of  a  prison  —  geôlier  s,  m. 


224 


LESCLARCISSEMENT 


Gayne  or  getlyng  —  acquesl  z,  m.;  eimohiment 

s,  m.;  gaignc  s,  {. 
Gaynslaadyng  —  resistence  s,  f. 
Gaynesayeng  —  contrediction,  redicle  s,  t. 
Gaynesse  —  guyeté  z,  f. 
Gall  of  a  beest  — Jiel  z,  m.  ;  orner  s,  m. 
Gallantyne  sauce. 

Gall  to  make  ynke  with  —  noix  de  galle,  f. 
Gallant  a  man  fresshe  in    appareyle  —  gai- 

lant  s,  m. 
Galle  a  sore  —  refoulevre  s,  f. 
GaUey  a  shyppe  —  galee  z,  f. 
Galery  to  walkc  in  — galerie  s,  f. 
Galyngale. 

Gallon ,  a  mesure  —  gallon  s,  m.;  pot  z,  m. 
Galowe  Iree  —  gihet  z,  m.;  fourche  s,  f. 
Gambaude  —  savll  r,  m.  ;  gambanlde  s,  f. 
Game  sporte  — jev  x,m. 
Game  that  is  wone  —  pris,  ni. 
Gammon  of  bacon — jambon  s,  m. 
Gammouthe  —  gamme  s,  f. 
Gandre  a  foule  — jars  s,  m. 
Gange  dayes  —  rovaysons ,  rogations  f. 
Gant  byrde. 

Gappe  in  a  hedge  —  brèche  s,  f. 
Gappe  in  a  knyfe  —  hoche  s,  f. 
Garbage  of  a  foule  —  petitoye  s ,  f. 
Gardyne  place  — jardinage  s,  m. 
Gardyne  — jardin  s,  m. 
Gardevyans —  bahus,  m. 
Gardyne  mynt  —  meynte  s,  f. 
Gardynar  — jardinier  s,  m. 
Gargyle  in  a  wall  —  gargoille  s,  f. 
Garyson  of  men  of  armes  —  garnison  s,  f. 
Garlande  made  of  llouires —  chuppeav  x,  ni. 
Garlande  —  chappeav  x ,  m. 
Garlyke  —  ail  x ,  va. 
Garment  or  appareyle  —  abilUment  s,  ni.;  habit 

z,  ta.;  acoustrement  s,  m.;  garnement  s,  m.; 

aestement  s,  m. 
Garment  of  lether  — pelicon  s,  m. 
Garner  for  corne  — greniers,  m. 
Garnisshing —  gamissement  s,  m. 
Garsshe  in  wode  or  in  a  knyfe  —  hoche  s,  f. 
Garler  to  tye  up  ones  hose  — jarretier  s,  m. 
Gâte  — porte  s,  f. 


Gâte  of  a  place  of  défense  —  portai  x,  m. 
Gatherar  of  ihe  kynges  money  —  collecteur  s,  ni. 
Gatheryng  toguyder — assemblée,  corporations,(. 
Gauge  to  measure  wyne  with  —  gauge  s,  f. 
Gauger  of  wyne  —  gaugevr  s,  m. 
Gaudye  of  beedes  — ■  signeav  de  patenostre  x,  m. 
Gauntlet  for  a  bande  —  gantelet  z,  m. 

G    BEFOBE   E. 

Gelder  of  beestes — chasterevx,  m. 

Geldyng  a  horse  —  hongre  s,  m. 

Gelly  of  any  thyng  that  congeleth  —  glette  s,  f. 

Gelly  that  is  made  —  gelée  z,  f. 

Gelowe  floure  —  oyllet  z,  m. 

Gelousy  — jalousie  s  ,  {. 

Gemetry  —  géométrie  s,L 

Gencyan  rote  —  gentian  s,  m. 

Genepre  tree  - —  geneure  s,  m. 

Génération  encreasyng  —  génération  s,  (■;  li- 
gnée s,  f. 

Généralité  —  généralité  z ,  f. 

Genêt  of  Spaygne  —  genêt  z,  m. 

Gentylman  with  knaves  condycions  —  aille- 
nastre  s,  m. 

Gentylman  —  gentilhomme  s,  m. 

Gentylman  of  the  kynges  house  —  gentilhomme 
de  ïhostel. 

Gentylman  unmaryed —  damoiseau  x,  m. 

Gentylwoman  unmaryed  —  damoiselle  s,  (. 

Gentylnesse  —  genlilesse  Sj  f. ;  bénignité  z,  (.; 
urbanité  z,  f. 

Gentylnesse  in  byrthe  or  maner  —  générosité 
z.{. 

Gerfaulcon  — sacre  s,  m. 

Gère  clothyng  —  abillemens,  m. 

Gei-mandre  herbe  —  germandre  s,  (. 

Gerthe  for  a  horse  —  cengle  s,  {. 

Gessyng  or  demnyng —  deuinemen/,  s,  m. 

Gesses  for  a  hauke  —  getz,  m. 

Gest  a  taie  —  conte  s ,  m.;  passetemps,  m. 

Geest  an  host  —  hoste  s,  m. 

Gestar  a  scoffer  —  raillevrs,  ni. 

Gestyng  bourde  —  bourde  s,  f. 

Gesture  or  countenaunce  —  geste  s ,  f. 

■Geet  a  blake  stone  — ja£t  j,  m. 

Gette  a  custonie  — guise  nouuelle  s,  f. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE. 


225 


Gettar  a  braggar  — fringuereau  x,  m. 
Gettyng  —  acquest  2,  m. 
Geltyng  braggyng  — fringuerie  s,  f. 
Gevyng  over  a  lliyng  —  résignation  s,  f. 

G    BEFORE    I. 

Giaunt  —  jaihant  s,  m. 

Gibette — gibet  z,m. 

Gyde  —  guide  s,  m. 

Giderne — gaydon  s,  m. 

Gifte  —  don  s,  m.;  donation  s,  f. 

Gifle  a  coHacyon  — colation  s,  f. 

Gilde  or  brotherheed  —  confrairie  s,  f. 

Gyle  disceit  —   dol  z,  m.;  malengin  s,  m.; 

faulceté  z,  (.ifàlace  s,(. 
Gyll  of  a  fyssbe  — joe  de  poisson  s,  f. 
Gyllofer  a  llour  —  giroajjlec  s,  f.;  oyllet  z,va. 
Gylte  —  trespas,  ni. 
Gyltinesse — culpahleté  2,  f. 
Gymell  song — jumeau  x,m. 
Gymletle  to  perse  wyne  — foret  z,  m.;  uoille 

de  sorbe  s,  m. 
Gymewe  ofa  gyrdell  —  crochet  dune  troassovrre 

z,m. 
Ginger  spyce  —  gingembre  s,  m. 
Gynger  grate  —  ratissevr  a  gingembrr  s,  m. 
Gyngle  geangle  —  papillotle  s,  f. 
Gynne  to  take  quayles  with  —  ronnelle  s,  f. 
Gyrdell  —  ceincturt  s,  f. 
Gyrdelar  —  ceincturier  s,  m. 
Gyrdell  for  a  purse  of  the  spaynisshe  facyon  — 

ceinct  z,  m. 
Gyrdell  stede  — Jaulx  du  corps,  m. 
Gyrdiron  — gril  z,  m.;  grillon  s,  m. 
Gyrle  a  wenche  —  garce  s,  f. 
Girthe  for  a  saddcil  or  borse  —  cengle  s,  f. 
Gyse  a  mener  —  guise  s,  (. 
Gyserne  a  weapen  —  guiseme  s,  f. 
Gyserne  ofa  foule  — jevsier  s,  m. 
Gyspen  potte  — pot  de  cvir  z,  m. 
Gysl  tbat  gothe  over  the  florthe  —  soliue  s,  f.; 

giste  s,  f. 
Gyveng  a  sentence  — judicature  s,  f. 
Gyves  fetters  —  govjons,  m. 
Gyves  manacles  —  enlraues,  f. 


G    BEFOBE    L. 

Gladnesse  —  joje  z,  {.;  joievseté  z,  f.  ;  liesse 
s,  f. ;  exaltation  s,  C;  hilarité  z,  f. 

Gladon  herbe. 

Glasyer  that  glaseth  windowes —  uoirier  s,  m. 

Glasednesse  —  uoyroyseté  z,  t. 

Glasse  to  loke  in  —  mirover  s,  m. 

Classe  to_glase  witb  — uoyrre  s,  m. 

Glasse  or  many  panes  of  glasse —  uoinere  s,  t. 

Giede  a  byrde  —  escoujle  s,  t. 

Glydar  a  slyder  —  glancevr  s,  m. 

Glenar  of  corne  — glanevr  s,  m. 

Gleve  a  weapen  • —  glayue  s,  m. 

Glewe  —  du  glev,  de  la  gleve  s,{. 

Glewe  or  past  —  cole  s,  {. 

Giymring  of  lygbt  —  luevr  s,  f. ;  escler  s,  m.; 
esclercment  s,  m. 

Glystre  to  take  a  laxe  —  cristoire  s,  (. 

Glystering  —  relucence  Sj  f. 

Globerde  a  flye —  ung  verqai  reluit  de  nnyt. 

Glose  ofa  texte  —  glose  s,  f. 

Glorifyeng  or  rejoysing  —  glorijiance  s,  f. 

Glorie  —  gloyre  s,L 

Gloriousnesse  — glorievseU  z,  (. 

Glorie  of  vyctorie  — triamphe  s,  m. 

Glotton  —  glûutton  s,  m.;  gourment  s,  m. 

Glosyng —  adulation, Jlaterie  s,  f. 

Glottony  —  gloutonie  z,  f.  ;  galosité  z,  f. 

Glove  —  gant  i,  m. 

Glove  of  mayie  —  mitaigne  de  fer  s,  ). 

Glovar  —  gantier  s,  m. 

Glowc  worme  tbat  shynetb  by  night  —  «ni; 
aer  qui  relvit  de  nuyl. 

Glumme  a  sowerloke  —  rechigne  s,  f. 

G   BEFOBE    N. 

Gnastyng  of  the  tethc  —  stridevr  s,  f. ;  grince- 
ment s,  m. 
Gnatte  a  flye  —  cincelle,  singalle  s,  {. 
Gnawyng  or  frettyng  in  the  belly  —  Iranchasoa 


s,  m. 


G    BEFORE    O. 


Goblet  a  lumpe  or  a  pece  —  monceau  x,  m. 

lopin  s,  m.;  chanleaa  x,  m. 
Goblet  to  drinke  in  —  gobelet  z,  m. 

39 


226 

God  —  diea  x,  m. 

Godheod  —  dàt^  2 ,  f. 

Goddesse  —  déesse  s,  f. 

Godfather  —  parrain  s,  m. 

Goodlynesse —  beaalté  z,  {. 

Godmother  —  marraine  s,î. 

Goodnesse —  bonté  z,  (. 

Good  ricliesse  —  substance  s,  f. 

Goodfriday  —  le grant  uendredy  s,  m.;  le  uen- 

dredy  aaré  z,  m.      • 
Goddoughter — flliolle  s,i. 
Goddespeny  —  denier  a  Dieu  s ,  m. 
Godson  — JiUiol  z  ,  m. 
Goggleyedman  —  lovclie  s,  va. 
Goyng  — allure  s,  f.  ;  aXLte  s,f. 
Goyng  about  —  reuolution  s,  f. 
Goyng  out  —  issue  s,  f. 
Goyng  out  of  fortresse  —  saillie  s,  (. 
Goyng  downe  —  descendue  s,{. 
Goyng  about  tVie  busshe  —  embages,  f. 
Goyng  toguyder  in  one  r —  union  s,  f. , 
Goyng  from  a  mannes  mater  —  digression  s,  {. 
Goyon  a  fysshe  —  gojon  s,  m, 
Golde  a  metall  —  or  j  ,  m. 
Golde  balance  — poix,  Irebuchet  z,  m. 
Goide  Gncbe  a  byrde  —  chardonnereau  x,  m. 
Goldefynar  —  affineur  d'or  s,  m. 
Golde  foyle  —  papier  a  or  bâta  s,  m. 
Goldemyne  —  minière  aor  s,  [. 
Goldemynt. 

Goldesmythe  —  orfeure,  argentier  s,  m. 
Goldewyerdrawer  —  tirevr  dor  s,  m. 
Goldeweightes  —  trebucket  z,  m. 
Golde  berbe — sovcye  z,{. 
Goldesmythes  sboppe. 
Goidesmythes  worke  —  orfeuerie  s,  f. 
Goldeoure  — covsteau  d'or  x,  m. 
Goulfe  of  corne ,  so  moche  as  may  lye  bytwene 

Ivvo  postes,  otherwyse  a  baye. 
Good  man  —  preudhomme  s,  m. 
Good  olde  man  —  bonhomme  s,  m. 
Good  woman  —  preude  femme  s,  f. 
Good  wyfe  —  tonne  femme  s,  f, 
"  Good  doucker  —  pion  s,  xn. 
Good  tourne  —  ion  tour  s,  m. 
Goodnesse  —  bonté,  debonaireté  z,  f. 


LESCLARCISSEMENT 


Good  wyll  —  bienuveillance  s,  f. 

Good  frenche  speche  — francoys. 

Gomme  of  Ihe  telhe  —  genciae  s,  f. 

Gomme  that  goweth  on  trees  —  gomme  s,  f. 

Goodly  yonge  man  —  beaajih,  m. 

Gonne  an  ingynne  —  bombarde  s,  f. 

Gonge  farmer  —  maislre  de  basses  oevurcs,  gai- 

gueron  s,  m.;  cvrevr  dortraitz  s,  m. 
Gonnar  —  cannonier  s ,  m. 
Gonne  maker  — fondevr  de  bombars  s,  m. 
Gonne  stone  — plombée  s,  f. ;  boulet  z,  m.; 

bovle  de  fonte  s,  f. 
Gonne  poudre  maker  —  faisevr  de  pouldre  a 

cannons  s,  m. 
Gonge  a  draught —  orirait  z,  m. 
Gode  for  a  carier  —  esgaillon  s,  m. 
Goore  of  a  smocke  —  poynte  de  chemise  s,{. 
Gorjet  of  mayle  —  gorget dacier  z.xn. 
Gorrell  a  great  ladde  —  pautonnier  s,  m. 
Gourde  to  drinke  in  —  courge  s,  f. 
Gose  a  foule  —  oye  s,  (. 
Goseberry  —  groseille  s,[. 
Goseberry  busshe  — groseillier  s,  m. 
Gose  grece  an  herbe. 
Gosbauke —  avliour  s,  m. 
Goslynge  —  oison  s ,  m. 
Gossyppe  a  man  —  compère  s,  m. 
Gossyppe  a  woman  —  commère  s,  f. 
Gospel!  —  euangile  s,  m. 
Gospeilar  that  syngeth  tbe  gospel). 
Goost  — -  espirit  z,  m. 
Goostely  father  —  confessevr  s,  m. 
Goostlynesse  —  espiritaelleté  Zjt. 
Gossommer,  thynges  that  flye  in  sommar  lyke 

copwebbes. 
Gote  a  beest  —  chieure  s,  t. 
Gottesmylke  —  laictde  chieure  z,  m. 
Gotteslether  —  du  barocqain  s,  m. 
Governaunce  —  govuemance  s ,   f .  ;  seignevrie 

s,f. 
Governar  —  govaemevr  s,  m.;  monarque,  tec- 

tevr,  govuemat. 
Gowne  a  garment  —  rote  s,  f. 
Gourde  frute  —  courge  s,  (. 
Goûte  a  disease  —  govtte  s,f. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE. 


227 


G    BEFORB    R. 

Grâce  —  grâce  s,  f. 

Graciousnesse  —  gracievseté  z,  f. 

Grafte  or  gryffe  of  a  tree  —  ente  s,(. 

Grajc  horse  —  grison  s,  m. 

Grayle  a  boke  — gradale  s,  va. 

Graye  a  beest  —  taxe  s,  m. 

Graye  frère  —  cordelier  s,  m. 

Graye  furre. 

Graye  gryseil. 

Graynes  spyce  —  graine  de  paradis  s,  (. 

Gramaryon  —  jramanVn  s,  m, 

Grammer  a  scyence  —  grammaire  s,  î. 

Graple  to  graple  or  claspe  shyppes  toguyder — 
hauet  z,  m. 

Grape  frute  —  grappe  s,  t. 

Grasse  or  herbe  —  herbe  s,  {. 

Grate  for  bredde  —  gragevr  a  payn  s,  va. 

Grate  for  gynger  —  raiissevr,  or  grageur  a  gin- 
gembre s,  va. 

Grate  of  a  windowe  —  trelis  de  fer,  m. 

Grate  of  yroii  —  irilis ,  m. 

Grave  ofstone  —  tambe  s,  f. 

Grave  oferthe — fosse  s,  f. ;  sepulchre  s,  m. 

Gravell  — grauier  s,  m.;  sablon  s,  m. 

Graunlsyre  —  peregrant  s,  va. 

Grauntfatbers  father  —  aieul  x,  m. 

Grantfather  grantsyre  —  grani  meul  x,  m. ,  or 
atave  s,  m. 

Grandame  —  meregrant  s,  (. 

Grauntmothers  mother  —  aielle  s,  f. 

Gravyng  upon  a  thyog  —  inscription  s,  f. 

GrauDge  or  a  lytell  thorpe  —  hameau  x,  m. 

Graunge  —  petit  uillage  s,  m. 

Granche  —  grange  s,  f. 

Graunl  of  promysc  —  concession  s,  f. 

Graunt  father  to  ones  grêat  graant  father  — 
altave  j,  ni. 

Graunt —  octroy  z,  ai. 

Great  storme  —  oraige  s,  m. 

Great  pleasure  —  montjoy  s,  ni. 

Great  wode  tymbreto  bylde  with — maisrien  s,  m. 

Grèce  to  go  up  at  or  a  stayre  —  degré  z,  m. 

Grevyng —  naissance  s,  f. 

Greke  ofthe  nation  of  Grèce — Grec  ;,m. 

Gredy  worme  ihat  in  is  a  dogges  tong. 


Grafte  yong  tre —  moleste,  ente,  greffe  s,  (. 

Gray  hounde  —  leurier  s,  m. 

Gray  bytche  —  leuriere  s,  t. 

Graynebery  —  gray  ne  descarlaie  s,  {. 

Grayne  to  dye  with  — pastel  z,  vn. 

Grefe  payne  — payne  s,   f.  ;   tribalation  s,  f.  ; 
griesue  s,  f. 

Great  quyll  —  penne  s,  f. 

Great  bearyng  out  —  port  s,  m. 

Great  grauntfather  —  proaievl  x,  m. 

Great  etar  a  larcher  — •  rifflevr,  gormant  s,  m. 

Great  depe  place  in  the  see  —  govffre  s,  m. 

Grayne  to  dye  with  whan  it  is  poudre  —  pas- 
tel z,  m. 

Grayne  corne  —  grayne  s,  m. 

Graynesse  —  griselé  z,  {. 

Grement  —  unanimité  s,  f.;  accord  s,  va.;  accor- 
dance  i,  f. 

Grene  turfe  or  a  sodde  —  gason  s,  m. 

Grene  fyncbe  a  byrde. 

Greuenesse  —  uerdure  s,  f. 

Grennyng  makyng  of  an  yvell  couutynaunce  — 
grincement  s,  m.;  grimace  s,  f. 

Gresse  herbe —  herbe  uerte  s,  (. 

Grese  fatnesse  ^  jrewe  s,{. 

Greshopper  —  saatreau  x ,  m.;  savterelle  s,{. 

Great  eater  —  glovtton  s,  ta.;  bnffre  s,  m. 

Great  drinker  —  biberon  s,  m. 

Great  grauntfather  —  aievl  x,  va. 

Great  horse  a  courser  —  coursier  s,  va. 

Great  graunde  mother  —  aiclU  s,  f. 

Great  faggot  or  baven  —  follot  z,m. 

Great  rude  clothe  —  bureau  x,  va. 

Great  waterpotte  —  cruche  s,  (. 

Great  too  —  gros  orteil  z,  m. 

Great  hasyll  nutte  —  aueleine  s,  (. 

Great  hounde  —  alant  s,  va. 

Great  nombre  of  cordes  —  cordaige  s,  f. 

Gretyng  —  salutation  s,  f. 

Gretnesse —  grandevr,  grossesse  s,  f. 

Grevaunce — greuance  s,(, 

Greave  or  busshe  —  boscaige  s,  va. 

Grevousnesse  — aggravation  s,  f.;  grief  z,  m. 

Graffer  of  plantes — jardinier  s,  m. 

Grefe  —  ente  s ,  f. 

Gryffon  a  beesl  — grifon  s,  va. 

39- 


228 


LESCLARCISSEMENT 


Grymnessc  —  grimnevseté  Zj  (. 

Gryndestone  —  mevle  a  agviser  s,  f. 

Grynde  bytwene  the  thyghe  and  ihe  bclly  — 

ayne  s,  f. 
(îrype  a  beest  —  egripe  s,f. 
Grypell  a  hoke  —  hauet  z,m. 
Grete  a  stayre  —  ungz  degrez,  m. 
Grystell  of  any  beesl  —  tendron  s,  m. 
Grocer  —  grossier  s ,  m.  ;  espicier  s,  m. 
Groyue  of  a  swyne —  g'~'>yng  s,  m. 
Gronje  —  uarlet  z,m.  • 

Gromeofthe  chambre — uarlet  de  chambre  z,m. 
Groinell  sede. 

Groseuesse  of  a  thyng  —  rudesse  s,  f. 
Grote  money  —  gros ,  m. 
Grove  a  lytell  woode  — boscaige  s,  m.\  chenee 

s,  f.;  petit  boys,  m. 
Growyng  encreasyng  —  croissance  s,  f. 
Grounde  erthe  —  terre  s,  f. 
Grouad  heed  of  yron  — fer  esmolu  s,  m. 
Groundesall  an  herbe. 
Groundes  lyse  of  any  lycour  ■ —  lie  s,  f. 
Grounde  ivy  —  hierre  s,  m. 
Grounde  the  botome  of  a  foundation  of  any 

thyng — fondation  s ,  t. 
Grounde  soppe  in  lycoure — payn  trempé  s,  m. 
Grout  that  serveth  lo  brewyng ,  in  Fraunce  is 

none  nsed. 
Grutchyhg  —  groignement  s,  m.;  murmuralion 

s,  f. ;   remort,   tumalte  s,  m.;   contredaing 

s,  m. 

G    BEFOHE    U. 

Guydyng  or  conductyng  —  conduit  z,  ni. 
Guyse   or  maner  — fax:on  s,  f.,  guise  s,{.; 

mode  s,  f. 
(juoipyn  of  an  eie —  doUe  s,  f. 
Guyde  to  iede  one  the  way  — -guide  s,  m. 
Gjiydyng  —  régime  s,  m. 
Guydern  a  baner  in  a  felde  — guidon  s,  m. 
(iurnardo  a  fysshe  —  goumavlt  z,  m. 
Gutte  a  bowell  —  boyau  x,  m. 
Guttar  —  gouttière ,  gouttier  s,  f. 
Guttar  tbat  the  water  ronneth  from  the  con- 

deth  —  deuide  s,{, 
Guttar  stone. 


H    BEFORE    A. 

Haie  in  a  felde  for  men  —  tref  z,  w. 
Haberdassber —  mercier  s,  m. 
Harberger — fourrier  du  roj  s,  m. 
Hablenesse  —  habilité,  capacité  z,  (. 
Habytacion  dweiiyng  —  habitation  s,(. 
Habytacle  a  place  —  habitacle  s,  m. 
Habytaunt  a  dweller  —  habitant  s,  m. 
Habundance  plentie  —  habundance  s,  (. 
Haddocke  a  fysshe  —  avnon  s,  m. 
Hafte  of  any  tôle  —  manche  s,  m. 
Haggas  a  podyng  —  caliette  de  mouton  s,  (. 
Hagge  a  flame  of  fyre  that  shyneth  by  night  — 

furolle  s,(. 
Haye  a  net  for  connes  —  bourcettes  a  chasser,  f. 
Hayecocke  —  mulon  defoyn  s,  m. 
Hayle  —  gresle  s,  t. 
Haylife  an  herbe. 

Hayre  for  parfite  men  —  hayre  s,  f. 
Hackeney  horse  —  hacquence  z,  f. 
Haibarde  a  wepen  —  halebarde  s,  (. 
Halfe  of  any  thyng  —  moytié  z,  t. 
Haife  pynt  a  measure  —  demion  s,  f.  ;  chop- 

pine  s,  {. 
Halfe  an  hour  —  demy-hevre  s,  {. 
Halfe  a  yere  —  demy  an  s,  m. 

Halfe  an  acre  —  demy  arpent  s,  m. 

Haifenesse  —  demieté  z,  f. 

Halfe  a  pecke  —  demy  quart  s,  m. 

Halfe  penny  —  maille  s,  f. 

Halfe  suster  —  sevr  utérine  s,  f. 

Halyday — feste  s,  t. 

Halywater  —  eave  benoyte  s,  f. 

Halywaterslocke  —  benoislier  s,  ni. 

Halywatersprincle  —  uespilton    s,  m.;  asper- 
goyr  s,  m. 

Halter — licol  z,m.;  cheuestre  s,  m. 

Halle  in  a  house  —  salle  s,  f. 

Hall  a  long  tent  in  a  felde  —  tente  s,  f. 

Halmeshouse  —  aumoniere,  maison  dieu  s,f. 

Halowyng  of  houndes  —  hvee  s,  (. 

Halowyng  of  a  churche  —  coasecrolion  s,  (. 

Hamme  of  the  legge — jarret  z,  m. 

Halsyng  —  accollee  s,  f, 

Hammer  —  marteau  x,  m. 

Hamper  — /joniV  dosier  s,  m.;  escrayn  s,  m. 


DE  LA  LANGUE 

Handell  of  a  potle  or  any  lyke  thyng  —  ofise  s,  f. 

Handlyng  witb  the  bande  —  manienienl  s,  m. 

Hande  —  majn  s ,  f. 

Handelyng  entreating  —  Iraictement  s,  m. 

Hande  barowe  —  ciuiere  s,  f. 

Handell  a  fullars  instrument. 

Handfull  — poignée  z,  f. 

Hangonner  —  covlearinier  s,  ni. 

Handefastyng — fiansailles,  f. 

Handesawe  —  sie  a  mayn  z,  f. 

Hande  basket  —  corheillon  s,  ni. 

Handemayde  —  chambrière ,  pedisseque  s,  f. 

Handeworme  —  ciron  s,  m. 

Handekercbefe  —  moachover  s,  m. 

Handestrokes  —  pagniz,  m. 

Hangraan  —  boureaa  x,  m. 

Hangre  a  weapen  —  bracquemart  s,  m. 

Hangyng  forahall  orcbambre  —  tapisserie  z,  f. 

Hangyngfora  bedde — accoastrementdelict  s, m. 

Hangyng  of  an  byll  —  pendant   de   la   mon- 
taiijne  s,  m. 

Haasell  —  eslrayne  s,f. 

Hansomnesse  —  adaenantelé  z,  f. 

Happenyng  —  aduenant  s,  m. 

Happe  fortune — fortune  s,  f. ;  accident  s,  m.; 
chanse  s,i. 

Happynesse — prospérité  z , [. ;  bienheureté  z,(.; 
evreuseti  z,{. 

Harborowe  —  hoslelaiije,  loyis ,  herberge. 

Hardell  —  claie  s,  f. 

Hardynesse  —  couraiije  s,  m.;  hardiesse  s,  {. 

Hardnesse  in  tbe  bande  or  fcte  bycause  of  la- 
bour or  straitshowyng  —  escalvre  s,  f, 

Hardnesse  cruelnesse  —  dureté  z,  (. 

Hardnesse  —  diJicuUé  z,  f. 

Harde  meate  or  foddre  —  yrayne  s,  (. 

Hare  a  becsl  —  Heure  s,  m. 

Harkyng  —  escoat,  escoute,  audience  s,  f. 

Harlotte — paillardes,  f  ;  meretrice  s.  C;  garce 

s,  f.  ;  putayn  s ,  f. 
Harlottrye  —  paillardjse  s,  (. 
Harme  —  dommage  s,  m.;  détriment  s,  m. 
Harmony  melody  —  armonie  s,{. 
Harnesse — hamoys  s,  m. 
Harncsse  of  yron  —  armure  dejer  s,i. 
Harnesse  for  tbe  armes  —  armure  de  brus,  f. 


FRANCOYSE. 


229 


Harnesse  for  the  legges  —  armure  de  jambes, 

greaes. 
Harnesse  for  a  gyrdelle  — ferreure  s,  f. 
Harnesse  for  the  plougbe  horse  —  hamoys  de 

cherue,  m. 
Harnesman  —  armigerc  s,  m. 
Harnesse  for  a  borsenecke  —  crinet  z,  m. 
Harnesse  for  borses  —  harnais  a  cheual,  m. 
Harper  —  harpevr  s,  m. 
Harpe  —  harpe  s,  (. 
Harpestrynge  —  corde  de  harpe  s,  f.   ' 
Harte  —  cuevr  s,  f. 
Harte  a  wyide  beest  —  cerf  z ,  m. 
Haraulde  of  armes  —  herault  s,  m. 
Harowe  —  herce  s,  f. 
Harowe  pynne  —  cheudle  de  herse  s,  f. 
Hartbe  of  a  cbymney —  atre  s,  m.;  astre,  brase, 

fvier  s,  m. 
Hartynesse  —  magnanimité  z ,f.; cordialleté  z,(. 
Hartysease  a  floure  —  menve  pensée  s,  f. 
Hartestrynges  —  ueines  de  cuevr,  f. 
Hasarde  a  dyce  playe  —  hasart,  azart  s,  m. 
Harvest  season  —  autumpne,  aaton  s,  m. 
Haselet  of  a  bogge  —  haste  menve  s ,  f. 
Hasell  nulte  —  noysettc  s ,  (. .,  avelayne  s,  f. 
Hasell  tree  —  couldre  s,  m. 
Haste  byeng  —  haste  s,  f. 
Hastynesse  — /irecipifadon  s,  f. ;  chautdc  cote, 

echauf oison  s,  f.;  hastiuité  z,  f. 
Haspe  of  a  dore  —  clichette  s,  {. 
Hatcbe  of  a  sbippe  —  tdiac  z,  m.  ;  tra/tpe  s,  f. 
Hatcbe  of  a  dore  —  hecq  z,  m. 
Hatcbet —  hachette  s,  f. ;  hachet  z,  m. 
Hachette  fora  manof  armes —  hasche  darmes,  f. 
Hatte  —  chapiau  ;r,  m. 
Hatte  maker  —  chapelier  s,  m. 
Hâte  batered  —  hayne  s,  f.  ;  indignation  s,  I. 
Hathe  of  a  sbyppe  —  trappe  s,  f. 
Hatred  —  malavcillance  s,  t. 
HatteroU  —  hascerell. 
Hauberde  a  weapen  —  halberde  s,  f. ;  havlberl 

z,  m. 
Haulbergyn  of  mayle  —  aulbergon  \,  m.;  huul- 

berjon  s,  m. 
Hawe  in  tbe  eye  — paille  s,  f. 
Hautborne  —  espine  blanche  s,  ï. 


230 


Hawethorne  a  bery  —  synnelle 

Hawe  frute  —  sinelle  s,(. 

Hawe  tree  —  espine  blanche  s,  f. 

Halfe  moone —  croissant  de  la  lune  Sj  m. 

Haunte  — fréquentation  s,  f. 

Hauke  merlyon  —  merle  s,  f. 

Haulhorne  —  aulbespin  s,  m,;  espine  blanche  s, 

f.  ;  Ro.  dessoubz  ung  aulbespin  gisant. 
Havyn  — port,  haure  s,  m. 
Hauke  —  ojsiav  de  proye  x,  m. 
Haunchc  of  a  man  or  beest  —  hanche  s,  f. 

H    BEFORE    E. 

Hced  pâte  or  noie  —  caboche  s,  f. 

Heed  of  a  man  or  beest  —  teste  s,  f. 

Heed  of  a  shafte  —  chief  z,  m.  ;yèr  s,  m. 

Heed  from  tbe  sholders  up  —  chief  z,m. 

Heed cburch — maistresse esglise  s, (.■,temple  s,  m. 

Heed  of  garlyke  —  teste  dail  s,f. 

Heed  money  —  truaige  s,{. 

Heed  pece  of  barnesse  —  armet  z,  m.\  cha- 

frayn  s,  m. 
Heedstall  of  a  horse  barnesse  —  testiere  s ,  (. 
Hedge  —  haye,  cep  s,  f. 
Hedgyng  glove  —  moufle  s,(. 
Hedgebogge  a  beest  —  hérisson  s ,m. 
Hedge  sparowe  a  byrde. 
Hedynesse  —  uoluntaireté  z,  f. 
Hepe  of  money  —  bloc  z,ra. 
Hepe  of  any  thyng  —  amas  z ,m. 
Hepe  of  strawe  — paillievr  s,  m. 
He  ratte  —  raton  s,  m. 
Hey  beestes  meate — foyt  >>  "'■ 
Hey  bouse  or  lofte  — garnieraufoyn  s,  m. 
Heygbt  of  any  thyng  —  haaltevr  s,  f.  ;  summité 

z,  i.\ fustige  s,  m. 
Heymaker  — fenevr  s,  m . 
Heymower — fauchevr  de foyn  s,a\. 
Heymowe  —  taj  de  foyn,  m. 
Heytyme  —  temps  defener,  m. 
Heyre  to  a  man  tliat  dyetb  —  hoyr  s,  m. 
Heyre  apparaunt  —  monsieur  s,  m. 
Heeforde  a  yong  cowe  —  génisse  s,  f. 
Healyng  of  a  sore  — guerissement  s,  m. 
Heale  of  body  —  santé  z,  f. 
Heele  of  tbe  fote  — ■  talon  s,  m. 


LESCLARCISSEMENT 

S.{. 


Hell  where  tbe  devyH  is  —  enfer  s,  m. 
Helme  of  a  rotber  of  a  shyppe  —  le  manchcdu 

govuernail  z,  m. 
Helmet  a  heed  pece  —  heaume  s,  m. 
Helpe  —  adjutoire  s,  m.;  coadjutevr  s,  m. 
Helpyng  —  adhérence,  aide  s,(. 
Heltbe  —  santé  z,  f. 
Heltbe  of  body  —  ualitude  s,  f. 
Helve  of  any  tôle  —  manche  s,  m. 
Hemme  of  a  garment — ourllet  z,  m.;  bort  s, 

m.;  lisière  s,  {. 
Hempsede  for  byrdes  —  chavneuys,  m. 
Hempe  —  chamure  s  ,va. 
Hemmyng  or  hemme  of  a  garment  —  oure- 

levre  s,  f. 
Hemlockes  vvedes. 
Henbane  an  herbe. 
Henchman  — paige   dhonnevr  s,  m.;   emfant 

dhonnevr  s,  m. 
Henné  a  foule  —  geline  s,  f. 
Henges  of  a  dore  —  gont  s,  m. 
Heape   a   great    quantité  —  monceau  x,  m.; 

tas,  m. 
Heppe  bery  of  eglantyne  —  grallecul  x,  m.; 

cornille  s,  {, 
Heraulteof  armes  —  herault  x,  m. 
Heer  of  tbe  heed  — ■  cheaevl  x,  m. 
Heeres  of  a  beestes  necke  or  raaane  —  en'n  s,  m. 
Heer  of  a  mannes  body  —  poil  z,  m. 
Heer  cyve  —  sas,  m. 
Herbe  —  herbe  s,  f. 
Herber  —  herbier  s,  m. 

Herberjour  tbat  provydeth   lodgyng  — four- 
rier s,  ta. 
Herbe  royall. 

Herbe  sellar  or  he  that  selleth  herbes. 
Heerbande  a  lace — ruban  s,  m. 
Herboroughe  —  logis,  m, 
Herce  for  a  deed  corse  of  silke  — paille  s,  m. 
Herce  a  deed  body  —  corps ,  m. 
Herde  of  dere  —  troppeau  x,  m, 
Herdell  made  of  wode  — ■  ctaye  s,  f. 
Heerdes  of  hempe  —  tillage  de  chamure  s,  m.: 

estovpes,  f. 
Heerryng  a  fyssbc  —  harcnc  s,  m. 
Hearyng,  the place wherbywe hère — ovye  s,  f. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE. 


231 


Herytage  —  heritauje,  s,  m. 

Herytike  —  heritiqae  s,  va. 

Hermyte  —  lieremite  s,  la. 

Herne  a  foule  —  héron  s,  m, 

Hernyst  man  —  homme  darmes  s,  m. 

Herse  clotlie  —  poilU  s,  ni. 

Hert  a  beest  —  cerf  z,  m. 

Hert  of  any  beest  —  cvear  s,  m. 

Hertestong  an  herbe  —  langue  de  cerf  s,{. 

Hertesease  an  herbe  —  menve  pensée  s ,  {. 

Hertstrynges  —  ueines  de  cvear,  f. 

Herthe  of  a  chymney  —  aire  s,  m, 

Hertynesse  —  cordialleté  z,i. 

Hervest  season  —  aatompne  s,{. 

Heate  —  ardevr  s,{.;  chalevr  s,  t. 

Heatyng  or  chafyng  —  eschajitvre  s,  f. 

Hetchell  for  flaxe  —  serancq,  serant  s,  m. 

Hethe  a  playne  —  lande  s,(. 

Hethe  bussbes  —  hrvyere  s,  f. 

Hethynesse  —  sarazinesme  s,  f. 

Hewer  of  stone  —  taiUevr  de  pierres,  m. 

Hewke  a  gannent  for  a  woman  —  surquayne 
s,  {.^froc  z,m. 

Hewyng  of  a  dere  —  hvee  s,  f. 

Hewar  that  fcttcth  the  wyndelesse  in  huntyng 
—  hveur  s,  va. 

Hevyn  —  ciel,  cicalx,m. 

Hevyncsse  weyght — pesantevr  s,  (. 

Hevynesse  —  tristesse  s,  f.  ;  regret  z,  m.  ;  amer- 
tume s,  f.  ;  contristation  s,  (. 

Hevenlynesse  —  celestialeté  z ,  (. 

H    BEFOBE    Y. 

Hye  place  where  one  maye  se  about  hym  — 

cerne  s ,  m. 
Hyebles  or  herbe  that  groweth  in  the  water  — 

hiebte  s,  va. 
Hydiousnesse  —  hideaseié  z,  f. 
Hyde  a  skynne  —  cordovayn  s,  m. 
Hyding  —  celée  s,  (,\  recelée  s,  (. 
Hyde  courte  —  covr  sovueraigne  s,  (, 
Hye  shyppe  —  caracque  s,  f. 
Hyre  or  wages  —  louage  s,  m.;lovier  s,  m. 
Hyll  a  mountayne  —  montaigne  s,  f. 
Hyll  loppe  —  crespe  or  creste  de  montaigne  s,  f. 
Hyliing  a  coveryng  —  couuerture  s,  f. 


Hylte  of  a  swerde  —  poignée  z,f. 
Hylworte  an  herbe. 

Hyllyngof  an  bouse — cpvaertare  s ,  (.;  leclz,  m. 
Hymmc  that  is  song  in  the  churche  —  hymne 

s.  f. 
Hynde  caulfe  —  bichet  z,  va, 
Hynde  —  hiche  s,  f. 

Hynderparte  of  the  necke  —  caygnon  s,  m. 
Hynderparteof  theheed — fossette  de  la  teste  s,  (. 
Hynderparte  of  the  jawes  —  caignon  s,  m. 
Hynderparte  of  a  saddell  —  arcon  s,  m. 
Hynderwarde  —  garde  de  derrière  s,  f. 
Hynderparte  of  the  shyppe  —  prore  s,  f. 
Hynderaunce  —  obstacle  s,  m.  ;  perte  s,  f.  ;  disu- 

uantaige  s,vn.\  détriment  s,  m. 
Hynesse  —  sublimité  z,  f  ;  haultesse  s,  {. 
Hyppe  of  a  beest  —  hanche  s,  f. 
Hyppe  the  reed  bery  of  a  brere — grattecnl  x,  m . 
Hyrchen  a  beest —  hérissons,  m. 
Hyrdell  —  claye  s,  f. 
Hyssing  of  a  serpente  —  ciflevre  s,  f. 
Hyve  for  bées  —  ruche  s,  f. 

H    BEFOHE   0. 

Hobgobtyng  —  goblin  s,  m.  ;  mavffe  s,  f. 

Hobby  a  horse  of  Irelande —  hobyn  s,  m. 

Hobby  a  hauke  —  kobreau  x,  m. 

Hocke  —  crocq  z,  va. 

Hode  or  cappe  — •  chaperon  s,  m. 

Hode  maker  — faiseur  de  chaperons  s,  ni. 

Hofe  of  a  beestes  fote  —  corne  s,  f. 

Hogge  —  porc,  pourceau  x,  m. 

Hoggerell  a  yong  shepe. 

Hogges  troughe  —  auge  à  pourceaux  s,  f. 

Hoggesheed  a  vesseil  for  wyne  —  demy  mvy  s, 

va.  ;  poynson  s,  va. 
Hoke  to  catche  fysshe  with  —  hamasson  s,  m. 
Hoke  for  a  womans  gowne  —  o.graffe  s,  f. 
Hoke  of  wode  great  or  lyteil  —  croq  z,  m. 
Hokednesse  — crochuseli  z,  f. 
Holdeaplaceof  fence — pourprises,  f.  ifort  s,  m. 
Holdyng  of  ones  peace  —  silence  s,  va. 
Holdyng  in  remembraunce  —  retenance  a,  f. 
Holdyng  — •  rétention  s,f. 
Holefoted  beest  —  beste  a  pie  entier  s,  f. 
Hole  io  any  thyng  —  trou  s,  m.;  pertuis,  m. 


232 


LESCLARCISSEMENT 


Holcnesse  —  integrilé  z,  L;  entiereté  z,  f. 

Holy  goost  —  sainct  espirit  z,  m. 

Hoie  that  swete  or  heres  cometh  out  at  —  pore 

s,  m. 
Holy  scripture  —  diuinité  z ,{. 
Holly  Ire  —  hous  s,  ni. 
Holynesse  —  sainclelé  z,  f. 
Hoiyhocke  wylde  malowes. 
Holowe  spcre  —  hovrdon  s,  m. 
Holownesse  of  the  fote  —  plmxte  du  pie  s,  f. 
Holownesse  of  the  handc  —  parfont  de  la  mayn 

'  5,  m. 
Holownesse  of  any  tliyng  —  creuseté,  conca- 

ttité  z,  f. 
Holy  water  sprincle  —  aspergoyr  s ,  m.\  uespU- 

lon  s,  m. 
Holythursday  —  le  jour  de  lassenlion  s,  m. 
Holsomnesse  —  aménité  z,  f.  ;  sancié  z,  (. 
Holtc  a  iylell  woodc  — petit  boys  s,  m. 
Honest  ni  an  —  honune  de  bien  s,  m. 

Honestye  —  honnestelé  z,  f. 

Hongrynesse  — /«/"  s>  f-  ;  appétit  a  manger. 

Homelynesse  —  priuaallc  z,  f. 

Homage  —  hommaiye  s,  m. 

Honest  deaiyag  —  preudliommie  s,  f. 

Hony  —  miel  z,  va. 

Honny  combe  —  marcq  z ,  ni. 

Honnysuckell —  luit  ISostre  Dame  z,  m. 

Honour  —  honnevr  s,  m. 

Honouryng  —  ueneration  s,  f.  ;  reueration  s,  f. 

Hole —  trov  X,  m.; perlais,  m. 

Hole  where  the  meate  gothe  downe  —  gavion 
s,  m. 

Hore  maister  —  pailliardiau,  putaynier  x,  m. 

Hoppe  upon  my  thombe — fretillon  s,  m. 

Hotchepolte  —  tripotaigc  s,  m. 

Hoppes  for  beere  —  houblon  s,  m. 

Hope  trust  —  espoir  s,  m.;  espérance  s ,  f. 

Hope  the  verlue  —  espérance  s,  f. 

Hopper  of  a  myll  —  tremye  s,  f. 

Hore  coppc. 

Horde  or  heape  —  monceau  x,  m. 

Horehounde  herbe  —  langue  de  chien  s,  C 

Hore  a  drabbe  —  putayn  s,  (. 

Hotenesse —  chakvr  s,  f. 

Hôte  house  —  esleiues,  estvuier  s,  f. 


Home  to  blowc  with  —  cor  s,  m.;  cornet  z,  m.; 

trompe  s,  f. 
Horne  to  hunte  with  —  cor  s,  m. 
Horne  —  cor  s,  m.;  corne  s,  f. 
Horner  a  maker  of  bornes  —  cometlier  s,  m. 
Horneresse  a  woman  —  comettiere  s,  f. 
Horon  a  herbe. 

Hornkecke  a  fysshe  lyke  a  mackerell. 
Homes.  < 

Hornet  a  Ilye. 

Horryblenessc  —  horribleté  z ,  f. 
Horrure  — abhominaiion  s,  f.;  hideur  s,  f. ;  hor- 

revr  s,  f . 
Horse  in  Gascoync  speche  —  ivucyn  s,  m. 
Horse  a  beest  —  cheual  x,  va. 
Horse  coller  —  licol  z,  m. 
Horse  combe —  estrille  s,  f. 
Horse  bredde  —  pain  a  cheual  s,  m. 
Horse  barncsse  —  liarnoys  a  cheual,  m. 
Horse  grasse  an  herbe. 
Horse  kepar  —  paljronier  s,  m. 
Horse  plome  frute  — jorroise  s,  f. 
Horse  myll  —  movlin  a  cheual  s,  m. 
Horskepar  or  ladde  of  the  stable  —  houspail- 

lier  s,  m. 
Horsemynt  an  herbe  —  calamente  s,  f. 
Horse  shoo  — fer  de  cheual  s,  nt. 
Horse  lytter  —  Ictiere  aux  chcuavlx  s,  (. 
Horse  tayle  —  queve  de  cheual  s,  f. 
Horse  flesshe  colour. 
Horse  clothe  —  covuerture  a  cheual  s,  f.;  conuer- 

toir  s,  m. 
Horse  lèche ,  a  worme  —  sansae  s,  f . 
Horse  tamer —  domplevrde  cheaavlx  s,  m. 
Horse  trapper  —  hovsse  s,  f. 
Hoorsnesse  of  tbe  throte  —  enrovevre  s,  f. 
Hoorse  in  Gascoyne  speche —  roucyn  s,  m. 
Host  of  men  —  armée  s,  (. 
Hoslager  one  that  is  pledgc  for  another  —  hos- 

tagier  s,  m. 
Hostler  in  an  inné  —  hostelier  s,  m. 
Hose  for  ones  legges  —  chavsse  s,  f. 
Hosyer  that  maketh  hosen  —  chausettier  s,  m. 
Hosyn  and  sliossys  —  chaussure  s,  (. 
Hospytall  —  hospilal  x,  m. 
Hostry  or  inné  —  hostel  z,  m. 


DE  LA  LANGUE 

Hostryge  a  foule  — avstrache  s,  f. 
Hondreth  —  cent  s,  m.  ;  centaine  s,  f. 
Houlyng  o(dogges— hurlements,  m.;  ulalation  s,  f. 
Houle  a  byrde  —  chathaan  s,  m. 
House  —  maison  s,  f.;  domicile,  hostel  z,  m. 
Houseleke  a  herbe  — jombarde  s,  f. 
House  that  a  mau  boldeth  —  tenement  s,  m. 
HousholdestuiTe  —  mevbles,  m. 
Housholder  —  mesnagicr  s ,  m. 
Housbolde  folke  —  maynie  z,  (. 
Housholde  a  kynred  — famille  s,  f. 
House  evsyDg  —  les  ugovttys. 
House  of  easment  —  lasse  chambre  s,  (. 
Hove  tbat  a  chylde  is  borne  in  —  taye  s,  f. 
Housetoppe  or  treetoppe  —  coypeau  de  la  mai- 
son X,  m. 
Housedovc —  coulomb  s ,m. 
Houre  tyme  —  hevre  s,  f. 
Hotcbcpotte  of  many  meates  —  haricot  z ,  m. 
Houade  —  chien  s,  m. 
Houpe  a  great  ryng  —  signet  z,ta. 
Houpe  for  any  vessell  —  cerceau  x,  m. 
Houpc  of  a  beestes  fote  —  corne  s,  f. 

H    BEFORE    U. 

Hucster  a  man  — quocquetier  s,  m. 

Hucster  a  woinan  —  quocquetiere  s,  f. 

Huke  —  surquanie  s,  (.;froc  z,  m. 

Hulke  a  shyppe — hevrcque  s,  f. 

Hull  or  barckc  of  a  tree  —  escorce  s,  f. 

Hull  of  a  beane  or  pesé  —  escosse  s,  f. 

Humblebee  —  bovrdon  s,  m. 

Humylite  mekenesse  —  humilité  z,  f. 

Humour  moystnesse  —  hvmeur  s,  f. 

Hungre  — fain , famine  s,  f. 

Hunter — braconnier  (Ro.)  chassevr,  uenevrs,  m. 

Hurle  or  tbrowe  witb  a  stone  —  coup  de  pierre 

s,  m. 
Hurte  —  détriment  s,  m.;  blessvre  s ,  {. 
Hurt  wronge  —  préjudice  s,  m. 
Hnsbaademan  — lobourevr  de   uilage   s,  ni.; 

agricole ,  puisant  z,  m. 
Husbande  a  thrivyng  man—  mesnagier  s,  m. 
Husbande  that  hath  wedded  a  wyfe  —  mary 

s,  m. 
Husbandes  brotber — yrere  de  mon  mary  s,  m. 


FRANCOYSE.  233 

Husbandrie  — mesnagerie  s ,  f,  ;  labouraige  s,  m.; 

agriculture  s,  f. 
Husbandes  house  in  the  countre  or  maner  place 

—  metayrie  s,  f. 
Hussber  of  a  scole  —  clerc  s,  m. 
Huske  of  frute  —  escosse  s,  f.  ;  escaille  s,  f. 
Husse  a  fysshe  —  rousette  s,  f. 
Huswyfe  —  mesnagiere  s,  f. 
Huswyferie  —  mesnagerie  z,f. 
Hutcbe  a  chest  —  cofre  s,  m.  ;  huche  s,  f. 

I    BEFORE    A. 

lade  a  dull  borse  —  galier  s,  m. 

lacynct  a  preeious  stone — jacincte  s,  f. 

lagge  a  cuttyng —  chicqueture  s,  f. 

laggednesse  —  chicqueture  s,  f. 

laye  a  byrde  —jay  s,  m. 

layle  a  common  prisone  —  geolle  s,  f. 

lacke  or  whitte  nicquel,  as  I  wyll  nat  gyve  you 

a  whyt  — je  ne  nous  donneray  pas  ung  nie- 

qaet  z ,  m. 
lackct  —  saion  s,  m. 
lacket  without  sleves  —  hocqueton  s,  m. 
lacket  tbat  bath  but  four  quarters — jacquetle  s,  C. 
lacke  barnesse — jacq ,  jacqae  z,  m. 
langler  —  hubillart  s,  m.  ;  janglevr  s,  m. 
langlyng  or  cbattyng  — jonglerie  s,  f. 
January  a  moneth  — januiers,  m. 
Jape  a  trifyll  —  truffe  s,  f. 
Jaquecure  a  kynde  of  money — jaquecvevr  s,  m. 
Jarfaucon  a  bauke  —  gerfault  x,  m. 
lasper  a  preeious  stone  — jaspre  s,  f. 
lavelyn  a  speare — jauelot  z,  m. 
laundyce  a  sickenesse  — jaunice  s,  f. 

I    BEFORB    C. 


Ice  —  glace  s,  f. 

Itcbe  —  demangevre  s,  f. 


I   BEFOnE   D. 

Ideot  a  foie  —  sot  z,m.;fol  z ,  m. 
Idolater  —  idolastre  s,  m. 

I    BEFORE    E. 

ley  to  se  witb  —  oeil,  yeulx,  m. 
lelousy — zelotipie  ,  jalousie  s,  f. 

3o 


234 

lern  mongar — ferron  s,  m. 
lelnesse  —  oysiveté  z,  {. 
leytothe  —  dent  c^lUere  s,  f. 
leraper  tree  —  geneure  s,  m. 
lesses  for  a  bauke  —  get  z,  m. 
letler  a  facer  — facer,  braggart  z,  m. 
lettar  of  nyght  season  —  brigvevr  s,  m. 
lewe  wode  to  luake  bowes  —  fyf^>  ■"• 
lewell  — joyaa  x,  m. 

I   BEPORE    M. 

Image  —  image  s,  f. 

Image  a  broche  —  devise  s,  f.;  broche  s,  f. 
Image  maker  — faisevr  dymages  s,  m. 
Imagination  —  imagination  s,  f. 
Imbres  bote  assbes  —  brajse  s,  f. 
Imme  tbat  is  songe  —  hymne  s,  f. 
Impacyence  angre  —  impatience  s,  f. 
Impe  a  yonge  springe. 
Impe  or  grasse — pasturage  s,  m. 
Impostume  in  ones  body  —  apostume  s,  f. 
Impotentnesse  for  âge  —  decrcpitcment  s,  m. 
Impressyng  or  printyng  of  a  boke  —  impres- 
sion s,  f. 
Imprisonment  —  carceration  s,  1'. 
Impreparyng — impréparation,  enchartrure  s,ni. 

I  BEFOBE  N. 


Inné  or  hostrye  —  hostellerie  z,  f. 
Incarnation  —  incarnation  s,  f. 
Incbantre  or  witche  —  enchanteur  s,  m. 
Incbantment  or  cbarme — charme  s,  m.;  enchan- 
tement s,  m. 
Inche  measure  —  poulces,  f. 
Inclynation  —  inclinemeni  s,  m. 
Inconvenyenl  —  accident  s,  m. 
Inclynation  to  vyce  —  lascheté  z,  f. 
Inconstancy  unstedfastnesse  —  inconstance  s,  f. 
Increase  —  croissement  s,  m. 
Increasyng  —  augmentation  s,  f. 
Indenture  —  unes  indentures,  f 
Inder  chambre  —  garderobe  s,  f.  ;  conclave  s,  f. 
Inderwarde  of  a  castell  —  cengle  de  chastel  s,  m. 
Indygnation  disdaynyng  —  indignation  s,  f. 
Influence  —  influence  s,  f. 
Influence  of  the  starres  —  constellation  s,  f. 


LESCLARCISSEMENT 

Infelycite  nnhappynesse  —  infelicilé  z,  f. 

Infydele  nat  christened  —  payn  s,  m. 

Iniquité  —  iniquité  z,  f. 

Injury  wrong  —  injvre  s,  f. 

Inferyour  outher  in  place  or  dignyte  —  inje- 
rievr  s,  m. 

Inke  to  Write  with  —  encre  s,  f. 

Ingratitude,  unkyndnesse  —  engratie  s,  f. 

Inke  borne  —  cornet  a  encre  z,  m. 

Inné  to  lodge  gestes  in  — giste  s,  m.;  hostelle- 
rie s,  f. 

Innocency  —  innocence  s,  f. 

Inquyring  —  enquisition  s,  f. 

Inquyetnesse  of  mynde  —  inqvùetude  s,  f. 

Insigbt  —  regart  s,  ni. 

Inspyration  —  inspiration  s,  f. 

Instaunt  —  movuement  s,  m. 

Instaunce  —  instance  s,  f. 

Insteppe  of  tbe  fote — col  du  pie  z,m.;  le  des- 
sus du  pie  s,  m. 

Instructyon  —  instruction  s,  f. 

Instrument  —  instrument  s,  m . 

Instrument  for  cordwayners  —  alesne. 

Instrument  of  musyke  —  instrument  de  musique 
s,(. 

Instrument  to  dygge  vynes  or  safron  —  hove  s,  f. 

Instrument  of  any  handy  crafte  —  ovtil  z,  m. 

Intent  —  entent,  entention,  prétexte. 

Intylulyng  —  inlitulation  s,  t. 

Interchaungyng —  commutation  s,  f. 

Interditement  —  inierdissement  s,  m. 

Intisyng —  suasion  s,  f. 

Interlude  —  moralité  z,  f. 

Interprétation  —  interprétations,  l'. 

Intertayning  —  entretenement  s ,  m. 

Intreatyng  —  attrait,  traicte  s,  f. 

Inundation  of  waters  —  undee  s,  f. 

Inventyon  —  inuention  s,  f. 

Invysiblenesse  —  inuisibleté  z,  f. 

Inwarde  parte  of  the  thighe— moJde/a  cuisse  s,  in. 


I   BEPORE   O. 

logelyng  caste  —  passe  passe  s,  f. 
logelour  —  batellevr  s,  m. 
loye  — joje  z ,  f. 
loyners  worke  —  menvserie  s,  f. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE. 


235 


loynyng  of  two  joyntes  toguyder  —  joinclure 

s.{. 
loyning  of  bordes  —  joincture  s,  {. 
loynar  a  craftesman  —  menvisier  s,  m. 
Joynt  — joyncl  s,  m. 
Jolynesse  — joliueté  z,  f. 
Johan  a  proper  name  —  Jehan. 
Jolie  of  a  fysshe  —  teste  s,  f. 
lonkette  —  banquet  z,  va. 
lourney  —  aoyage  s,  m.  ;  jornee  s,  (. 
lowell  — joyau  oc,  m. 
lowell  house. 
louroay — journée  s,  f. 
louse  of  an  herbe  — jus,  m. 

I   BEFORE   R. 

Irchen  a  lyttel  beest  fuH   of  prickes  —  héris- 
son s,  m. 
Ire  — yre  s,  f.  ;  maltalent  s,  m. 
Irkesomnesse  —  attediation  s,  f. ;  ennvy  s,  m.; 

fascherie  s,  f.;  envyevselé  z,  f. 
Irons  for  prisoners — fers,  m. 
Iron  — jer  s,  m. 
Ironruste  — ferrvge  s,  f. 
Iron  mongar  — ferron  s,  m. 

I   BEFORE  S. 

Isope  an  berbe  —  ysope  s,  f. 

Isoppe. 

Issue  or  stocke  —  issue  s,  f. 

1    BEFORE   T. 

Itchyng  —  cvisement  s,  m. 
Itcbe  —  demangevre  s,  f. 

J    BEFORE   U. 

Jue  a  man  of  jurye  — jvif  z,  va. 

Juellar  —  lapidaire  s,  m. 

Jugement — arbitrage  s,  ta.;  jviUcation  s,  f. 

Judycature — jugement  s ,  m.  ;  sentence  s,  f. 

Judge— jnge,  arbitratevr  s ,  va.  ;  arbitre   s,  m.; 

justicier  s,  va. 
Judge  of  a  towne  —  escheum  s,  vn. 
Jvery  bone  — yaoyre  s,  va. 
Jvy  tree  —  hierre  s,  va. 
Jvy  berry  —  gfiyne  de  hierre  s,(. 


July  a  moneth — juillet  z,  m. 

Junket  or  banket  —  bancquet  z,  vn. 

June  a  moneth  — Joinj  z,  va. 

Junyper  tree — jenneure  s,  va. 

Jurisdyction  of  a  lorde  —  seignevnage  s,  m. 

Jurisdyction  ofa  privost  —  priuosté  z,  f. 

Jurnall  a  boke — journal  x,m. 

Juse  of  grapes  or  any  herbes  — jas,  m. 

Justar  with  speares — joustevr  s,  va. 

Justyce  right  — justice  s,  {. 

Justyce  of  peace  or  quorum,  they  bave  no  suche 

oflycers. 
Justyng —  toumoy  s,  ni.;jovste  s,f. 
Justynghorse  —  cheual  de  jovste  x,  m. 

K    BEPOBE   A. 

Kace  to  put  a  thyng  in  —  estuy  z,  m. 

Kake  —  gasteau  x,  va. 

Kalstocke  — pie  de  chov  z,  m. 

Kall  for  a  mayde  —  retz  de  soye  z,î. 

Kalendre  —  calendrier  s,  va. 

Kancre  a  sore  incurable  —  chxuicre  s  ,va. 

Karvcrafore  a  prince  —  escvler  trenchani  s,  m. 

Karver  a  craftesman  —  menvisier  s,  va. 

Karvyng  knyfe  —  covteau  de  escvier  x,  ni. 

Katcbyng  ofany  thyng  —  prinse  s,  f. 

Katte  a  beest  —  chat  z,m. 

Katterwayng  —  larre  de  chatz  s,  va. 

K   BEFORE    E. 

Keckes  of bumblockes  —  tviav  x,va. 

Key  —  clef  z,  f. 

Key  to  kny tte  walles  toguyder  —  clef  z,  (. 

Kell  in  a  womans  belly  —  taye  s,  f. 

Kelyng  a  fysshe  —  aunon  s,  va. 

Kempe  eele. 

Kerapsler  —  linihre  s,  (. 

Kennell  for  houndes  —  loge  a  chiens  s,  f. 

Kenesse  sharpnesse  —  aspreté  z,f. 

Kenet  coloure  —  cendré  s ,  m. 

Kepar  of  a  kynges  or  a  great  lordes  place  — 

consierge  s,  va. 
Kepar  ofany  other  place  —  gardian  s,  ai. 
Kepar  of  the  farmary  —  enfermier  s,  m. 
Kepar  of  a  castell  —  chastelayn  s,  va. 
Kepar  of  a  close  —  closier  s,  m. 

3o. 


236 


LESCLARCISSEMENT 


Kepar  of  a  place  —  concierge  s,  m. 

Kepar  of  a  prison  or  lordes  place  —  consierge 

s,  m. 
Kepyng  —  obseruation  s ,  f. 
Kepyng  of  bousLolde  —  hospitalité  z ,  f. 
Kerchefe  —  cvevurcchief  s,  m. 
Kersay  —  cresey  s,  m. 
Kettyli  a  vessell  —  chaaderon  s,  m. 
Ketwyng,  bringyng  forthe  of  yonge  cattes  — 

chattement  s,  m. 

K    BEFOHE    I.   * 

Kybe  on  ihe  hele  —  mufe  s,  (. 

Kicben  —  cvisine  s,  (. 

Kicke  of  an  horse  —  ruade  s,  f. 

Kickes  the  drie  stalke  of  humlockes  or  burres — 
tvyav  X,  m. 

Kydde  a  beest  —  chevereau  x,  m. 

Kydde  a  fagotte  — fahvrde  s,  f. 

Kydney  of  a  beest  —  roignon  s,  m. 

Kigbt  a  foule  —  escovjle  s,  m.;  milan  s,  m. 

Kylderken  a  vessell  —  cacque  s,  f. 

Kyll  for  malte. 

Kyllhouse. 

Kyllyng  of  men  —  mevrtre  s,  m.;  occision  s,  f. 

Kyranell  —  quevue  s,  f. ;  quevaetle  s,  f. 

Kynde  entreatyng  —  acveil  z,  m. 

Kynde  —  lingnee  s,  f.^sexe  s,  m. 

Kynde  of  any  beest  —  genre  s,  m. 

Kyndelyng  of  fyre  —  embrasure. 

Kynred  —  lignaige,  progéniture. 

Kynde  of  daunce  —  bargeret. 

Kyng  —  roy  s,  m. 

Kyng  of  armes  —  roy  de  armes. 

Kyndenesse  —  debonnaireté  z ,{. 

Kyngdome  —  roialme  s,  m.;  règne  s,  m. 

Kynges  yvell  —  escrovelles,  f. 

Kynges  bouse  —  hostcl  du  roy  z ,  m. 

Kynred  or  an  ofspring  —  parenté,  consangui- 
nité Zj  f.  ;  parage  s,  m. 

Kynsfolkcs  —  parens ,  m. 

Kynswoman  —  ajjlne,  parente  s,  f. 

Kynsman — parent  s,m.;ajjin  s,  m. 

Kynsman  or  countreman. 

Kyppe  of  iambe  a  furre. 

Kyrneil  of  a  grene  walnut  —  cemeav  x,  m. 


Kyrnell  of  any  frute  —  noyav  x,  m.  ;  pépin  i, 

m.;  le  bon  s,  m. 
Kyrnell  or  knobbe  in  the  necke  or  otberwbere 

—  glandre  s,  {. 
Kyrleil  a  garment — corpset,  sarcot  s,  m.;  cotelle 

s.  f. 
Kysse  —  bayser  s,  m. 
Kysse  tbat  a  wonian  gyveth  of  her  sekyng  — 

Jrancbaisier  s,  m. 
Kytcliyn  —  cvisine  s,  f. 
Kytlyng  —  chatlon  s,vn. 
Kike  —  ttiiau  x,  m. 

K   BEFORE    N. 

Knacke  or  toye  — friuolle  s,  f. 

Knave  —  quocqain  s,  m.  ;  aillain  s,  m. 

Knavysshenesse  —  uillaynie  s,  {. 

Kne  —  genovil,  genovLc,  m. 

Kne  bone  or  pan  —  lapallette  de  genovil  s,  f. 

Knedyng  trougbe  —  avge  a  pétrir  s,  f.  ;  pannet- 

liere  s,  f. 
Knelyng  —  genvjlection  s,  f. 
Knyfe  —  covsteau  x,  m.;  covstel  Ro.  z,m. 
Knigbt  of  the  order  of  saynt  Michaell. 
Knyght  of  advenlures  —  cheualier  errant  s,  m. 
Knyght  bacheler  —  cheualier  s,  m. 
Knyght  banneret. 

Knyght  in  a  just  or  tumey  —  défendeur  s,  m. 
Knyghthode  —  cheualerie  z,  f. 
Knyttar  of  cappes — covsturiere  de  bonetz  s,  f.  ; 

lasseresse  s,  (. 
Knyttyng  toguyder  — joinctare  s,  f. 
Knobbe  in  a  staffe  —  ne»  x,  m. 
Knobbe  or  rysing  after  a  stroke  —  bigne  s,  f. 
Knoccle  bone  — joincte  de  la  hanche  s,  f. 
Knoccle  of  a  fynger  —  noynce,  joincte  s,  f. 
Knoppe  of  a  cuppe  —  pomeaa  de  coueAeque 

x,  m. 
Knoppe  of  a  payre  of  beedes  —  hovppe  s,  f. 
Knoppe  wede  an  herbe. 
Knotin  wollen  clothe  — povtee  s,  f. 
Knotte  —  nev,entrenev  x,m. 
Knower  —  cognoissevr  s,  m. 
Knowledge — cognoissance  s,  f.;  recognoissance , 

scavance  s,  f. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE. 


237 


K    BEFORE    O. 

Koo  a  byrde, 

Kockeafryce  sarpcnt —  coquatris,  m. 
Kocke  a  foule  —  coq  z,  w. 
Kockerell  —  cachet  s,  m. 
Kockescombe  —  creste  de  coq  s,  f. 
Kockebote  for  a  shyppe  —  cocquet  z,  m. 

L   BEFOnE   A. 

Lake  a  standyng  waler — lac  z,m. 

Labell  —  horppe  s,  f. 

Laboure  —  labevr  s,  m.;  trauail  x,  va. 

Labourer  —  labovrevr  s,  m. 

Labourer  of  vynes  —  uitjneron  s,  m. 

Labouryng  of  the  erthe  —  cttltiuevre  s,  f. 

Labourousnesse  —  laboriosité  z,  f. 

Lace  —  lacet  z,  m. 

Lachet  of  a  sbo  —  courroye  z,  f. 

Lâche  or  snecke  of  a  dore  —  locqvet  z ,  m. 

Ladde  a  boye  —  garson  s,  m. 

Ladder  —  eschiel ,  eschelle  s,  f. 

Laddes  of  the  stable  —  hoispalUer  s ,  m. 

Lady  —  dame  s,{. 

Ladydaye  in  marche  —  la  nostredame  en  mars. 

Lady  maystres  —  dame  dkonnevr  s,  f.  ;  govuer- 

nante  s,  f. 
Lady  of  présence  —  damoiselle  dhonneur  s,  f. 
Lady  that  maryeth  nal  agayne  —  dame  dovai- 

glere  s,  f. 
Ladell  —  cvillier  s,  va. 
Laylande  —  terre  novacllement  labovree  s,  f. 
Layman  —  homme  maryé  s,  m. 
Lake  a  waunte  — favhe  s,  f. 
Lake  a  dyche  —  estang  z,m. 
Lambe  a  beest  —  agneav  x,  m. 
Lamenessc  —  mehajgneté  z,  f. 
Lamentyng — regret  z,  m. 
Lamentatyon  —  lamentation  s,  (. 
Lammas  a  feest  —  la  sainct  Pierre  aux  liens,  f. 
Lamprey  a  fysshe  —  lamproye  s,  f. 
Lancet  an  instrument  —  lancette  s,  f. 
Lansknygbt  —  lancequenct  s,  m, 
Lane  narowe  stretc  —  rvelle  s,  f. 
Lande  a  counlre  —  contrée  z,  f. ;  lande  s,  f. 
Landelorde  —  renlyer  s,  m. 
Lande  —  terres,  f. 


Language  —  lanrjage  s ,  m. 

Langdebefe  an  herbe  —  langue  de  bevf  s,  f. 

Lanarde  a  hauke  —  lanier  s,  m. 

Lanyer  of  iether  —  lashiere  s,{. 

Lanterne  —  lanterne  s,  f. 

Lappe  or  skyrt  —  gyron  s,  m. 

Lapwynke  a  foule  —  hvppe  s  ,  f. 

Larde  fatte  bacon  —  lart,  lard  z,  m. 

Larderhouse  —  lardier  s,  m, 

Largegrounde  —  covrtîl  z,  m. 

Largenesse  —  spaciosité,  amplitude  s,  f;  lar- 

gevr  s,  f.  ;  largesse  s,  f 
Layre  of  a  grouude  —  terroy  s,  m. 
Larke  a  byrde  —  alouette  s ,  {. 
Larme  in  a  felde  —  alarme  s,  f. 
Lasarhouse  —  lasdriere  s,  f. 
Lasar  a  sickeman  —  lasdre  s,  m. 
Lasshe  a  stroke  —  covp  de  Jouet  z ,  m. 
Lasshnesse — laschelé  z,{. 
Laske  a  disease  — jluxde  uentre,  m. 
Lase  or  bande  —  lalz,  m. 
Laste  fora  shoo  — fovrme  s,î. 
Laste  of  fysshe  xii  barelles  —  lay  z,  f. 
Latche  of  a   dore  —  cUcquette  s,  f.  ;  locqaet 

z,  m. 
Latheofwoode  —  latte  s,  f 
Lathe  maker  — faiseur  de  lattes  s,  m. 
Laie. 

Latyn  m  étal  I  —  laion  s,  m. 
Lattes  fora  Avindovve  —  châssis,  trelis,  va. 
Lalermathc. 
Latyn — latin  s,  m. 
Laude  a  prayse  —  laude  s,  t. 
Lavell  tbat  standetli  in  the  myddes  of  the  throt  e 

—  alovette  s,  f. 
Lawe  —  loy  s,  f. 

Laweof  armes  —  droict  darmes  z,  ni. 
Lawe  of  nature  —  droict  de  nature  z,  m. 
Lavendre  an  herbe  —  lauende  s,  f. 
Lavendre  of  Spaygnc  — cipres,  m. 
Lavendre  cottcn  —  cipres,  m. 
Laundre  a  wassher  —  laaendiere  s,  f. 
Laver  to  wasshe  at —  lauoyr  s,  m. 
Laufulnesse  —  licitité,  loysibleté  s,  f. 
Laughyngto  scorne  —  irrision  s,  f. 
Laughter  —  rys,m.;  risée  s,  f. 


'M 


238 


LESCLARCISSEMENT 


Lawyer  that  occupyeth  the  lawe  —  homme  de 

loy  s,  m.  ;  homme  de  robe  longue  s,  m. 
Laumpe  —  lampe  s,  f. 
Laumprey  a  fysshe  —  lamproye  s,  (. 
Laumpron  a  iyttell  fysshe  —  lamprion  s,  m. 
Launce  gay — jaueleyne  s,  f. 
Launcet  to  let  blode  with  —  lancette  s,  {. 
Laundre  thaï   wassheth   ciolhes  —  laaendiere 

s,   f. 
Launde  a  playne  —  lande  s,  (. 
Lauoe  iyne.n  —  crespe  s,  m. 
Laurell  tree  —  lavrier  s,  m. 
Launterne  —  lanterne  s,  f. 
Lavour  to  wasshe  —  laaevr  s,  m. 
Laurell  an  herbe. 
Laxe  —  clistere  s,  ni. 

L    BEFORE    £. 

Lebarde  a  beest  —  leopart  s,  m. 

Lèche  a  surgion  —  servrgien  s,  m. 

Lechery  —  lecherie,  luxure  s,  f. 

Lecke  worme  —  sanijsve  s,  1. 

Lèche  made  of  flesshe  —  gelée  z ,{. 

Lectuary  a  uiedicyne  —  elecluaire  s,  m. 

Lectuary  —  lectuaire  s,  m. 

Lecterne  to  syng  at  —  levtrajn  s,  ni. 

Ledge  of  a  dore  —  barre  s,  (. 

Ledge  of  ashelfe  —  «/)"/»  estaye  s,  m. 

Leed  a  metall  — plomb  s,  m. 

Leadyng  —  amenement  s,  m. 

Leeder  of  a  daunce  —  aaant  dancevr  s,  m. 

Leader  or  guyder  —  condactevr  s,  m. 

Leeden  mail  —  malliet  a  plomb  z,  m. 

Lefetenant  —  lievtenant  s,  m. 

Lees  pasture  —  clos  de  hays,  va. 

Leafe  of  a  tree  or  herbe  —  foeille  s,  (. 

Leafe  of  a  boke  — foeiUel  z,  m. 

Leafe  of  paper  — foeille  de  papier  s,  f. 

Lefenesse  —  cheretè  z,  (. 

Leûe  hande  —  mayn  gavche  i ,  f.  ;  mayn   sc- 

nestre. 
Lefe  or  yvell. 

Leftnesse  —  gavcheté  z,  {. 
Lefulnesse  —  leciteté,  loissebleté  z,  t. 
Lcgalion  a  message  —  légation  s,  t. 
Legge  — jambe  s,{. 


Legge  harnesse  —  greues,  f 

Légale  —  légat  z,  m. 

Legge  fro  the  kne  lo  ihe  foie. 

Legelorde  —  souerayn  liège  s,  m. 

Leage  two  myle  —  lieve  s,  L 

Légende  —  légende  s,  f. 

Légion  —  légion  s,  (. 

Leyser —  loisir  5,  m.;  uacation  s,  f. 

Leyoe. 

Leaning  to  — adhésion  Sj(. 

Leke  an  herbe  —  porreav  x,  m. 

Lembyke  for  a  slyllatorie  —  lembic  z,  f. 

Lemman  —  concubine  s,  f.  ;  amovreuse  s,  f 

Lenenessc  —  maigreté,  maigresse  s,  f. 

Lenenesse  of  mannes  body  —  maigrise  s,  (. 

Length  of  aman — longuevr  s,  f.  ;  estant  s,  ai. 

Lenglh  of  any  Ihyng  —  longevr  s ,  (. 

Lenarde  a  byrde  —  linette  s,  f 

Leanyng  place  —  apvy  s,  m. 

Leanyng  stoke  —  appuial  x,  m. 

Lent  a  holy  tymc  —  quaresme  s,  m. 

Leoparde  a  beest  —  leopart  s,  m. 

Leye  to  take  fysshe  —  nasse  a  prendre  poyson 

s,{. 
Lepe  or  starte  —  savlt  z,  m.;  course  s,  f. 
Lepe  a  skyppe  —  sault  z,  m. 
Lepeyere  —  bisexie  s,  f. 
Lepar  a  sickeman  —  lasdre  s,  m. 
Lèpre  the  sickenesse  —  lasdrerie  z,  f. 
Lepe  or  a  basket  —  corbeille  s,  f. 
Lernyng  or  correctyon  —  discipline  s,{. 
Lernyng  erudytion  —  ensignement,  Utleralure. 
Leske  by  the  belly  —  ayne  s,  f 
Leasshc  for  a  greyhounde — lesse  s,  f. ;  lais,  m. 
Lesson  —  leçon  s,  f. 
Leiany  prayer  —  letanye  z ,  i. 
Let  or  leltyng  —  empeschement  s,  m.;  obstacle 

s,  m. 
Letter  —  lettre  s,  t.;  escripture  s,  f. 
Lettre  of  raarke  —  lettre  de  martfue  s,  C 
Leltar  or  hyndrer  —  empescheir  s,  m. 
Letters  patentes  —  lettres  patentes,  f. 
Lethcr  —  cvir  s,  m. 
Lelher  hungrye  —  cvir  bovlly  s,  m. 
Lethcr  dyer  —  taincturier  de  cvir  s,  m. 
Leltes  an  herbe  —  leclus,  f 


V. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE. 


239 


Lettyce  a  furre  —  letice  s,  f. 

Letters  of  credence  —  lettres  de  créance ,  f. 

Lettyng  of  blode  —  seignee  s,  f. 

Lettyng  of  any  thyng  —  obhumbration  s,  f. 

Leude  trere  —  bovrdican  s,  m. 

Leude  worde  —  entresajn. 

Leudnesse  • —  mauluaiseté  z,  f. 

Leave  lycence  —  congé  s,  m. 

Leven  for  bredde  —  leaayn  s,  m. 

Leure  for  a  Iiauke  —  levrre  s,  m. 

Levell  a  ruler  —  niaeav  x,  m. 

Lever  of  a  man  or  beest  — foye  s,  m. 

Leaver  to  lyfte  with  —  levier  s,  m. 

Leveret  a  yong  hare  —  leueravlt  œ ,  m. 

Leavyng  of  —  intermission  s,  f. 

L    BEFORB    I. 

Lyberalyte  —  liberaleté  z,  f. 

Lyaunce  kynred  ■ —  aliance  s ,  f. 

Lybertie  leave  — faculté  z,  f.  ;  liberté  z,  f. 

Lybertic  frcdome  — franchise  s,  t. 

Lycorice  rote  —  reclice  s,  f. 

Lycence  leave  —  licence  s,  f. 

Lycoure  —  substance  s,  f. 

Lycouresman  — friant,  lechevr  s,  m. 

Lycouresnesse  — friandise  s,  t. 

Lydde  of  the  eye  —  paulpiere  s,  f. 

Lydde  of  a  cuppe  or  potle  —  cotaeleque  s ,{. 

Lyse  of  wyne  —  lyc  s,  î. 

Lye  to  wasshe  with  —  lessiae  s,  f. 

Lye  a  false  taie  —  baae  s,  f.;  losange  s,  {.; 
mensonge  s,  m.;  contrevue  s,  f. 

Lyer  —  lierre  s,  m.;  mentetr  s,  m. 

Lyfc  —  aie  s,  f. 

Lyftyng  up  in  Lonoure  —  exaltation  s,  f. 

Lyftyng  up  of  the  voyce  —  accent  s,  m. 

Lyght  —  lamicre  s,  f. ;  Ivevr  s,  t. 

Lyghier  a  great  bote  —  batteav  x,  m.;  tronc 
z,  m. 

Lyght  grene  popyngay  coloure  —  uertgay 
z,  m. 

Light  horse  —  chenal  legier  x,  m. 

Lightes  in  the  body  —  ralte  s,  f. 

Lightnesse  of  understandyng  — facilité  d'enten- 
dement z,  {. 

Lightnesse  quyetnesse  —  legieretè  :,  f. 


Lightnyng  wban  it  ihondreth  —  esclere  s, m.; 
coruscation  s,  f. 

Lightnyng  of  burdayne  —  alegement  s,  m,; 
allégeance  s,  f. 

Lyeng  in  chyldebedde  —  acouchement  s,  m. 

Lyeng  in  wayte  —  aguaylance  s,  f. 

Likelyhode  —  aparence  s,  f. 

Likelynesse  —  ueresimililude  s,  f. ;  semblableté 
z.f. 

Likelynesse  of  body  —  semblance  s,  f. ;  habi- 
tude s,  f. 

Likelynesse  or  towardnesse  —  indole  s,  m. 

Likelynesse  of  a  thyng  that  maye  happen  — 
possibilité  z,  t. 

Lynage  —  lignaige  s,  m. 

Lynde  a  tree. 

Lyne  a  rope  —  corde  s,  t. 

Lynen  clothe  —  toille  s,  f 

Lyngell  that  souters  sowe  with  —  chefgros,  m.; 
lignier. 

Lynger  to  sowe  with  —  poalcier. 

Lynge  fysshe  —  colyn  s,  m. 

Lynen  hose  for  a  carter. 

Lyned  gowne  —  robe  doublée  s ,  f. 

Lynyng  of  a  garment  —  doublevre  s,  f. 

Lynke  —  torche  i,  f. 

Lyon  a  he  beest  —  lyon  s,  m. 

Lyonnesse  a  she  beest —  leonesse  s,  (. 

Lyppe  —  bavlieare  s,  f. 

Lycoure  —  li(juevr  s,  f. 

Lyqiiedncsse  —  moystevr  s,  f. 

Lisarde  a  worme  —  lisarde  s,  f. ;  tizarde  s,  I. 

Lyspar  that  lyspeth  — gressievr  s,  m. 

Lyste  on  horsebacke  —  raye  Sj  m. 

Lysle  of  clothe  —  lisière  s,  f. 

Lyste  to  juste  in  —  lice  de  bataille  s,  f. 

Lyste  of  the  eare  —  mol  de  loraylle  s,  m. 

Lythenesse  delyveruesse  —  souplesse  s,  (. 

Lytell  sfreame  —  undette  s,f. 

Lytcll  bell  —  sonnette ,  c'ampane  s,i. 

Lytell  bell  for  a  horselrapper  — clochette  s,  f. 

Lytell  broke  —  n<isselet  z,  m. 

Lytell  chese  — fromaige  dengelon  s,  m. 

Lytell  bagge  —  sachet  z,  m. 

Lytell  vyne  that  beareth  grappes — uiynette  s,  1'. 

Lytell  fynger  — petit  doigt  z,  m. 


240 


LESCLARGISSEMENT 


Lytell  serpent  —  serpenteav  x,  m. 

Lytell  porcyon  of  any  thynge  —  tantinet  z,  m. 

Lytell  coffre  a  focer  —  cojrel  z,  m. 

Lytell  shelde  —  targette  s,  f. 

Lytell  visage  —  troignetle  s,  f. 

Lytell  vermyne —  uerminette  s,  (. 

Lytell  ryver  —  riaieretle  s,  f. 

Lytell  table  —  tableau  x,m. 

Lytell  paresball  —  estevf  z,  m. 

Lytell  chery  —  cerlselte  s,  f. 

Lytell  Ïambe  —  aignelet  z,  m. 

Lytell  lane  —  alee,  raellette  i,  f. 

Lytell  cornar  —  anglet  z,  m. 

Lytell  bowe  —  arckelet  z,  m. 

Lytell  guyrdell  —  ceincturette  s,  f. 

Lytell  songe  —  chansonnette  s,  f. 

Lytell  pratye  thyng  —  chosetle  s,  f. 

Lytell  boke —  libelle,  liaret  z,  m. 

Lytell  lodge  —  logette  s,  f. 

Lytell  hoase  —  maisonnette  s,f. 

Lytell  teale  —  mamellette  s,  f. 

Lytell  flye  —  mouchette  s,  f. 

Lytell  bote  —  nassellette  s,  f. 

Lytell  goddes  —  nimphette  s,  (. 

Lytell  byrde  —  oyselet  z,  m. 

Lytell  spangle  — paillette  s,  f. 

Lytell  sheparde — pastoureau  x,m. 

Lytell  woode  —  petit  bois,  m. 

Lytell  fether  —  plamette  s ,  (. 

Lytell  fysshe  —  poissonnette  s,  f. 

Lytell  boughe  —  rainceau  x,  ni. 

Lytell  rayne  for  a  borse  —  regnette  s ,  I'. 

Lytelnesse  of  degré  —  petitesse  s,  f. 

Lylter  or  strawe  —  dessoabz,  strayne ,  litliere 

s,  f. 
Lyvelode  rent  —  reuenve,  mise,  reuenves  s,  f. 
Lyveray  gyven  of  a  gentylraan  —  liaeree  s,  f. 
Lyveryng  podyng  —  bovdin  s,  m. 
Lyver  of  a  beest — foye  s,  m. 
Lyverworte  an  berbe. 

L    BEFOBE    0. 

Lodc  for  a  horse  or  man  —  charge  s,'(.; portée 

s.{. 
Lode  for  a  carte  —  chartee  z,  (. 
Lodge  —  loge  s,  (, 


Lodge  covered  with  leaves  — fveillee  s,  f. 
Lodesman  of  a  sbippe  —  pilotte  s,  m. 
Lodge  made  of  bowes  —  hameau  x,  m. 
Lofte  in  buyldyng  or  a  stage  —  estaige  s,  m. 
Loftc  for  baye  or  corne  —  garnier  s,  m.  ; 

grandie,  grange  s,  f. 
Lofe  of  bredde  —  payn  s,  m. 
Logge  of  wode  —  bvche  s,  (.;  sovche  s,{. 
Logyssion —  logitien  s,  m. 
Loyne  of  flessbe  —  longe  s,  {. 
Loyterar  —  trvandeu  s,  m. 
Loyteryng — trvandise  s,{. 
Locke  of  a  dore  —  serrure  s,  f. 
Locke  of  a  womans  heer  — flocquon  s,  m. 
Lockesniytlie  — serrvrier  s,  m. 
Locke  of  béer  —  locquet,  crin,  z,  m. 
Locke  of  bey  or  wolle —  locquet  z,  ra. 
Locker  of  a  cupbourde  —  tirover  s,  m. 
Lokyng  beholdyng — aspect  z,m.;esgart  s,m. 
Loke  —  ueve  s,  f.;  regart  s,  m. 
Lokyng  for  a  thyng  —  actente  s,  f. 
Lope  to  holde  a  clapse  in  or  a  button^ — fer- 

meau  x,  m. 
LoUar  —  hérétique  s,  m. 
Lomé  a  frame  —  mestier  s,  m. 
Lomc  claye  —  argille  s,  f. 
Lomé  a  vessell  to  pulte  aie  in. 
Londe  uniaboured  —  terre  en  friche  s,  f. 
Londe  lyvelode —  demaine  s,  m.;  terres,  (. 
Londes  —  terres,  f. 
Longe  wande   suche   as    fauconners   use    — 

gavlle  s,  f. 
Longe  quyll  to  socke  wyne  with  —  chalemeau 

X,  m. 
Longer  or  ligbtes  —  poulmon  s,  m. 
Longe  gowne  —  robe  longue  s,  f. 
Long  bowe  —  arc  z ,  m. 
Longehose. 

Longegonne — Jlevste ,  coquarde  s,  t. 
Longe  trumpe  to  sbote  rounde  pellettes  with 

—  sarbacane  s,  t. 
Lopstar  a  fysshe —  chancre  s,  m. 
Longnesse  —  longevr  s,(. 
Lorde  sir  —  seignevr  s,  m. 
Lorde  a  barowne  —  toron  s,  m. 
Lordelynesse  — •  seignorievselé  z,  {, 


DE  LA  LANGUE 

Lordshippe  —  seignevrie  z ,  (. 

Lordshyppe — preheminence  s,  f.  ;  domination 

s,{. 
Lorrel  or  losell  — fetart  s,  m.  ;  loricart  s,  m. 
Loreniar  Ihat  maketb  byttes —  esperonnier  s,  m. 
Losse  —  perle  s,  f. 
Losange  of  spyce  —  losange  s ,  f. 
Losyng  —  perdition  s ,  f. 
Lothsomnesse  —  ennvy  s,  m.; fâcherie  s,  f. 
Lotie  a  culte  —  sort  s,  ni. 
Lotte  or  shotte  — escot  z ,  m. 
Lover  that  loveth  — amant,  amouretx ,  m. 
Loveache  an  herbe. 
Loweplace  —  abjsme  s,  f. 
Lowe  sonday  —  Quasimodo  s ,  f. 
Lowe  water  —  teave  basse  s,  f. 
Lowlynesse  —  obéissance  s,  f. 
Louse  a  beest  —  pov  x,  m. 
Loudnesse  —  haaltesse  s,  t. 
Love  —  zèle  s,  m.  ;   amour  s,    f.  ;    affection , 

amiableté  z,{. 
Loveday  to  make  frendes — appointement  s,  m. 
Lover  a  man  —  amouretu;,  va. 
Lover  a  woman  —  amourevse  s,  f. 
Lover  of  a  bail  —  esclere  s,  f. 
Lovyng  praysing  —  louenge  s,  f. 
Lovyng  countenaunce  —  acveil  s,  m. 
Loure  an  yvell  loke  —  renfroigne,  rechignee  s,  f. 
Lownesse  —  bassevr  s,  f. 
Lowe  counlree — plat  pais  s,  m. 
Loupe  in  atownc,  wall  or  castell  — créneau  x,  m. 
Loupe  to  holde  a  button  — fermeau  x,  m . 
Lowring  —  refroignevre  s,  f. 
Lowringnesse  of  tbe  wether  —  somhrerseté  s,  f. 
Lousynesse  —  povillerie  s,(. 
Louttyng  of  a  cougbe  —  mugissement  s,  m. 

L  BEFonr.  U. 

Luce  a  fysshe  —  lus,  m. 

Lure  for  an  bauke  —  levrre  s,  m. 

Lucke  bappe  —  hevr  s,  m. 

Luke  happe  —  hevr  s,  m. 

Lucke  wynnyng  —  encontre  s,  m. 

Lumpe  a  gobbet  —  chanteav  x,  m. 

Lunge  in  the  body  —  poulmons,  ni. 

Lurcher  an  exceding  eatcr  —  galiff^re  s,  m. 


FRANCOYSE.  241 

Lurdayne  —  lovrdavlt  x,  m. 

Lurke  an  herbe. 

Luske  a  vyle  parsone  —  rihavlt  z,  m.;  esclaue , 

lovrdavlt  x,  m. 
Lustc  as  women  wilh  chylde  hâve  —  enuyce s,î. 
Luste  plcasure  —  delyl  z,  m.;uoluplé  z,  f. 
Lute  an  instrument  —  lus,  lucque  s,  m. 
Lutestryng  —  cordeav,  cordon  de  lus,  m. 
Lutar  — joverrde  lus  s,  m. 

M  DEFORE    A. 

Maie  to  put  stuffe  in  —  niasle  s,  (. 

Mare  a  she  beest — jvment  s,(. 

Mace  for  a  sergiant  —  masse  s,  f.  ;  mace  s,  f. 

Mace  Spyce  —  mace  s,  f. 

Matchc  of  lyke  strength  —  sorlable  s,  m. 

Mac(pierell  a  fysshe  —  macquerel  s,  m. 

Maddre  an  herbe  —  garence  s,  f. 

Madnesse  folye  —  enragerie  z,  f.;  rage ,  amenée, 

forcennerie ,  raige  s,  f. 
Magycke  a  scyence  —  magicque  s,  f. 
Magestie  —  majesté  s,  f. 
Magistrale  dignyte  —  magistrat  z,  m. 
Maggotte  —  uer  de.  chair  s,  m. 
Magudcr  a  stalke  of  an  herbe  —  chion  s,  m. 
Mayea  moneth  —  may  s,  m. 
Maydenwede. 

Maydcn  a  lover  —  amovrette  s,  f. 
Maydc  of  the  mankynde  — paceui  x,  m. 
Mayde  of  the  womankynde  — pucelte  s,  f. 
Mayde  a  servaunt  —  ancelle  s ,  f. 
Mayde  a  servaunt  —  chambrière  s,  f. 
Mayde  a  drudge  —  meschine  s,  f. 
Maydenheed  virginité  —  pucellagc  s,  m. 
Maydes  twynnes — jumelles,  f. 
Mayle  of  a  lialburjon  —  maille  s,  f. 
Mayle  that  receyvetb  the  claspe  of  a  gowne  inlo 

it  —  porte  s,  i. 
Mayle  of  a  hauke  —  greuelure  s,  f. 
Maymer  of  men  —  mvtilaievr  s,  m. 
Mayntenaunce  —  maintenement  s,  m, 
Mayntenyng  — port  s,  m  ;  assertion  s,  f.  ;  entre- 

tenement  s,  m.;  sapportation  s,  {.;  fulcement 

s,  m. 
Maynesayle — papephis,  m. 
Maystresse  —  uoilte  s,  f. 

3i 


242 


LESCLARGISSEMENT 


Maynelande  —  terre  ferme  s,  (. 

Majster  —  maistre  s,  m. 

Maystresse  —  maistresse  s,  f. 

Maystry  done  by  delyvcrnesse  —  unif  tovr  de 
souplesse  s,  m.;  apperlise  s,  (. 

Maker  of  haye  to  cockes  —  entassevr  de  foyng 
s ,  m. 

Maker  of  bosses  of  bridelles  —  lormier  s,  m. 

Maker  of  naylles  —  clovtier  s,  m. 

Maker  of  horse  coUcrs  —  bovrrellier  s,  m. 

Maker  of  lathes — faisevr  de  lattes  s,  m. 

Maker  of  brasen  pottes  —  brasier  s,  m. 

Maker  of  Spaynysshe  purses  — faisevr  de  bav- 
driers,  bavdrier  s,  m. 

Maker  of  cardes  —  cartier  s,  m. 

Maker  of  walles  — faisevr  de  pais  s,  m. 

Maker  of  engynnes —  engignevr  s,  m. 

Maokerell  a  fysshe  —  macqaereav  x,  m. 

Makyng  of  a  thyng  — façon  s,  f.  ;  facture  s,  f. 

Makyng  confectyon  —  confiture  s,  f. 

Makyng  worse  a  thyng  —  deprauation  s,  f. 

Makyng  — facyon  s,  f. 

Makyng  redy  —  parure  s,  f.;  aprest  z,  m. 

Makyng  good  of  a  thyng  —  aduev  x,  m.;  appro- 
bation s,  f. 

Malady  a  disease  —  maladie  s,  f.  ;  malaise  s,  f. 

Malandric,  sicknesse  —  malandre  s,  f. 

Maiarde ,  a  byrde  —  canart  s,  m. 

Malandre  —  malandre  s,  f. ;  serot  z,  ni. 

Maie  or  wallet  to  putte  geare  in  —  malle  s,  f. 

Malencoly  —  merancolye  z,  f. 

Maie  no  female  —  masle  s,  m. 

Maie  gote  —  bovc  z,  m. 

Malyce  —  malice  s,  f. 

Malkyn  for  an  ovyn  — fovrgon  s,  ni. 

Mail  a  havy  weapen  —  massue  de  plomb  ,  mail- 
let z,  m. 

Mail  a  hammer  —  maillet  z,  m. 

Malt —  orge  parée  s,  f. 

Malowe  an  herbe  —  mavue  s,  f. 

Mancypie  —  despensier  s,  m. 

Man  a  tbefe  —  larrons,  m.;  félon  s,  m. 

Man  enheritour  —  héritier  s,  m. 

Man  ,  a  persone  —  homme  s,  m. 

Man  excellyng  of  his  parsonage.  —  paragon  s,  m. 

Man  beyng  a  mayde  —  paceau  x,  m. 


Man  lover  —  amant  s,  m. 

Man  twise  maryed  —  bigames,  m. 

Man  borne  in  Britayne  —  Brilon  s,  m. 

Mandrake  an  herbe  —  mandeglaire  s,  f.  i 

Man  cowarde  —  couart  z,  m. 

Man  of  warre  —  gens  darme  s,  m. 

Maane  of  a  horse  —  crine  s,  f.;  crin  s,  m. 

Man  that  is  handefast — fiance  s,  f. 

Manner  a  dwellyng  place  —  maison  de  plai- 
sance s,  f. 

Maner  facyon  or  guyse — façons,  f. 

Maner  custome  —  mode,  manière  s,  f. 

Maner  or  ende  — fyn  s,  f  ;  acustumance  s,  f. 

Maners  condycions  —  mevrs,  f. 

Maner  —  manyere  s,  f. 

Man  tliat  hath  many  properties  —  mixt  z,  m. 

Man  governour —  dominatevr  s,  m. 

Mangnet  a  precious  stone. 

Man  of  housholde  —  domesticque  s,  m. 

Magnificence  —  magnificence  s,  f. 

Man  that  iy veth  sole  —  solitaire  s,  m . 

Macslar  —  cocquetier  s,  m. 

Manhode  —  humanité  z,  f. 

Man  nourse  —  novrricier  s,  m. 

Man  pledge  —  hostagier. 

Manycolours  —  multicolore. 

Man  that  kepeth  a  taverne  —  tauernier  s,  m. 

Man  of  Turkey  —  Turc  z,  m. 

Maner  condycion  —  manière  s,  f. 

Mancypie  —  manciple  s,  m. 

Man  that  forsaketh  his  order  —  apostat  z,  m. 

Man  of  armes,  a  horse  man  —  lanœ  s,  ni. 

Man  that  is  fuU  of  stryfe  —  mutyn  s,  m.  , 

Man  of  lawe  —  homme  de  loy  s,  m.  ;  homme  de 
robe  longue  s,  m. 

Man  that  counterfayteth  a  pytuous  face  —  mar- 
mixtevx,  m. 

Man  of  warre  —  homme  de  guerre  s,  m. 

Man  that  useth  magicke  —  magicien  s,  m. 

Man  that  commytteth  the  synne  of  Sodome  — 
sodomitc  s,  m. 

Man  that  rydeth  on  a  genette — genetoire  s,m. 

Man  that  loketh  a  squynt  —  lovche  s,  m. 

Man  with  a  morres  pike  —  picquier  s,  m. 

Man  a  venturer  —  uenturier  s,  va. 

Man  that  hath  pencion  —  pencionaire  s,  m. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANGOYSE. 


243 


Man  syngar —  chantre  s,  m. 

Man  sheparde  —  pastevr  s,  m. 

Mankyadc  —  genre  hunuiyn  s,  m. 

Manger  for  a  horse  —  mangoyre  s,  f. 

Maners  condycions  —  ntevrs,  t. 

Mannes  yarde  —  uil  z,  m. 

Manquellar  —  mevrlrier  s,  m. 

Mayme  burte  —  rejoullevre  s,  f. 

Mantyll  —  manteau  x,  m.  ;  mante  s,  f. 

Mantyll  a  gaberdyne —  gauerdine  s,  f. 

Mantyltre  of  a  chymney  —  manteav  dune  che- 
minée X ,  m. 

Mantry   of  a  cbimney  —  manteav  de  cheminée. 

Maple  tree. 

Marble  slone  —  pierre  de  marbre  s,  f. 

Marbie  colour. 

Marsball  of  the  hall  — mareschalx,  ni. 

Marshalshyppe  —  marchalcee  s,  t. 

Marchaunt  —  marchant  s,  m. 

Marcbaundyse  —  marchandise  s,  f. 

Marcbe,  a  moneth  —  mars,  va. 

Marcbes  bylweue  Iwo  landes  — frontières,  f. 

Marcury  an  herbe. 

Mare  a  she  beest — jvment  s,  f. 

Maresse  — palustres,  f. ;  marescaige  s,  m. 

Margery  perle  —  nacle  s,  m. 

Margerome  genlyll  an  herbe  —  maijolayne  s,f.; 
margeline  s,  f. 

Margyn  or  brinke  of  any  thyng  —  borl  s,  m.; 
riae  s,  f. 

Maryage  —  mariage  s,  m.  ;  nopces ,  espousail- 
lcs,{. 

Marygolde  a  fleur  —  sousie  :,  f.;  consovkle  s.  f. 

Mary,  a  proper  name  —  Marie  s,  f. 

Mary  in  a  bone  —  moaelle  s,  f. 

Marryner —  maronniers,  m. 

Maryssbe  grounde  —  marescaige  s,  ni. 

Marke  or  bounde  —  marque,  borne  s,  {. 

Marke  or  token  —  marque  s,  f. ;  signe,  ensigne 
s,  m. 

Marke  of  money  —  marc  dargent  s,  ni. 

Marke  of  golde  or  sylver —  marc  s,  m. 

Marke  to  selle  clotlie  witb  —  seav  x,  m. 

Marke  bytwcne  two  places  —  limite  s,  f. 

Market  place  —  marché  s,  m.  ;  halle  s,  f 

Maiie  grounde  —  marie  .s,  f. 


Marlyon  a  bauke  —  esmerillon  s,  m. 

Marmoset  a  beest —  marmoset  z,  m. 

Marnioll  a  sore  —  lovp  z,  m. 

Marques  —  marquis,  m. 

Marquesdom  —  marquisat  z,  m. 

Martylmas  befe  —  brezil  z,  m. 

Marlynel  a  byrde —  martinet  z,  m. 

Marlerne  a  beest  —  martre  s,  m. 

Martyr  —  martyr  s,  m. 

Martyrdome  —  maTtires,m. 

Marveyle  —  meruaylle  s,  f. 

Masar  of  woode — masiere  s,  f.  ;  hanap  z,  m. 

Masydnesse  —  musardie  s,  f.  ;  desuere  s,  f.  ;  ef- 

froy  s,  m. 
Masclyne  brasse. 
Masse  that  is  songe  —  messe  s,  f. 
Massyfnesse  —  solidité  z,  f. 
Masson  —  masson  s,  m. 
Masonrie  —  massonnerye  s,  f. 
Maistresse  —  maistresse  s,  f. 
Maste  of  a  shippe  —  mast  s,  m. 
Maister —  maistre  s,  m. 
Mayster  of  arte  —  maistre  en  ars,  m. 
Mayster  of  the  horses  —  escvier  de  escvirie  s,  va. 
Mayster  of  the  benshmen  —  escvier  de  pages 

dhonnevr  s,  m. 
Mayster  of  a  princes  prevy  kechyn — escvier  de 

cvisine  s,  m. 
Mayster  of  the  revelles  — factevr  s,  m.  \fatiste 

s,  m. 
Maste  for  hogges  —  novriture  a  povrceaiix  s,  f, 
Mastyke  spyce  —  mastic  s,  m. 
Mastyfe  dogge  —  mastin  s,  m.;  dogue  s,  m. 
Matche  of  brimstone  —  mèche  s,  f. 
Malche  to  iyght  a  candell  —  alamette  s,  f. 
Matche  or  weyke  of  a  candell  —  limignon  s,  m. 
Matche  oflyke  sorte  —  pareil  z, m.;  pareille  s,  f. 
Malte  of  strawe  —  natte  s,  f. 
Matte  maker  —  natier  s,  m. 
Mattyns  —  malynes,  î. 

Matter  thaï  a  man  grutcheth  at  —  scrupule  s,  m. 
Matler  tolde  before  anotber  —  prémisse  s,  f. 
Matter  of  a  sore  —  bove  s,  f. 
Matter  ivhan  it  is  bealed. 
Matter  that  a  man  takelh  in  hande  —  povr- 

sryte  s,  f. 

3i. 


sS 


244 


LESCLARCISSEMENT 


Matter  —  madtrc  s, (.;  cas,  ni. 

Malter  so  clere  as  can  nat  be  avoyded  —  pa- 

remptoire  Sj  m. 
Matler  that  cometh  in  communication  —  inci- 
dent s,  m. 
Mattocke  —  hoiav,  picq  z,  m. 
Maîtresse  for  a  bedde  —  martelas,  m. 
Maltresse  for  a  crosbowe  —  marlehis,  m. 
Masciyne  corne. 

Maunche  présent —  briffavlt  z,  m. 
Mawe  of  a  beest  — jovsier  s,  m. 
Maugry  —  malgré  s,  m.;  maltalenl  s,  m, 
Mavys  a  byrde  —  mavuis,  m. 
Maument —  mamosel  z,  ni.  ;  poupée  s,  i. 
Maumenlry  —  baguenavlde  s,  f. 
Maundy  thursday  — j<x<fy  absolv  s,  m. 

M    BEFORE    E. 

Meale  of  raeate  —  repast  z,  m. 

Mcane  of  a  songe  —  moyen  j,  m. 

Measure  of  tno  gallons  —  sexlier  s,  m. 

Mecher  a  lylell  ihefe  —  laronceav  x,  m. 

Mede  drinke  —  boyllon  s,  m. 

Mede  rewarde  —  guerdon  s,  m. 

Medefulnesse  —  mérite  s,f. 

Medycine  tbat  movelh  a  man  to  slepe  —  sopo- 

rijere  s,  m. 
Medycine  —  antidote  s,  m.;  medicjne  s,  (. 
Medytation  —  méditation  s,(. 
Mcdowe  felde  —  preav  x,m.;praierie  s,  f. 

Medowe  swete  herbe. 

Mediarfrute  —  mesple,  nejle  s,  f. 

Mediar  tree  —  mesplier,  nejlier  s,  m. 

.Medley  colour  —  melU  s,  f. 

Medwyfe  —  saige  femme  s ,  f. 

Megre  a  sickenesse —  maigre  s,  (. 

Meyre  of  a  towne  —  govucrnevr  s,  m. 

Mekenesse — humilité  z,   f.;   clémence,  hum- 
blesse  s,  f. 

Meale  of  corne  — farine  s,  f. 

Meale  of  uieate  —  repast  s,  m. 

Melancoiy  testysnesse  —  melencolie  s,  f. 

Melody  —  melodye  z,  f.  ;  modulation,  armonie 
s,  T. 

Melody  played  in  a  mornynge —  reueil  z,  m. 

Melodyousnesse  —  mélodie  s,  f. 


Melowuesse  —  mevretè  z,  f. 

Membre  —  membre  s,  m. 

Meraorye  —  mémoire  s,  f. 

Menewe  a  fysshe  —  mevnier  s,  m. 

Mcanyng  —  pensement  s,  m.  ;  pensée  z,  f. 

Meane  awaye  —  moyen,  achoison  s,  m. 

Mendes  for  a  trespas  —  amende  s,  f. 

Meane  a  parle  of  a  songe  —  moyen  s,  m. 

Meny  a  housbolde  —  menye  z,  f. 

Meny  of  plantes  —  plantaige  s,  m. 

Mendycanle  an  order  of  frères  —  mendicant. 

Mendemeut  —  amendement  s,  m. 

Men  of  armes  —  gens  darmes  ,  ni . 

Mentyon  —  mention  s,  f 

Mercer  —  grossier,  mercier  s,  m. 

Mercery  —  merceryc  s ,  f . 

Mercy  —  grâce  s,  f.  ;  mercy  s,  f. 

Mercyfulnesse — pilie  s,  f. 

Mearmayde  —  serayne  s,  ï. 

Mère  a  water  —  gort  s,  m. 

Mery  taunt — lardon  s,  m. 

Meryjestea  ryddle  —  sornette  s,  f. 

Merinesse  — joieuseté  z,  f. 

Meryle  a  deservyng  —  mérite  s,  f. 

Merlyng  fyssbe  —  merlus,  m. 

Merlyon  a  hauke  —  esmerillon  s,  m. 

Merle  grounde  —  marie  s,  f. 

Merser  that  selleth  ware  —  grossier  s  ,  m. 

Mère  sauce  for  flesshe  —  savlmvre  s,  f 

Merveyle  —  mcraaille  s,  f. 

Message  —  message  s.  m. 

Message  that  an  imbassadoure  is  charged  with 

—  légation  s,  f.  ;  ambassade  s ,  f . 
Mesyll  a  sicke  man  —  meseav  s ,  m. 
Mesyll  the  sickenesse  —  mesellerie  s,  f 
Messe  —  messe  s,  (. 
Messe  of  meale  —  mes,  plat  z,  m. 
Messangfcr  —  messagier  s,  m. 
Mesllyon  corne.  * 

Mestlyn. 

Meson  sayle of  a  shyppe  —  mysayne  s,  f. 
Mestresse  —  maistresse  s,  f. 
Measure  of  oies  or  suchelyke — picquolin  s,  m. 
Measure  —  mesure  s,(. 
Measuryng  —  dimention  s,  f. 
Meale  ^ — ■  uiandc  s,{. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE. 


245 


Meate  of  any  frule  —  le  bon  s ,  m. 

Metall  —  mctal  x,m. 

Mètre  verse  —  mètre  s,  m, 

Mevyng  of  ones  mynde  —  concitation  s,  f. 

Mcvyngofbody  —  moiuement  s,  m.;  agilalion, 

commotion ,  motion  s,  f. 
Mewe  for  }iaukes  —  meae  s,  f. 

M    BEFORE    I. 

Micliar  —  hvissonnier  s,  m. 

Micher  a  lyteli  thefe  —  iarronceav  x,  m. 

Mydnighl  —  mynvyt  z,  m. 

Mydsonier  —  fa  sainct  Jehan  s,  t. 

Myddle  fyngre. 

Myddle  or  waste  of  a  body — faclx  du  corps,  m. 

Myddle  of  the  day  —  midj  s,  m. 

Myddes  of  a  thyng  —  miliev  x,  m. 

Myddes  porte  of  a  rounde  serclc  —  centre  s,  m. 

Myddes  parle  of  a  channell  —  le  fd  dune  riuiere. 

Mydnight  —  minvit  z,  m. 

Mydrife  a  beest  —  enlrailles  f. 

Mydsomer  —  la  sainct  Jehan  s,  f. 

Myre  dyrte  —  bove,  fange  s,  f. 

Mignyon  —  mignon  s,  m. 

Mignyonnesse  —  mignotise  s,  f. 

Migrym  a  sickenesse  — chagrin  s,  m.;  maigre. 

Migbt  strengtb  —  effort  s,  m.  ;  puissance  s,  f. 

Migblynesse  —  povuoir  s,  m. 

Migbeimas  —  la  sainct  Michelle  j,  f. 

Migbeil  a  proper  name  —  Michiel  z,  m. 

Myidewe  —  niehle  s,  f. 

Myldnesse  —  paisibleté  z,  (. 

Myle  —  miliaire  s,  f.  ;  demy  lieue  s,  f. 

Myll  —  movUn  s,  m. 

Myller  —  musnier  s,  m. 

Mylfoyle  an  berbe. 

Myilyon  3  nombre  —  milion  s ,  ni. 

MylloD  a  frute  —  melon  s ,  m. 

Mylke  —  laict  s,  m. 

Mylche  cowe  —  uache  a  laict  s ,  {. 

Mylstonc  —  mevlle  de  movlin  s,  f. 

Myll  trougbe  or  broke  —  ange  s,  f. 

Mylldamnie  —  escluse  de  movlin  s,  {. 

Myllers  thombe  a  fysshe  —  chabot  i ,  m. 

Myltc  ia  a  beest  —  ratte  s,  f. 

Mylle  a  fysslie  —  la  laicte  s,  f.  ;  laicte  de  poisson. 


Mynde  —  pensée  s,  f.;  entendement  s,  m. 

Myne  in  the  grounde  —  myne  s,  f. 

Myndfulnesse  —  pencec  s,  f. 

Myner  under  the  grounde  — pionnier  s,  m. 

Mynistration  —  minislration  s,  f. 

Mynistring. 

Mynistrer  of  justyce  —  droicturier  s,  ni. 

Mynyin  in  song  —  minime  s,  f. 

Mynkes  a  furre  —  minques  s,  f. 

Mynute  of  an  boure  —  minute  s,  f. 

Mynster  a   great  churche  —  maistresse  esglise 

s,  f.  ;  monstier  s,  m. 
Mynstrell  —  menestrier  s,  m. 
Mynt  money  —  plate  de  la  monoye  s,  f. 
Mynl  an  herbe  —  mente  s,  f. 
Mirabolon  a  frute  —  niirabolan  «,  f. 
My racle  —  miracle  s ,  m. 
Myrre  tree  —  larbre  qui  porte  la  mirre. 
Myrre  gomme  —  myrre  s ,  f. 
Myrlbe  —  liesse  s,{. 
Mysbeleve  —  mescreance  s,  f. 
Mysbebavour  —  nusprison  s,  {. 
Myschaunce  —  desfortune  s,  f.j  meschance  s,  f. 
Mysdede  —  meffaict  2 ,m. 
Mysadventure  —  maladuenture  s,  f. 
Mysfortune — desfortane  s,  (.  ;  malenconlre  s,  f. 
Mysknowyng  —  descognoissance  s,  f. 
Mysorder  —  desordonnance  s,  f.  ;  désordre  1,  m. 
Mysguyding  —  desroy  s,  m. 
Myschefe  —  meschief  z,  m. 
Misery  —  niiscrc  s,  f. 
Mystakyng  of  a  man  selfe  or  niyspride  —  oui- 

trecvidance  s,  f. 
Mysease  —  mesaise  s,f. 
Myst  in  the  mornyng  —  brouillas,  m. 
Mystery  —  mistere  s,  m. 
Mysusing  —  abvs,m.;  abasion  s,ï. 
Myrthejoye — joyeaseté  z ,{.;  exultation  s,i'. 
Mystnist  —  suspecon  s,  f.  ;  snspectinn  s,  f. 
Mystrustyng  —  dejjiance  s,{. 
Myte  the  Icest  coyne  that  is  —  pite  s,  f. 
Mytein  chese  —  myle  s,  f. 
Myrtbe   pleasure — fesliuité  z,  f. ;   hilarité  z, 

f.\joye  s,{. 
Mytayne  —  mitayne  s,{.\  mitaigne. 
Myter  for  a  bysshoppe —  nàtre  s,  f. 


246 


LESCLARCJSSEMENT 


Miïtyng  toguyder  —  mixture  s,  {. 

Mixtion  of  thynges — mixtion  s,  î.;  confusion  s,  f. 

M   BEFORE    0. 

Mocker  a  scorner —  mocquevr  s,  m. 
Mockyng  or  skornyng  —  dérision  s,  f.  ;  itlasion 

s.{. 
Mocquery  —  mocquerie  s,  f. 
Mother  —  nifrr  s,  f. 
Moder  a  disease  —  marry  s,  m. 
Mother  in  lawe  —  marrastre  s,  f. 
Moderatyon  —  modération  s,  (. 
Moderworte  —  alvjne  s,(. 
Modynesse  angre  —  attayne  s,  t.;  ire  s,  t. 
Mogworte  —  armoyse  s,  (. 
Moystnesse  —  humevr,  liquevr,  uapevr  j,  f. 
Moysture  —  moistevr  s,  f .  ;  moisturc  s,  f. 
Mockendar  for  chyldre  —  movchover  s,  m. 
Molde  a  forme  —  moule  s,  m. 
Molde  of  the  heede  — fontaine  de  la  teste  s,  {. 
Moidyng  borde  —  ais  a  pestrir  s,  m. 
Mole  a  beest  —  tavlpe  s,  (. 
Moleyne  an  herbe. 
Molet  a  fysshe  —  mulet  t,  m. 
Molehyll  —  motte  de  terre  s,  f. 
Mommery  —  monuMrie  s,  f. 
Monday  —  lundy  s,  m. 
Moone  a  planet  —  lune  s,  f. 
Money  coyne  —  monoye  z,{.;  pecune  s,  (. 
Money  mynt  —  plate  de  la  monoye  s,  f. 
Moneth  —  moys,  m. 

Monke  of  the  charterhouse  —  chartrevx,  m. 
Monke  of  saynt  Benettes  order  —  moync  de 

sainct  Benoit. 
Monkeyabeest —  brouticque  s,  (.-y marmot  z,m. 
Mode  in  a  verbe  —  mevf  z ,  m. 
Monster  a  wonder —  monstre  s,  m. 
More  a  fenne  —  marescage  s,  m. 
Morehen  —  poulie  griache  s,  f. 
Moreyne  dethe  —  mortalité  z,  f. ;  moarine  s,  f. 
Morell  an  herbe. 
Morespycke  —  picque  s,  (. 
Morfewc  a  sickenesse. 
Morkyn  a  beest  —  auortin  s,  m. 
Mormall  a  sore —  lovp  z,  m. 
Morcyde  a  maner  of  play  —  mornijle  s,  f. 


Mornyng  tyde  —  matinée  z,  (.; prime  s ,  f.  ;  ma- 
tin s  ,rr\. 

Morowe  day  — jour  s ,m. 

Morsell  —  morseau  x,  m. 

Morlalnesse  —  mortalité  z,  f. 

Morlar  lo  stanipe  in  —  mortier  s,  m. 

Morler  for  wailes  —  mortier  s,  m. 

Morlesse  of  a  house —  mortaise  s,  f. 

Mortesse  meate. 

Morte  a  fysshe. 

Mosse  Ihat  groweth  on  trees  —  movssc  s,(. 

Mote  a  dytcbe  — fosse  s,{. 

Mote  in  the  sonne  —  pouldre  de  solail  s ,  f. 

Mote  on  a  gowne  or  garment  — povtie  s,  f. 

Mote  blast  of  a  borne. 

Mother  a  bringar  forthe  —  génitrice  s ,  [. 

Mother  in  lawe  —  belle  mère  s,  f. 

Motherly  woman  —  matrone  s,  (. 

Mocion  or  meving  —  motion,  esmotion  s,(. 

Motlcy  colour  —  biguarrure  s,  f. 

Moton  llesshe  —  mouton  s,  m. 

Movable  goodes —  mevbles,  m. 

Movabienesse — mobilité  z,f. 

Movyng  a  man  to  any  purpose  —  persuasion  s, 
f  ;  suasion  s,(. 

Mower  skorner  —  mocqaevr  s,  m. 

Mowe  of  whetc  or  haye  —  malon  defoyn  s,  m. 

Mowe  a  scorne  —  move  s,  f  ;  moe  s,  f. 

Mought  that  eates  clolhcs  - —  uer  de  drap  s,  m. 

Mockedar  for  childre  —  mouchever  s,  m. 

Moule  a  beest  —  talpe  s,  f. 

Moultytude  —  moultilude  s,  (. 

Moulde  a  forme  —  nwulle  s,  m. 

Moulde  of  the  heed  — fontayne  de  la  teste  s,  f. 

Mounlayns  of  Italy  —  Alpes. 

Mountajne  a  hyll  —  montaigne  s,  f. 

Mournyng — gémissement  s,m.;  pluipgt  z,m.; 
dveil  z,  m. 

Mournyng  garment —  habit  de  dveil  s,  ni. 

Mousealylell  beest — sovris,  ù;  mousse  s,  f. 

Mousell  of  a  beest  —  grotng  s.  m.;  moe  s,  f. 

Mouspece  of  an  oxe  —  moujle  s,  f 

Mouseeare  an  herbe. 

Mousell  for  a  beare  or  a  dogge  —  movseau  x,  m . 

Mouselrappe  —  sovricitre  s,  f. 

Monthe  of  a  domme  beest  —  gaeullc  s,  f. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE. 


247 


Mouthc  or  eolre  of  a  thyng  —  emboucheure  s,  f. 
Mouthe  of  a  ryver  —  boacifue  s,  f. 
Mouthe  of  any  thyng  —  bouche  s,  f. 
Mouthfull  —  baufre  s,  f.;  Uppee  s,  f. 

M    BEFORE    U. 

Mue  for  haukes  —  meve  s,  f. 

Mudde  myre  —  uase  s,  f. 

Mucke  —  bove,Jiant  s,  f. 

Mulbery  —  more  s,  f. 

Mulbery  tree  —  marier  s,  m. 

Mule  a  she  beest  —  mule  s,  f. 

Multiplyeng  —  multiplicaûon  s,  f. 

Multyplieng  of  language — altération  s,  (.-yplail 

z,  va. 
Multytude  —  moullitude  s,  f. 
Multytude  of  people  —  tourbe  s,  f. 
Mummar —  mommetir  s,  m. 
Munkey,  a  beest  —  marmot  s,  m. 
Murmuryng  —  murmure  s,  m.  ;  remori  z,  ni. 
Murrey  coiour  —  movrre ,  cramoysy  s,  f, 
Murrey  coiour  or  browne  —  brvnetle  s,  f. 
Mussberon  a  tode  stoie  —  champignon  s,  m. 
Musyke  —  musicjue  s,  f. 
Musyng  feiowc  —  masart  s,  m. 
Musket  a  lytell  bauke  —  mouchet  z,  m. 
Muske  that  smcUeth  —  musqué  s,  m. 
Muscle ,  a  fyssbe  —  movle  s,  f. 
Muscle  shell  —  quoquUle  de  movle  s,  f. 
Muskyn  ,  a  proper  visage  —  musquin  s,  m. 
,  Must  newe  wyne  —  movst  s,  m. 
Mustardc  —  movntarde  s,  {, 
Mustarde  sede  —  nauette  s,  f. 
Mustre  of  barnest  men  —  monstre  s,  f. 
Mustredevyies  coiour  —  yris  mesle  s,  m. 

N    BEFORE   A. 

Nape  of  the  uecke  — fossette  de  la  teste  s,  f. 

Nacyon  —  nacion  s,  f. 

Nagge  a  borse  —  courtaxilt  z,  m. 

Nayle  of  yron  —  clov  x,  m. 

Nayle  of  a  fyngre  —  vngle  s,  f. 

Nayle  of  woil. 

Nakednesse  —  nudité  z,  f. 

Nail  for  a  souter  —  alesjMe  s,  f. 

Nall  maker — faisevr  dalesnes  s,  m. 


Name  famé  — famé  s,  f. 

Name — renom  ij  m. 

Namyog  —  appellance  s,  f.  ;  appellation  s,  f. 

Napkyn  for  tbe  nose  —  nwvchover  s,  m. 

iXapkyn  for  a  borde  —  seruiette  s,{. 

Nappe  a  lytell  siepe  —  repos,  m. 

Naprie  store  of  lynen  —  linge  s,  m. 

Nauquayre  a  kynde  of  instrument —  naquair  s,  f. 

Narracion  —  narration  s,  f. 

Nat  maker  —  nalier  s,  m. 

Narownesse  —  estreissevr  s,  f. 

Naupe  of  tbe  beed  —  canneaa  de  col  x,  m.;  la 

fossette  de  la  teste  s,'  f. 
Nathe  stocke  of  a  whele. 
Nature  or  likelynesse  —  indole  s,  m. 
Nature  —  nature  s,  f. 
Nave  of  a  whele  —  moyevl  z,  xn. 
Navet  rote  —  nauelte  s,  f. 
Navyll  of  tlie  belly  —  nombril  z,  m. 

N    BEFORE  E. 

Neble  of  a  womans  pappe — tout  de  la  manulle 
s ,  m. 

Necessyte  —  soufraité  z,  f.  ;  extrémité  z,  f. 

Nede  —  besoing  z,  m. 

Nécessite  distresse  —  destresse  s,  (. 

Nedynesse  —  souffretté  z,  f. 

Nedyll  of  a  shipmans  compas  —  esgaille  s,  f. 

Nedyll  to  sowe  with  —  aguille  s,  i. 

Neglygence- — négligence  s,  f.  ;  nonchaillance  s,  f. 

Neyce ,  a  kynswoman  —  niepce  s,  f. 

Neigbbour  —  uoysin s,  m.;  proesme  s,  m.;  cou- 
sin s,  m. 

Neigbbour  woman  —  uoisine  s,  f. 

Neighbourhode —  uoisineté  z,  f 

Neyng  of  a  borse  —  hermisement  s,  m. 

Necke  —  col  z,  m. 

NeccoUer  for  a  woman  —  gorgias,  m. 

Neeke  of  a  garment  —  coiet  z,  m. 

Neccoler  —  collet  ;,  m. 

Necbande  —  gorgias,  m. 

Necbande  for  a  woman  —  gorgerette  s,  f. 

Necke  of  a  cappe  —  rebras  dung  bonnet,  m. 

Neppc  an  berbe  —  herbe  de  chat  s,  f. 

Neare  of  a  beest  —  roignon  s,  m . 

Nesyng  with  the  nose  —  estemuemenl  s,  m. 


248 


LESCLARCISSEMENT 


Necessary  thyng  —  nécessaire  s,  m. 

Nest  of  byrdes —  nyd  doiseaux  s,  m. 

Net  to  catche  tyrdes  wilh  —  tonnelle  s,  f. 

Net  to  lake  fyssbe  —  relz  a  pescker,  {. 

Neates  ledder  —  cordovayn  s,  m. 

Neltyll  a  wede  —  ortye  z,  f. 

Nevewe  a  kynsman  —  nepuev  x,  m. 

Newe  facyon  —  la  novuelle  mode  s,  f. 

Newe  moone  —  novuelle  lune  s,  f. 

Newe  wyne  —  moust  z,  m. 

Newe  yeres  day  —  le  jour  de  lan  s,  m.  ;  le  jour 

des  traînes,  m. 
Newe  jette  —  guise  noaetle  s,  f. 
Newe  yeres  gyfle  —  cslrayne  s,  f. 
Newnesse  —  novueaxlté  z,  f. 
New^le  a  worme —  lisarde  s,  f. 

N    BEFOKE    I. 

Niceuesse  —  cointerie  s,  f.  ;  nicelé  z ,  f. 

Nyckename  —  brocqaarl  s,  m. 

Nigarde  or  nygon  —  chiche  s,  m. 

Nigardoesse  —  escharcelé  z,  f.;  chichelé  z,  f. 

Nigardshyppe  —  parciti  z,  f. 

Night  —  nuycl  z,  f. 

Night  crowe  —  cresserelle  s,  f. 

Night  gnal — singaUe  s,  t. 

Night  watcbe — eschaulnetes. 

Nightyngale  —  rossignol  s,  m.  ;  rossignolet. 

Nightmare  —  goublin  s,  m. 

Nygromancer  —  nigromancien  s,  m. 

Nigromancy  —  nigromantie  z,  {. 

Nimphe  a  goddes  —  nimphe  s,  f. 

Nyt  in  a  mannes  heed  —  lente  s,  f. 

N    BEFOBE   O- 

Noble  of  meney —  noble  s,  m. 
Nobienesse  —  noblesse  s,  f. 
Noddle  of  the  beed  —  coupeaa  de  la  teste  x,  m. 
Noyeng  —  nuisance  s,  f. 
Noyse  of  people  —  tunmlte  s,  m. 
Noyse  —  brait  z,  m. 
Noyse  frayeng  —  castiUe  s,  f. 
Noysomnesse  or  yrkesomnessc  —  ennay  s,  m. 
Nocke  of  a  bowe  —  oche  de  lare  s,  m. 
Nocke  of  a  sbafte  —  oche  de  la  flesche  s,  f.  ;  pe- 
non,  coche,  loche  s,  f. 


Nombre  of  beestes  logyder — bestail  z,  m. 

Nombre  —  nombre  s,  m. 

Noone,  mydday  —  none,  midy  s,  m. 

Noetberde  or  bulberde  —  bovuier  s,  m. 

Nonae  a  relygious  womau  —  nonnain  s,  f. 

Noppe  of  wolle  or  clotbe  —  coilon  de  tapis  s,  m . 

Norisshyng  —  aliment  s,  ni.;  alimentation  s,  f. 

Northe — septentrion  s,  m. 

Northe  parte  or  wynde —  byse  s,  f.  ;  Je  vent  byse, 

septentrion  s,  m. 
Northe  starre  —  pol  articque  s,  m. 
Nose  of  a  man  —  nez,  m. 
Nosegay  —  boucquet  z,  m. 
Nosethrill  —  tendron  du  nez,  m.;  narine  s,  f. 
Notary —  nolayre  s,  m. 
Note  of  songe  —  noue  s,  f. 
Note  a  marke  in  a  boko  —  notte  s,  f. 
Nolhagge  a  byrde  — jaje  s,  f 
Noveity  a  deyntie  —  novuelleté  z,  f. 
Novembre,  a  moneth  — noucmbre  s,  m. 
Nourysshyng  —  nourriture  s,  f. 
Nouche  or  broche  —  afficqaet  z,  m. 
Novyce  a  newe  relygious  persone —  nouice  s,  m. 
Novyce  tyme  —  nouiceme  s,  m. 
Nombre  ofemptie  vesselies — Jastailles,  f. 
Nombre  of  precious  stones  —  pierrerii  s,  f 
Nombre  of  sommes  —  sommage  s,  m. 
Noumbles  of  a  dere  or  beest —  entrailles,  f. 
Nouryce  tbat  fedeth  a  childe  —  novrice  s,  f. 

N    BEFORE  U. 

Nunnc,  a  woman  relygious  —  nonnuyn  s,  f. 
Nutte  tree  —  noyer  s,  m. 

Nutte  tbat  growetb  on  hasylles  —  noixde  boys,  f. 
Nutmygge  spyce  —  noyx  nutscade ,  f. 

0    BEFORE   B. 

Obedyence  —  obéissance  s,  f. 
Objection  an  argument  —  objection  s,  f. 
Oblygacion  —  obligation  s,  f. 
Observaunce  —  obseruance  s,  f. 
Observaunt  frère  —  obseruant  s,  va. 
Observacion  —  obseruation  s,  f 
Obsequies  dirige —  uigiles,  f. 
Obstinatyon  frowardnesse  —  obstination  s,  f. 
Occasyon  to  pyke  a  quareli  —  cauillation  s,  f. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE. 


249 


Occasyon  —  occasion  s,  f.  —  achoison  s,  f. 
Occar  colour  —  ocre  s,  f. 
Occuius  chrisli  an  herbe. 
Occullalyon  hidyng  —  occultation  s,  f. 
Occupation  —  occupation  5,  f.;  entremise  s,  f. 
Octobre ,  a  moneth  —  octobre  s,  m. 
Occur,  reed  colour  —  ocre  s,  m. 
Occupyeng  of  the  mynde  —  méditation  s,  f.;  slu- 
diosité  z ,  f. 

0    BEFORE   D. 

Odeur  savoure —  oudevr  s,  £. 
Odyousnesse  —  hayneaseté  z,  f. 

0    BEFORE    F. 

Offall  of  trees. 

Offence —  offence  s,  f.  ;  crime,  maléfice,  mespri- 

son  s,  f. 
Oflendyng  —  ojfencion  s,  f. 
Oflyce  —  ojice  s,  m. 
Offycer  thaï  cesseth  the   conimon  people  in 

Fraunce  —  eslev  s,  m. 
OITycer  —  officier  s,  m. 
Officiai  —  officiai  x,  m. 
Offre  —  cevjfre  s,  m. 
Ofspringe  —  lignée  z,  f. 
Offryng  — offrande,  ucv  s,  {. 
Offryng  at  a  masse  —  offrande  s,  f. 
Ofspring  that  cometh  of  a  man —  issue  s,  f. 
OftcJoyng  of  a  thyng  —  multiplication  s,  f. 

O    BEPORE   I. 

Oyle  —  hville  s,  f. 

Oyntraent  for  womens  faces  — fard  z,  m. 

Oyiiet  bole  — ■  oillet  z,  m. 

Oyntment  —  oignement  s,  m.;  oynctvre  s,  f. 

Oystreche  fedder — plume  daustrvche  s,  f. 

Oystcr  shell,  a  fysshe  —  ojstre  s,  m. 

0  BEFORE  K. 

Oke  apple  —  pomme  de  chesne  s,  f. 

Oke  tree  —  chesne  s,  m. 

Oke  plant  —  plante  de  chesne  s,  f. 

0    BEFORE    L. 

Olde  man  —  uievlx,  iieillart  z,  m. 


Olde  woman —  uielle  s,  f. 
Oldnesse  —  uiellesse  s,  f.  ;  ajnesse  s,  f. 
Olypbant,  a  beest  —  oliphant  s,  m. 
Olyve  frute  —  oliue  s,  f. 
Olyve  tree  —  oliuier  s,  m. 

O    BEFORE   N. 

Ondoyng  —  destruction  s,  f. 

Onfaylbfulnesse  —  desloiaullé  z,  f. 

Onkyndnesse  —  ingratitude  s,  f. 

Onquyetnesse  —  esmoy  s,  m. 

Onsetleke  —  porret  z,  m. 

Oneeyed  man  —  loachet  z,  m.;  louquet  z,  m. 

One  that  spylteth  moche  —  crachart  z,  m. 

One  of  affinité —  affin  s,  m. 

Ony  maner  of  gonne  • —  bâton  afev  s,  m. 

Onyon  lo  eate  —  oignon  s,  m. 

Onstedfast  hert —  cuevr  uovlaige  s,  m. 

0  BEFORE   P. 

Opyn  audience —  court  planiere  s,  f. 
Opyn  semé  —  covslure  a  lasche  poynl  z,  f. 
Opyn  courte  —  court  planiere  s,  f. 
Opyn  house  —  maison  planiere  s,  f. 
Opyn  warre  —  gverre  ovuerte  s,  f. 
Opynars  a  kynde  of  frute  —  neffie  s,  f. 
Opynars  tree  —  neffiier  s,  m. 
Opynnesse  —  ovuerture  s,  f. 
Opynion  —  opinion  s,  f. 
Oppressyon  of  poore  peopie  —  oppresse  s,  f. 

O    BEFORE    R. 

Orateur  —  oratevr  s,  m. 
Oration  —  harenguc,  oraison  s,  f. 
Ordynaunce  or  frame  —  machine  s,  f. 
Ordynaunce  appareyle  —  aprestz,  m. 
Ordynaunce  institution  —  ordonimnce  s,  f. 
Order — ordre  s,  m. 

Order  where  a  thynge  is  selte  — situation  s,  f. 
Order  an  arraye  in  a  felde  —  arroys,  m. 
Order  dyet  in  fedyng  —  diette  s,  f. 
Ordonyng  —  ordonance  s,  f.  ;  précis,  m. 
Ore  of  a  bote  —  auiron  s,  m. 
Ore  of  a  shyppe  —  rame  s,  ï. 
Orenge ,  a  frute  —  pomme  dorenge  s,  f. 
Orenge  tree  —  orengier  s,  m. 

32 


250 


LESCLARCISSEMENT 


Organ  of  the  eare  or  hearyng  —  bvye  s,  f. 
Organs  an  instrument  —  orgre  s,  f. 
Organ  pype  —  Jlevte  dorgre  s,  f. 
Orient  perle  —  perle  oricntalle  s,  f. 
Origynall  begynnyng  —  original  x,  m. 
Oriioge ,  a  clockc  —  horiloge  s,  f. 
Orison  —  oraison  s,  f. 
Ornament —  orrtement  s,  m. 
Ornement,  a  makyng  of  men  frendes —  recon- 
ciliation Sj  f. 
Orpyn  an  herbe  —  otpyn  s,  m. 

O   BEFORE  S. 

Osier  a  yong  wyllowe  —  osier  s,  m. 

Osiarde,  a  place  where  wyliowes  growe — sav- 

soye  s,  f. 
Osyll ,  a  byrde  —  estovrneaji  x,  m. 
Ospringe,  a  byrde. 
'Ost  the  sacrament —  hostie  z,  f. 
Ost  of  men  —  armée  z,  f. 
Ostrye  —  hostelerie  s,  f. 

Ostrydge ,  a  byrde  —  avslruche  s,  f.  ;  ostrvche, 
Ostrydge  felher  sellar  —  plumacier  s,  m. 
Ostrydge  fether  —  plame  davstruche. 

O    BEFOBE   T. 

Ole  corne  —  auoyne  s,  (. 
Othe  sweryng  —  serment  s,  m, 
Ottre ,  a  heest  —  /ou(re  s,  m. 
Ottre,  a  furre  —  peaux  de  loutres,  f. 

0   BEFOBE    V. 

Overcomyng  —  desconjiture  s,  f. 
Overflowyng  with  water  —  inundation  s,  f. 
Oversight  —  musardie  s,  f. 
Ouche  for  a  bonnet  —  ajficquet  z,  m.;  ajjichei 

z.  m. 
Ould  sayd  sawe  —  prouerbe  s,  m. 
Oulde  house  that  îs  in  ruyne  —  masure  s,  f. 
Oulde  mayde  —  laberdine  s,  f. 
Ouche,  a  jowell  —  bague  s.  f. 
Ouïes  heed  —  hvre  s ,  f. 
Ovyn  lo  balte  in  — fovr  s,  m. 
Owner  that  is  in  possessyon  of  thyng  —  pro- 

priaitaire  s,  m. 
Outterwarde  of  a  castell  —  couribasse  s,  f. 


Outarlyne  or  parte  of  a  cercle  —  circumferen- 

ce  s,  f. 
Outtakyng  —  exception  s,  f. 
Ou  tas  of  a  feest  —  octaues ,  f. 
Outcrye  —  acclamation,  exclamation  s,  [. 
Outryder  —  aaant  courreur  s,  m. 
Outiawe  —  banny  z,  m. 
Outcrye — Imtyn  s,  m. 

Outpiace,  a  corner  outof  the  way — destovrs,  m. 
Outcorner  or  secrète  corner —  reduyt  z,  m. 
Outwarde  parte  of  any  thynge  —  superf.ce  s,  f. 
Outrage  —  ovltrage  s,  m. 
Oustell  a  tôle  to  worke  with  —  oustil  z,  m. 

0    BEFOBE    X. 

Oxe  a  beest  —  bevf  z,  m. 

Oxebowe  that  gothe  ahout  bis  necke  —  collier 

de  bevf  z,  m. 
Oxeeye  an  herbe. 
Oxestale  —  crèche  s,  f. 

P    BEFORE    A. 

Paast  or  glewe  —  cole  s,(. 

Face  a  goyng  —  pas,  m. 

Pacyence  an  herbe  —  pacience  s,  {. 

Pacyentnesse  —  pacience  s,  f. 

Pacyence  verlue  —  pacience  s,  f. 

Pacyeut  a  sicke  body  — pacient  s,  m. 

Packe — fardeau  x,  m.;  pacquel  z,  m. 

Pacquet  of  ietters  —  pacqaet  de   lettres,  etc. 

z,  m. 
Paddocke  —  crapavlt  x,  m. 
Packesadyll  —  batz,  bas,  m. 
Page  a  servaunt  —  page  s,  ni. 
Pagiant  in  a  playe  —  mistere  s,  m. 
Pagyll  a  cowsloppe. 
Payle  a  vessell  —  seau  x,  m. 
Payment  of  nioney  —  poyements,m. 
Payment  by  driblettes  —  enlreneve,  payement. 
Payment  of  dette  —  solution  s,  f. 
Payne  mayne  —  />"/"  de  bouche  j,  ni. 
Payne  desease  ,  tourment  in  payne  —  payne 

s,(. 
Payne  of  sickenesse  —  agonie  s,  f. 
Panytn  an  infydele  —  payen  s,  m. 
Payre  of  any  thyng  —  paire  s,  f. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE. 


251 


Payntyng  wilh  colours  —  paintare  s,  f. 

Payntyng  of  ones  face — farcement  s,  m. 

Paynter — paintre  s,  m. 

Payre  of  indentures  —  endeittures ,  f. 

Payre  of  hose  from  the  kne  up  — ■  demy  chaus- 
ses, f. 

Payre  of  beedes  —  paternoslres ,  m. 

Payre  of  botes  —  bottes,  f. 

Payre  of  sioppe  hoses — braietles  a  marinier  s,  f. 

Payre  of  burlettes  —  ânes  paces  z,{. 

Payre  of  brigandyns  —  briyandines,  f. 

Payre  of  curâtes  —  carace  s,  f. 

Payre  of  longes  —  tenailles,  f. 

Payre  of  fettars  —  ceps,  m. 

Payre  of  sycers  —  ciseletz,  m.  ;  forces,  f. 

Payre  of  belowes  —  soujjletz,  m. 

Payre  of  pynsons  — pinces,  f.  ;  eslriquoires,  f. 

Payre  of  spectacles  —  lunettes,  f. 

Payre  of  stockes  —  piège,  ceps,  f. 

Payre  of  golde  weygbtes  —  poix ,  trebuchet 
z,  m. 

Payre  of  wynding  blades  —  toarnettes,  f. 

Payre  of  pastes  —  unes  puces ,  f . 

Payre  of  tables — unes  tubles  f.;jev  detables,{. 

Payre  of  smythes  tonges  —  greffes,  f. 

Payre  of  startoppes  —  hovssettes  (. 

Payre  of  lytell  sheres  — forcetles,  f. 

Payre  of  cardes  to  playe  with  —  cartes,  f 

Payre  of  writyng  tables  —  tablettes,  f. 

Payre  of  clarycordes  —  monocorde,  f 

Payre  of  balances  —  unes  balances,  f. 

Paytrell  for  a  borse  —  poictral  x,  m. 

Packesadell  —  bast  z,  m. 

Palays  —  palais,  m. 

Palate  of  the  mouthe  —  palais,  m. 

Pale  of  a  parke  or  sucbe  lyke  —  pal  z,  m. 

Pale  before  a  dore  —  palis,  m. 

Pale  a  fence  —  tavldis,  m. 

Pale  or  a  stake  —  piev  x,  m.;  claie  s,  f. 

Palenesse  —  palissevr  s  ,  f.;  pâleur  s,  f. 

Palfray  a  beest  — pulejroy  s,  m.\  hacquenee 
s,  f. 

Palfrayman — palefrenier  s,  m. 

Paleron ,  a  pece  of  harnesse  — espalleron  s,  m. 

Palme  of  the  bande  — palme,  le  creux  de  la 
mayn  s,  m. 


Palmesonday  —  pasqueS  jlevry  s,  f;  dimanche 

de  blanches. 
Palme  tree  —  palme  s,  lU. 
Palme  for  Palmesonday  —  rameau  x,  m. 
Palmus  cbrisli  an  herbe. 
Palme  the  yelowe  that  growetb  on  wyllowes  — 

chatton  s,  m. 
Palmers  scrippe  —  escharpe  s,  f. 
Palsey  a  disease. 
Paltocke  of  lether  —  pellice  s,  f. 
Paltocke  a  garment  —  halcret  z,  m. 
Paltocke  a  patche  —  palleteau  x,  m. 
Pâment  of  a  strete — pauimenl  s,  m.;pauee  z,  f. 
Panche  a  belly  —  pance  s,  t. 
Pancy  floure  —  meuve  pencee  s,  f. 
Pane  of  furre  —  panne  s,  f. 
Pane  of  a  wall  —  pan  de  mur  s,  m. 
Pane  of  gray  furre  —  panne  de  gris,  f. 
Panne  a  vessell  —  poille  darrayn  s,  f. 
Panell  of  a  wall  — pan  de  mur  s,  m. 
Pannell  to  ryde  on  —  batz,  m.; panneau  x,  m. 
Pannyer  a  basket  —  panier  s,  m. 
Pange  of  sickenesse  —  (rai'cf  z,itt. 
Pancake  —  tovrteau  x,  m. 
Panges  of  dethe  —  les  traictz  de  mort. 
Panther  a  beest  —  panthère  s,  m. 
Panther  to  catche  byrdes  with — panneau  x,  m. 
Panter  an  oEGcer  —  pannetier  s,  m. 
Pantry  a  house  of  office  — panneterie  s,  f. 
Pappe  meate  for  cliyldre  —  boville  s,  f. 
Pappe  a  womans  breestor  other — mamelle  s,  f. 
Pappeheed  —  bout  de  la  mamelle  z,  m. 
Papyr  to  wrile  on  —  papier  s,  m. 
Parable  —  parabole  s,  f. 
Paradyse  —  paradys ,  m. 
Parbrekyng  —  nomissement  s,vn. 
Paramour  a  man  —  acoincte. 
Paramour  a  woman  —  dame  peramour. 
Parceli  a  porcyon  —  parcelle  s,  f. 
Parchemyne  —  parchemin  s,  m. 
Parchementmaker  —  parcluminier  s,  m. 
Parclos  to  parte  two  roumes  —  séparation  s,  f, 
Pardon  —  pardon  s,  m. 
Pardoner  —  pardonnier  s,  m. 
Pardonyng  —  pardonnance  s,{. 
Parfaytnesse —  intégrité  z,  f. 

32. 


I 


s- 


252  LESGLARCISSEMENT 

Parfection  —  perfection  s,  f. 

Pariette  for  walles  —  hlanchissevre  s,  f. 

Paryssbe — paroisse  s,{. 

Parysshe  churche  —  esglise  parochialle  s,  f. 

Parygshoner,  a  dwellar  in  a  parysshe — pare- 

cien  s,  m. 
Paryng  of  any  frule  —  pelbire  s,  f. 
Paryng  of  breed  —  chapellys,  m. 
Paryng,  yrone  to  pare  a  horsehofe  vfith. 
Parytorie  somoner  —  bedeau  x,  m. 
Parjury  —  parjure  s,  m. 
Parke  for  dere  —  parc  z,  m. 
Parcar  a  man  — uerdier  s,  m. 
Parlyament  —  parlement  s,  m. 
Parlour  —  sallette  s,  f. 
Parrockea  lytell  parke — parquet  z,  m. 
Parsone  that  is  excommunycate —  excommenge, 

paliae. 
Parser  to  bore  witb  —  persover  s  ,  m.;  foret 

z,  m. 
Parsone  man  or  woman  —  parsonne  s,  f. 
Parsonage  a  place  —  presbitoyre  s,  m. 
Parcelay  an  herbe  —  parsil,  parsin  s,  m. 
Parsone  a  curate  —  cvré  z,  m. 
Parsone  y vell  favoured — marpault  x,  m. 
Parte  ofany  thyng  —  port  s,  f. 
Partie  —  party  s,  m. 
Partenar  that  is  prevy  to  a  dede — parconniner 

s,  m. 
Partie  felovve  —  parsonnier  s,  m. 
Partetakyng  of  any  thynge — parlicipalion  s,  {. 
Partyng  of  any  thyng  —  partaige  s,  m. 
Partyng  of  a  thyng  to  many  —  communion  Sjf. 
Partnyt  that  bredeth  under  ones  arme  —  mort- 
pou  X,  ta. 
Partie  that  sueth  agaynst  a  man  —  party  ad- 

uers. 
Parliculer   mater    of  an   authour  —  passaige 

s.{. 
Pasneppe  an  herbe. 
Passage  of  a  man  of  armes — pas,  va. 
Passyng  measure  —  ovltraige  s,  va. 
Passyon  weke  —  sepmaine  penevse  s,  (. 
Paslc  for  a  iady  or  woman  —  unes  paces,  f. 
Paste  for  bredde  —  poste  s,  f. 
Pasty  bake  meate  —  pasli  z ,  m. 


Pastyme  —  passetemps.m.;  esbatement  s,  m. 

Pastler  that  baketh  — pastisier  s,  m. 

Pastron  of  an  horse  —  pasturon  s,  m. 

Pastreo  —  pasturiaa  x,m. 

Pasture  fedyng  —  paslnre  s,i. 

Patche  or  clout  —  rapeissare  s,  f. 

Pathe  in  a  waye  —  sente  s,  f. ;  sentier  s,  m. 

Patyn  of  a  chaiys  —  platine  s,  f. 

Paten  for  a  fote  —  galoche  s .  f . 

Patenmaker  —  patinier  s,  m. 

Patent  ietters  —  lettres  patentes,  f. 

Patisyng  a  Ireatie  of  peace,  as  frontier  townes 

take  one  of  another  —  pasiisaige  s,f. 
Patriarke — patriarche  s,  m. 
Patrimony  —  patrimoine  s,  m. 
Patrone  of  a  gally  — patron  de  galee  s,  m. 
Patron  a  helpar  —  patron  s,  m. 
Patron  example  —  patron  s,  m. 
Patron  that  hath  the  right  to  gyve  a  benifyce — 

patron  s,  m. 
Paves  to  défend  one  with  — panais,  m. 
Paweofa  beest  —  patte  s,  f. 
Pavyllyon — paueillon  s.  m. 
Pavyngstone — quarreaa  x,  m.;  carreau  x,  m. 
Paulme  of  the  bande  —  palme  de  la  main  s,  f. 
Paument  of  a  strete  —  paué  z,  m. 
Paulmer  a  poore  man  —  blislre  s,  m.  ;  blistres- 

se  s,  f. 
Paume  to  play  at  tennys  with  —  paulme. 
Paune  of  the  chesse  -~-paonnet  z,  m. 
Paunchea  bely  —  panse  s,  f. 
Pause  or  taryeng  —  pause  s,  f. 
Pausyng  —  interpos,  m. 
Pautner  —  malette  s,  f. 
Paxe  to  kysse  —  paix,  f. 

P    BEFORE    E. 

Peace  —  paix,  f. 

Pease  reke  — pesiere  s,  (. 

Peasablenesse — pesibleté  z,  f. 

Pece  a  cuppe  —  fosse  s,  f. ;  hanap  z,  va. 

Pece  or  parle  of  a  thyng  —  pièce  s,  f 

Pece  of  steele. 

Peacbe  a  frute  — pesche  s,  (. 

Peache  iree  —  peschier  s,  m. 

Pecocke  a  byrde  - —  pan  s,  m.;  paon  s,  m. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE. 


253 


Pectoral!. 

Pedlar  —  mercerot  z,  m. 

Peake  of  a  ladyes  mournyng  heed  —  biquoqaet 

z,  m. 
Pegge  of  woode  —  cheuille  s,  f. 
Pehenne  a  byrde  — panesse  s,  f. 
Peyce  a  weyght  — peys  s,  m.  ;  pesant  s,  m. 
Peync  —  pajne  s,  f. 
Peynfulnesse  —  penihleté  z,f. 
Peynlyng  —  painctare  s,  f. 
Peyntar  —  peyntre  s,  m. 
Peytrell  for  a  liorse  —  poictrel  z,  m. 
Pecke  a  measare  —  quart  s,  m. 
Peele  of  belles  —  son  de  cloches,  m. 
Pelé  for  an  ovyn  —  pelle  a  four  s,  f. 
Pelelyr  an  herbe. 

Pellet  a  rounde  stone  —  plomme  s,  f. 
Pellycane  a  byrde  —  pélican  s,  m. 
Penaunce  —  pénitence  s,  f  ;  penance  s,  f. 
Pensell  a  lytell  baner  —  banerolle  s,  f. 
Pencell  to  paynt  with. 

Pensyfenesse  —  sovcy  s,  m.  ;  pencifueté  z,  f. 
Pencyon  —  pencion  s,  f. 
Pendant  of  a  gyrdell  — pendant  s,  m. 
Pendant  for  carpenters  —  niueau  x,  m. 
Penne  to  write  with  —  plame  s,  f. 
Penneknyfe  —  cannyuet  s,  m. 
Pennar  and  ynkehorne  —  escriptoire  s,  f. 
Pennon  a  banner  —  pennon  s,  m. 
Penny  coyne —  denier  s,  m. 
Pennyworte  an  herbe  —  poulliot  z,  m. 
Pennyworthe  —  denrée  s,  f. 
Penytauncer  —  penilancier  s,  m. 
Penon  a  lytell  baner  in  a  felde —  pennon  s,  m. 
Penneryall  an  herbe  —  poulliot  z,m. 
Pensy  Boure  —  pensée  s,  f 
Penthouse  of  a  liouse  —  appentis,  m. 
Pentys  over  a  stall  —  avuent  s,  m. 
Pentes  or  paves  —  estai,  soubtil  x,  m. 
Peony  an  herbe. 
Penthatheukes,  fyve  bokes  of  Moyses  lawe  — 

pentathevcon  s,  m. 
People  folkes — pevple  s ,  m. 
Peper  spyce  —  poyure  s,  m. 
Pepcrquerne  —  yregoyr  a  poyure  s,  ni. 
Perceyvyng — apperceuance  s,  f.;  perception  s,  f. 


Perceley  an  herbe  —  persin  s,  m. 

Percerblade  —  estoc  z,  ra. 

Perche  a  fysshe  —  perche  s,  f. 

Perche  for  a  bauke  —  perche  s,  f. 

Perre  drinke  —  peré  s,  m. 

Perfectyon  —  perfection  s,  f. 

Perytorie  an  herbe. 

Perivyncle  a  shellfysshe  —  biyorneau  x,  m.; 

uineau  x,  m. 
Peryll — penl  z,  m. 
Peerle  a  stone  —  perle  s,  f. 
Peerle  in  the  eye  —  maille  s,  f. 
Permutacion  —  permutation  s,  f. 
Perceveraunce  —  perceverance  s,  f. 
Personage — personnaige  s,  m. 
Persour  an  instrument — foret  :,  m.;  aibri- 

quet  z,  m. 
Persuadyng  —  persuasion  s,  {. 
Perlrytche  a  byrde  —  pardris,  f. 
Pece  to  drinke  in  —  lasse  s,  f. 
Pesablenesse  —  lacitarnité  z,  f. 
Pesé  frute  —  poys,  m. 
Pescodde  —  escosse  de  poix,  f. 
Pestell  of  flesshe — jambon  s,  ni. 
Pesteil  of  wode  to  slampe   with  —  pestait  s, 

va.;  pillon  s,  m. 
Pestcli  of  yrone  —  pillon  s,  m. 
Pestylence  —  pestilence  s,  f.  ;  epidimie  s,  t. 
Petaunce  a  small  porcion  of  miate  —  pitance 

s.  f. 
Peter  a  proper  name  —  Pierre  s,  m. 
Pely  cannon  —  uicaire  s,  m. 
Petycote  —  corset  simple,  m.  ;  cotte  simple  s,  f.; 

chemise  de  blanchet  s,  (. 
Pety  nytie. 

Petygrewe  —  généalogie  s ,  t. 
Pewke  a  colour  —  pers,  m. 
Pewter  metall  —  eslain  s,  m. 
Pewtrer — pottier  des  tain  s,  m.;  peavltrier  s ,  m. 

P    BEFORE    H. 

Phylosophie  —  philosophie  s ,  f. 

Philosopher  —  philosophe  s,  m. 

Physike  —  médecine  s,  f. 

Physicion  —  mire  s,  m. 

Phesycion  named  in  derisyou  —  mcrdefm  s,  m. 


254 


LESCLARCISSEMENT 


Pbesaunt  a  byrde  — faisant  s,  m. 
Phisnamy  a  face  — phisonomie  s,  t. 

P    BEFOBE    I. 

Pyclier  —  pot  de  terre  z,  m. 

Piche  for  shyppes  —  pour,  f. 

Piche  forke  — Joirchc  fiere  s,  f, 

Pye  a  byrde  —  pie,  agache  s,  f. 

Pyed  monke  —  barnardia  s,  va. 

Pye  a  pasty  —  pasii  z,  m. 

Pye  baker  —  paticier  s,  m.;  patessoiier  s,  m. 

Pygge  a  beest  —  coychon  s,  m. 

PignoU  a  kynde  of  frute  — piynoUe  s,  f. 

Pygion  a  byrde  — p'gon  s,  m.;  colombette  s,  f. 

Pyke  a  fysshe  —  brochet  z,m. 

Pickerell  a  fysshe  —  brocheton  s,  m. 

Pyke  ofastaffe — piquant  s,  m. 

Picke  axe — picq ,  hoiau  x,  m.  ;  pique  de  fer  s,  f. 

Pyccle  sauce  —  saxlmitre  s,  f 

Pytche  of  lethcr  —  pelice  s,  f. 

Pyle  for  a  bridge  —  pilolys,  m. 

Pyle  of  a  coyne,  the  syde  bavyng  no  crosse  — 

pile  s,  (. 
Pyie  of  clotbes  or  any  olher  heape  — pUlc  s,  f. 
Pyle  to  be  set  in  a  fauty  grounde  — pilot  :,  m. 
Pyli  of  a  nulle  curnell  —  pellure  dune  noix,  f. 
Pyil  of  frule  —  pellei^rc  s,  f. 
Pyllar  a  robber —  pillcvr  s,  m.;  pillart  z,  m. 
Pyllar  of  a  churche  —  piiter,  colompne  s,  f. 
Pyllar  —  columpne  s,  f. 
Pyller  to  do  juslyce  —  estache  s,  f. 
Pyllary  to  punysshe  men  al  — pilory  s,  m. 
Pylgryme — pellerin  s,  m. 
Pylle  for  a  laxe  — pilleuse,  pillcvre  s,  f. 
Pyll  of  hempe  —  til  z,  m. 
Pyllage  —  pillaigc  s,  m. 
Pylled  as  ones  heed  is —  pelle  z,  m. 
Pyllyngof  hempe  or  anyother  thyng  —  til  z,va. 
Pylotlc  thaï  governelh  a  shippe  — pdot  z,  m. 
Pyllyon  for  a  woman  to  ryde  on  —  hovsse  à 

Jemme  s,  {. 
Pyliowc  for  ones  h^ed  —  oreillier  s,  m. 
Pyliowe  bere  —  taye  doreilUer  s,  m. 
Pylcher  a  fysshe  —  sardine  s,  f. 
Pyment  —  piment  s,  ni. 
Pympernyll  an  herbe. 


Pymple  on  a  mannes  face  — pustule  s,  f. 

Pynapletree  —  pin  s,  m. 

Pynne  oftymbre  —  chenille  s,  f. 

Pyncase  —  esplintjuier  s,  m. 

Pynne  of  yrone  —  broche  de  fer  s,  f. 

Pynne  for  kerchcfes  —  esplingue  s,  {. 

Pynne  maker  —  esplinguier  s,  m. 

Pynpyllovve  lo  stycke  pynnes  on. 

Pynnacle  — pinacle  s,  m. 

Pynaple  — pomme  de  pin  s,  f. 

Pynfolde  — prison  aux  bestes,  f. 

Pynne  tree — parquet  z,m. 

Pyncase  —  esplinyuctte  s,  f.  ;  esplinguiere. 

Pynyng  of  a  man  in  prisone  lo  confesse  the 

Iroutbe  —  torture  s,  (. 
Pynnyon  of  a  wyng —  bout  de  lesle  s,  va. 
Piony  an  herbe. 

Pynsons  of  yrone  —  estricqaoyres ,  f. 
Pynson  sho —  ca£ignon  s,  m. 
Pynl  measure  —  choppine  s,  f. 
Pynlyll  a  mannes  yarde  —  uit  z,  m. 
Pype  lo  pype  wilh  — flevste  s,  f. 
Pype  of  a  condyle  —  deuidover  s,  m.  ;  tuyau  de 

fontayne  x,  m. 
Pype  a  vessell  — pipe  s,  f. 
Pyppe  a  sickenesse  —  pepye  s,  f. 
Pyppen  an  apple  —  capendu  s,  f. 
Pyrry  a  stormc  of  wynde  —  orage  s,  m.  ;  bovf- 

fee  de  uent  s,  {. 
Pyrne  or  webslars  lome — mestier  a  tisser  s,  m. 
Pyspol — pot  a  pisser  s,  m. 
Pysse  uryne —  urine  s,  {.;  escloy  s,  m. 
Pysmyre  a  lyteli  worme  —  formys,  m. 
Pismyre  hill  — formiliere  s,  f. 
Pyslell  a  letler  —  espistre  s,  (. 
Pysteller  thaï  syngeth  the  masse. 
Pytche  —  poix,  f. 

Pytauncc —  pitance  de  covuent  s,  f. 
Pytche  forke — fovrche fere  s,  (. 
Pyteousnesse  —  pilevsetè  z,{. 
Pyle  compassyon  —  pitié  s,  f. 
Pylle  in  the  grounde  — fosse  s,  {. 
Pytte  or  weli. 

Pylle  in  ones  cheke  or  chyn  — fossette  s,  f. 
Pylfall  for  byrdes  —  trebovchct  z,  m. 
Pythe  slrength  — force  s,  f. 


DE  LA  LANGUE 

Pythe  of  a  stalke  or  of  a  tree  —  ciievr  s,  m. 

P    BEFORE   L. 

Place  —  Uev  x ,  m. 

Place  or  slede  —  endroit  z,  m. 

Place  closed  — parc  z,  m. 

Place  a  house  —  place  s,  f. 

Place  wliere  rclykes  be — reliquaire  s,  f. 

Place  where  foure  stretes  mete  toguyder  — • 

carrejour  s,  m. 
Place  where  llie  sonne  shyneth   ail  day  — 

hasle  s,  m. 
Place  where  beestes  resteth  ail  night  —  giste 

s.f. 
Place  where  is  good  haukyng  -^gibier  s,  m. 
Place  where  a  man  is  lodged  —  herbegerie  s,  f. 
Place  of  jugement  —  prétoire  s,  m. 
Place  where  juges  sylte  — parquet  z,  m. 
Place  where  justyce  is  niynyslred  —  parle- 
ment a,  va. 
Place  to  flye  to  rescue  —  ''ejuge  s,  va. 
Place  nere  a  churche  to  walkc  in — parais,  m. 
Place  where  any  joynt  touroeth. 
Place  of  murther,  or  where  murlher  or  exé- 
cution is  executcd  —  mevrtressovcre  s,  (. 
Place  where  roses  growe —  rosière  s,  f. 
Place  where  hempe  groweth  —  cheneuiere  s,  (. 
Place  where  willows  growe  —  sausojre  s,  f. 

Place  where  a  thyng  is  sette  —  situation  s,  f. 

Place  to  batlie  one  in  —  thermes,  (. 

Plage  of  slckenesse  —  playe  s,  {. 

Playe  an  cnterlude  — farce  s,  f. 

Play  sport  —  corolle  s,  f. ;  déduit,  esbat  z,  m. 

Play  at  the  chesse — jev  aux  eschiecz  x,  m. 

Playce  a  fyssbe  —  plye  s,,  f. 

Player  or  goer  upon  a  corde  —  batellevr  s,  m. 

Playe  maker — faclevr  s,  m.;factiste  s,  m. 

Player  in  a  playe  —  parsonnage. 

Playne,  a  grounde  that  is  without  hylles  — 
planicr,  playne  s,  f. 

Playne  felde — plaine  terre,  lande  s,  f. ;  plaigne 
s,[. 

Playnt  complaynyng  —  plainte  s,(. 

Playnesse  of  any  thyng  —  planevr  s,  f. 

Playster  for  walies  —  piastre  s,  f. 

Plaster  for  a  sore  —  emplaistre  s,  ni. 


FRANCOYSE.  255 

Plasterer  that  layeth  plaster  in  bylding — plais- 

trier,  plastrevr  s,  m. 
Play  tes  of  a  womans  heer  —  tresses,  t.  ;  (rel- 
iure s,  {. 
Playte  of  a  gowne  —  plj  z,m. 
Plancher  niade  cf  bordes  —  planché  z,  m. 
Plane  tree  —  plane. 
Plane  an  instrument  for  joyners  —  plane  s,  f.  ; 

rabot  z,  m. 
Planet  a  starre  —  planète  s,  f. 
Planke  — planche,  planchette  s,  f. 
Plancke  over  a  water  —  planchette  s,  f. 
Plant  —  plante  s^  f 
Plantan  an  herbe  —  planteyne  s,  m. 
Plasshe  of  a  water  —  jlacquet  z,  m. 
Plate  of  a  garment  —  plal,ply  s,  m. 
Plate  of  harnesse  —  plat  z,  m. 
Plate  sylver  vessell  —  uajsselle  dargent  s,  f. 
Plate  of  any  metall  — platine,  lame  s,  f. 
Flatter  lo  eate  in  —  plat  z,  m. 
Platnesse  —  plattevr  s,  f. 
Plesantnesse — plaisance  s,i'. 

Plee  before  a  juge  —  plajl  z,  m.;  plaidoyrie 
s,   f. 

Pledge  a  borowe  — plaige  s,  m. 

Pledge  —  gt'ige  s,  n>. 

Pledyng  —  playdoyrie  s,  f.-^  plait  z,  m. 

Playe  an  cnterlude — farce  s,(. 

Playe  of  sadde  matters  —  moralité  z,  f. 

Playe  nat  ernest — jev  x,  m. 

Playfere  —  mignon  s,  m. 

Plesantnesse  — aménité  z,  f. 

Plentie  —  habundance  s,  f. ;  plainte  z,  i.\Je- 
cundité  z,  {.\ fertilité  z,  t.;  opulence  s,  f.; 
ajlaence  s,  f. 

Plentuousnesse  —  plenturevseté  z,  f. 

Plentyousnesse  of  people  —  populosité  z,  f. 

Plentie  of  bowes —  ramage  s,  f. 

Plentie  of  wylde  beestes  — sauagine  s,  (. 

Plesaunce — plaisance  s,î. 

Pleasure  wyll  —  aveil  z,  ni. 

Pleasure  sporte  —  esbatement  s,  m. 

Pleasure  —  commodité  z,{. 

Plyantnesse  —  ploianlevr  s,  f. 

Plyte  or  state  —  poynt  s,  m. 

Plombe  for  a  shyppe  — plombée  s,  f. 


256 


LESCLARCISSEMENT 


Plome  a  frute  —  prvne  s ,  f. 

Plome  tree  —  prunier  s,  ni. 

Ploncket  colour  —  blev  x,  m. 

Flotte  of  grounde  —  picce  de  terre  s,  {. 

Ploughe  —  charcve  s,  f. 

Plougbe  typpe. 

Ploughe  betyll  —  mailUet  de  chane  z,  m. 

Ploughe   beame  —  queve  de  la  charue  s,  f.  ; 

mancheron  s,  m. 
Plowe  lande  —  terre  labourée  s,   f. 
Plowe  eare. 

Plowe  handeli  —  manche  s,  f, 
Plowe  start  —  manche  s ,  f. 
Plowe  man  —  labourevr  s,  m.;  cltarraier  s,  m, 
Hover  a  byrde  —  plovuier  s,  m. 
Plunibe  for  a  carpenter  —  riglel  z,  m. 
Plumbe  for  a  sbyppeman — plomb  de  sonde  z,  m. 
Plomel  of  leed  —  plommee  s,  f. 
Plome  of  oystrydge  fethers  —  plummart  s,  m. 
Plomniar  a  craftesmao  —  plommetr  s,  m. 

P    BEFORE    0. 

Podyng  — bovdin  s,  m. 

Poddell  a  slougbe  —  bovrbier  s,  m. 

Poet  a  connyng  man  — poète  s,  m. 

Poygniet  for  onessieves — poignet  z,  m. 

Poynt  for  oncs  bose  —  esguillelte  s,  f. 

Poynl  an  article  —  poj'nt  z,  m, 

Poynt  mater  —  esguilletier  s,  m. 

Poynt  of  any  tbyng  —  pointe  s,  (.  ;  poynté  s,  m. 

Poynt  oftbe  sholder  —  espalleron  s,  m. 

Poynt  a  properlie  —  taiche  s,  f. 

Poynt  of  a  swerd  —  poincle  dune  espee  s,  f. 

Poyntell  or  caracte  —  esplingue  de  fer  s,  m. 

Poysy  devyse  or  worde  —  deaise  s,  f. 

Poyson  — poyson  s,  f.  ;  harpoy  s,  m. 

Poytrell  parte  of  an  horse  barnesse  —  poyc- 

trail  z ,  m. 
Poke  or  bagge  —  poche  s,  f. 
Pocke  or  blayne —  bouton  s,  m. 
Poke  frekyns  —  picquetcvre  or  picquottevre  de 

aerolle  s,  (. 
Pocke  a  great  pocke  —  la  yorre,  la  grosse  ue- 

rolle  s,  f. 
Pocke  a  small  —  uerolle  s,  (. 
Pockynesse  — fossetlerie  s ,  f. 


Polycy  —  police  s,  f. 

Polyssbing  makyng  smothe  of  a  thynge  —  po- 

lissure  s,  f 
Polie  beed  —  corpeau  x ,  m. 
Pôle  a  staffe  —  perche  s,  f. 
Polaxe  a  weapen  —  becq  defaulcon  z,  m. 
Pôle  or  rodde  —  perche  s,  {. 
Pôle  for  fyssbe —  uiuier  s,  m. 
Poled  a  yonge  tode  —  cauesot  z,  m. 
Polet  tbe  blacke  thynge  that  a  tode  cometh  of 

cauesot  z,  va. 
Pommaundre  to  smell  to  —  pomendier  s,  m. 
Porne  garnct  —  pomme  de  granade  s,  f 
Pome  garnet  tree  —  granadicr  s,  m. 
Pomell  of  aswerde — pommeau  x,  m. 
Pompe  tryumphe  —  triomphe  s,  m. 
Pompe  —  tryumphe,  bobant  s,  m.;  grandgore 

sj. 
Pompe  of  a  sbyppe  —  pompe  s,  t. 
Ponde  ofwater  —  cslang  z ,  m, ;  uiuier  s,  m. 
Polc  a  standyng  water —  cslang  z ,  m. 
Ponyssbmcnt  —  pugnilion  s,  f. 
Pose  in  tbe  nose  —  rime  s,  f 
Pope — pape  s,  m. 

Popet  for  chyldre  to  play  with  —  povpee  s,  f. 
Popyll  tree  —  pevplier  s,  m. 
Popple,  suche  as  ryseth  whan  water  or  any 

lycour  scletb  fast  —  bovitlon  s,  m. 
Poppy  sede  or  the  lierbe  —  pauot  z ,  m. 
Popyniaye  a  byrde  — papegault  z,  m.;  para- 

quel  z,  m. 
Popyniaye  colour  —  aertgay  s,  m. 
Porche  of  a  dore  —  porche  s,  m. 
Porcion  parte  — porcion  s,  C 
Pore,  a  small  hole  suche  as  tbe  swete  cometh 

out  at  —  pore  s,  f. 
Poore  man  — poure  homme,  belistre  s,  m. 
Poorenesse  —  pouerté  z ,  f. 
Porret  yong  lekes  —  porelle  s,  f. 
Porke  flesshe  —  porc  z,  m.;  chair  de  pourceau 

z,  m. 
Porkepyn  a  beest  —  porc  espin  s,  m. 
Porpas  a  fyssbe  —  mcrsovyn  s,  m. 
Portail  of  waynscot  or  suche  lyke  —  conter- 

quarrc  s,  f. 
Porte  an  bavyn  —  port  s,  m. 


DE  LA  LANGUE 

Porte  coullys —  barrière  covlisse,  porie  iwlant,    j 

(Ro)  marche  coulyz,  coulisse,  râteaux,  m. 
Porte  countenaunce  —  mantien  s,  m,;  conte- 
nance s,  {. 
Portlyncsse —  magnificence  s,  [. 
Porche  or  an  entrye  —  porche  s,  f. 
PortenauDce  of  a  beest — f  resserre  s,  t. 
Porter,  a  kepar  of  a  gale  — portier  s,  m. 
Portyes,  a  preestes  boke  —  breuiavre  s,  m. 
Portche  of  waynscot  •^  con(erçuayre  s,  f. 
Porter  of  burdens  —  crochetevr  s,  m. 
Porcion  of  a  thyng  —  particularité  x,  f. 
Portrature  —  portraycture  s,{. 
Pose  dysease  —  caterre  s,  f. 
Possessyon  of  a  thyng  —  saisine  s,  (. 
Possessyon — possession  s,  f. 
Possessions  lyvelode  —  terres,  f. 
Posset  of  aie  and  mylke  —  possetle  s,  {. 
Possybilyte  —  possibilité  z,(. 
Posnet  a  lytell  polte. 

Post  in  a  shyppe  called  cabastaync  —  cabes- 
tain  s,  m. 

Poste  —  posté  Zj  f.  ;  posteav  s,  m. 

Posterne  a  gâte  —  posterne  s,  (. 

Postume  a  sickenesse  —  apostume  s,(. 

Polte  a  gallon  measure — pot  z,m. 

Potlanger  —  escïelle  s,  f.  ;  avrillon  s,  m. 

Pottage  —  potage  s,  m.;sovppe  s,  f. 

Potycary  tbat  selletb  medycins  —  apothecayre 
s,  m. 

Potte  hokes  —  unes  ancestes,  f. 

Polte  bangynges — cremilliere  s,  f. 

Potycaries  reccyt  —  droguerie,  drogue  s,  f. 

Pottell  measure  —  quarte  s,  f. 

Pottage  suppyng —  sovppe  s,  t. 

Pottage  without  herbes  —  potage  s,{. 

Potier  —  potier  de  terre  s,  m. 

Potte  of  brasse  or  pewter  —  pot  z,  m. 

Potlydde  for  a  potte  —  covuerlecqae  s,  m. 

Potslycke  —  batton  s.  m. 

Poverle  —  poureté  z,  (.;  sovjraité  z,  f. 

Pouce  of  ihe  arme  —  potce  s,  m. 

Pouche  niaker  —  gibbcsierier  s,  m. 

Pouche  —  gibbesiere  s.  t. 

Poudre  —  pouldre  s,  f. 

Poudre^  armynj  a  furre  — peau  de  ermyns,  f. 


FRANCOYSE.  257 

Power  —  poviioire  s,  m.;  efficace  s,  C;  puissance 
s.  f  ;  posté  z,  f. 

Poullayne  foule  —  potllaille  s,  f. 

Poudryng  tubbe  —  salover  s,  m, 

Poullet  —  poulet,  poucin  z,  m. 

Poultry  —  poullaillerie  s,  f. 

Poumysshe  for  a  scryvenar  —  pomys,  m. 

Poumper  frute. 

Ponnde  for  beestes — prison  a  bestes,  C;  par- 
quet z,  m.  ;  emprisonner  bestes,  va. 

Pounde  of  weight  or  money  —  Hure  s,  f. 

Poupe  for  a  chylde  —  povpee  z,  {. 

Pourgyng —  espourgement  s,  ni. 

Pourtenaunce  —  appendence  s,  f. 

Pourveyaunce  — pouraeance  s,  f. 

Pouryvyncle  a  fysshe  —  niuiau  x,  m. 

P    BEFORE   R. 

Practyse  — practicque  s,  L 

Praclysure  —  practicien  s,  m. 

Prayers  in  a  primer  —  suffrages,  m. 

Praye  a  boty  —  praye  s,  f. 

Praye  or  spoylegotlen  in  warre  —  despoville  s,  (. 

Prayer  a  man  ihat  prayeth  —  prieur  s,  m. 

Prayer  — prière,  oraison  s,  f. 

Prayeng  —  dcprecation  s,  f. 

Prayse  laude  —  louenge  s,  f  ;  pris,  m. 

Praysing  —  louenge  5,  f.  ;  los,  m. 

Prayse  made  before  a  great  nian  or  préposition 
—  harengue  s,  f 

Prane  a  fysshe  —  saige  cocque  s,  f. 

Pranke —  tour  s,  m.; finesse  s,  f. 

Pratlynge  the  speche  of  yonge  chyldren  —  pa- 
toys,  m. 

Practynesse  —  mignonncrie  s,  f. 

Preamble — préambule  s,  m. 

Precyous  stone — pierre  precievse  s,  f. 

Precyous  thyng —  relique  s,  (. 

Preachyng  —  sermon  s,  m. 

Preemynence  —  prééminence  s,  f. 

Prefe  —  prévue  s,  f. ;  esprevue  s,  [, 

Prejudyce  —  préjudice  s,  m. 

Prelate  —  prélat  z,  m. 

Premysses  tbat  cometh  in  an  argument — pré- 
misse s,  f. 

Prentyce  a  man  i — apprenti,  m. 

33 


258 


LESCLARCISSEMENT 


Prentyce  a  woman  —  apprentisse  s,  f. 

Prentyce  in  lawe  a  lerned  man ,  they  use  no 
sache  order. 

Préparation  —  apareil  z ,  m.;  aprest  z,  m. 

Preparyng  of  any  thyng —  mistcre  s,f. 

Preparyng  before  — preparatiue  s,  t. 

Prebendary — prébende  s ,  {. ;  cKanoine  s,  m. 

Preest  —  prestre  s,  m. 

Prease  ofpcople  —  presse ,  foulle  s,  f. 

Preestes  concubyne  —  prestresse  s,  t. 

Presaunt  a  gyfte  —  présent  s,  m. 

Presse  for  clothes  —  presse  s,  f. 

Presse  for  grapes  —  esne  s,{.;pressover  s,  m. 

Presse  for  cappes  —  pressevr  s,  m. 

Presse  for  lycour  —  pressover  s,  m. 

Presydent — président  s,  m. 

Présent  —  présent  s,  m. 

Presentynge  of  any  thynge  —  présentation  s,  f. 

Présence  —  présence  s,  f. 

Preservyng  kepyng  —  conseruation  s,  f. 

Pressar  of  cappes  —  pressevr  de  bonet  z,  m. 

Precious  stone  —  gemme  s,  {.;  pierre  pre- 
cievse  s,  f. 

Presentnesse  —  présence  s,  f. 

Pretie  countenaunce  —  minojs,  ta. 

Prevyng  —  prevf  z,  va.;  prévue  s,  f. 

Prevyledge  —  preuilege  s ,  m. 

Prevy  a  draugbt  —  retraict  z,  m.;  basse  cham- 
bre s,î.;  ortrait  z,  va. 

Preventyng  —  prévention  s,{. 

Prevy  chambre  —  chambre  secrète  s ,  f. 

Prevy  gâte  in  a  towne  — faulce posteme  s,  f. 

Prevy  seale  —  mandement  du  roy  s,  va. 

Price  estymalion  —  estime  s,  f. 

Price — pris,  m. 

Price  of  any  thyng  —  ualuc  s,  f. 

Pride  —  orgveil  z,  m.;  ambition  s,  f. ;  aro- 
gance  s,  f. 

Pride  fîersnesse  — fierté  z,  f. 

Pricke  of  wodde  —  brochette  s,  t. 

Pricke  to  pricke  meate — brochette  s,  f. 

Pricke  a  marke  —  marque  s,  (. 

.Pricke  of  a  thorne — picqiutevre  s,  f. 

Tricket  a  yonge  dere  —  saillant  s,  m. 

Pricke  to  drive  oxen  with  —  ajui'Hon  s,  m. 

Prickyng  —  picquotlerie  s,  f. 


Primer  boke — unes  hevres,  f. 

Primat  of  the  metripolytane  —  primat  t,  m. 

Prime  —  prime  s,(. 

Primorose  a  flour  — primerolle  s,{. 

Prince  —  prince  s,  m. 

Princesse  —  princesse  s,  f.  > 

Principalnesse — principalité  z,  t. 

Printe  of  money. 

Print  of  an  horse  fote  —  esclov  x,m. 

Print  forbokes  —  impression  s,  î,;imprimevre s,(. 

Printer  or  a  scryyenar  —  cmprimevr  s,  va. 

Printed  leltcr — lettre  déforme  s,  f. 

Printyng  of  bokes  —  impression  s,f. 

Priour  — •  prievr  s,  va. 

Prioresse — prievresse  s,  m. 

Priore  —  prioré  s,  f. 

Prisoner  — prisonnier  s,  va. 

Prison  a  dongyon  —  charire  s,  f. 

Prisone  —  prison ,  consierge  s,  f. 

Prestes  crowne  that  flyeth  about  in  somer  — 

barbedieu  x,  m. 
Privyte  —  secret  z,  va. 
Problème — problème  s,  va. 
Processe  —  procès,  va. 
Processe  shewed  by  wordes  —  procès  uerbal 

X,  m. 
Processyon  — procession  s,  f. 
Proclamacyon  —  proclamation  s ,  f. 
Procuratour — procurevr  s,  m. 
Procuracyon  —  procuration  s ,  f. 
Prodygaiite  — prodigalité  z,  f. 
Profe  —  /""O)/  z,  va.;  esprevue  s,  f. 
Profer  —  œvffre  s,  {. 
Professyon  —  profession  s,{. 
Profyte  —  provfit  z,va.;  émolument  s,  va,;  prev 

X,  va. 
Profitablenesse  —  profitableté  z,{. 
Prockesy — procuration  s,  {. 
Profogue — prologue  s,  m. 
Promesse  —  promesse  s,  (. 
Promysing  trouthe  piyghtynge — jianceilles ,  f. 
Promocyon — promocion  s,  f. 
Propernesse  — faictisse ,  factise  s,  f. 
Prongge — propreté  z,  f. 
Prose  —  prost  s ,  f. 
Properte —  propriété  z,{. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE. 


259 


Prophet — prophète  s,  m. 

Prophecy — prophecie  s,  f. 

Proppe — pie  de  table,  tresteau  s,  m. 

Proppe  of  a  Iiouse — upvje  s,  {,;  attache  s,  f. 

Proppe  lo  undcrset  any  thyogr—estaye  s,  f. 

Proporcyon  of  a  beest  —  lineature  s,  f. 

Proporcyon  —  proporcion  s,  t. 

Preposityon — préposition  s,  (. 

Prosperyte — prospérité  z,(. 

Prothonotary  —  prothonotaire  s,  m. 

Protection  of  the  kyiiges —  salueyarde  s,  f. 

Proudnesse  —  orgueilleaseté  2,  f. 

Provender  or  mengled  corne — fovrraige  s,  m.; 

provende  s,  f. 
Proverbe  —  prouerbe  s,  m. 
Prowesse  —  proesse  s,  f. 
Provyder  a  cater  —  despencier  s,  m. 
Provisyon  of  meate  and  drinke —  uiures,  m. 
Provysion  of  any  other  thyog — povraoyance  s,{. 
Provydence — prouidence  s,  f. 
Provynce — prouince  s,  t. 
Provyng  —  approbation  s,  f.;  prévue  s,î. 
Provyncyall — prouincial  at.m. 
Prolyng  for  a  promocyon  —  ambition  s,  f. 
Prune  a  kynde  of  frute  —  prune  s,  f. 
Provokyng  to  angre  —  irritation  s,  f. 

P    BEFOBE    U. 

Puble  stone  —  caillov  x,  m. 
Puddle  a  Jyteil  water  —  lac  z,  m. 
Puddyng  —  hovdayn  s,  m. 
Purenesse  —  nelUté  z,  f.  ;  pureté  t,  f. 
Puffe  of  wynde  —  houff.ee  s,  f. 
Puffyn  a  fyssbe  lyke  a  teele. 
Puffyng  up —  inflation  s,  f. 
Pulce  of  mannes  arme  —  povx,  m. 
Pullayne — povllane  s,  f. 
Pullet  —  povlet  z,  m. 
Pullyng  awaye — abstraction  s,  f. 
Pulpyt  to  prêche  in — pulpitre  s,  m. 
Puis  of  a  man  —  povlce  s,  m. 
Puitrie  —  povllaillerie  j,  f. 
Pulter  —  povllaillier  s,  ut. 
Pulter  tbat  bringeth  egges — coquetier  s,  m. 
Punysshing — affliction  s,   f.  ;  punition  s,  f.; 
correction  s,  f. 


Pumpe  of  a  shyppe  —  pompe  s,  f. 
Puple  within  âge  — papille  s,  f. 
Purce  —  bource  s,  f. 
Purcer  —  boarcier  s,  m. 
Purchase — pourchas,  m. 
Purcyvaunt  —  messagier  s ,  m. 
Pure  white  syike  —  soye  bissine  s,  f. 
Purfyll  or  hemme  of  a  gowne  —  bort  s,  m. 
Purgatorie  —  purgatoire  s,  m. 
Purgacion  purgyng  —  pourgaiion  s,  f. 
PurpuH  coloure  —  pourpre  s,  m. 
Purpose  —  povrpos,   m.;   entente  s,   f. ;  inten- 
tion s,  f.;  pourpens,  va,;poartente  s,  f. 
Purse  of  the  Spaynisshe  facyon — bauldrier  s,  m. 
Purser  —  boursier  s,  m. 
Purser  of  a  shyppe —  clerc  de  nauire  s,  m. 
Pursnet  —  resee  s,  f. 
Purslayne  an  herbe  — povrselayne  s,  f. 
Pursnet  a  ragge  pece  —  panneau. 
Pusshyng  tbrustyng — rebovtement,povlciire  s,  f. 
Puttyng  backe —  repulce  s,  f.  ;  rehout  z,  m. 
Puttocke  a  byrde  —  escovjle  s,  f 

Q   BEFOKE    UA. 

Quadrant  of  a  great  place —  2a  basse  court. 

Quayre  of  paper  —  une  main  de  papier  s,  f. 

Quayle  a  byrde  —  quaille  s,  f.  ;  caille  s,  f. 

Quayntaunce  —  accoinctance  s ,  f.  ;  cognois- 
sance  s,  f. 

Quakyng  —  tremblement  s,  m. 

Quantyte — quantité  z,  f. 

Quantyte  of  a  mannes  body — coipalence  s ,  {. 

Quareiyng  —  castille  s,  f.  ;  noyse  s,  f. 

Quarell  an  arrowe  for  warre  —  garrot  z,  va. 

Quarell  for  a  crosbowe  —  uire  s,  m.  ;  car- 
reau X,  m. 

Quarell  a  cause  of  debate  —  querelle  s,  f. 

Quarry  of  stone  —  qaarriere  s,  (. 

Quart  ineasure  —  pinte  s,  f. 

Quartayne  axes  — jieure  quartayne  s,  f. 

Quarter  eygt  busshelles  —  sextier  s,  m. 

Quarter  the  fourtbe  parte  of  a  thyng  —  quar- 
tier s,  m. 

Quarter  of  an  bour  —  quart  dhevre  s,  m. 

Quartermayster  of  a  shyppe  — 1  contremais- 
tre  s,  ni. 

33. 


260 


LESCLARCISSEMENT 


Qnarter  of  ayere  —  quart  dan  aii  s,  m. 
Quarter  of  a  cerclet  —  septier. 
Quarter  of  a  fortresse  —  despans ,  m. 
Quave  myre — foundriere  s,  f.;  civulicre 


f. 


Q    BEFOr.E    UË. 

Quene  lady  —  rajrne  s,  f. 

Queane  —  garse  s,   f.  ;  paillarde  s ,  f, ;   (jaal- 

riere  s,  {. 
Querestar  —  enfant  de  cuevr  s,  m. 
Querne  for  spyce  —  molinet  z,  m.;  grajover 

a  spices ,  m  . 
Quest  —  mqneste  s,î. 
Questyon  —  question  s,  {..,  demande  s,  (. 
Quevar  to  put  arrowes  in  —  carcas,  m, 
Quere  where  men  syng  —  cuevr  desglise  s,  m. 

Q  BEFOnE   UI. 

Quickenesse  —  soudaineté  z,C 

Quickenesse  of  niynde  —  uiuacité  t,  f. 

Quickesylver — uif  argent  s,  m. 

Quyll  of  a  burre  or  rede  —  tuyau  x ,  m. 

Quyelnesse — quiétude  s,C. 

Quyll  or  felher  —  plume  s,  f. 

Quylte  for  a  bedde — lovdier,  covltepoynle  s,  m.; 
coesle  s,{. 

Quyiter — faiseur  de  lovdiers,  m.\  covttepoin- 
lier  s,  va. 

Quynce  a  frule  —  pomme  de  qaoyn  s,  {. 

Quynce  tree  —  quoynier  s,  m. 

Quynce  a  sickenesse  —  escrvelles,  f. 

QuyssLen  to  sytleon  —  cvisseyn  s,  m. 

Quyiitall  a  kynde  of  weiglit — quintal  i,  m. 

Quyntessence  —  quinteessence  s,  f. 

(Juyntyne  to  juste  at  —  quintayne  ajonsler  s,  f.; 
bersault  x,  m. 

QuytauDCe  a  writyng  —  quitance  s ,  (.;  ac- 
quit z,  m. 

Quyver  for  arowes  or  for  a  crosbowe — carquas, 
m.  ;  estay  s,  m. 

R    REFORE   A. 

Rabet  a  yong  cony  —  lappreau  x,  m. 
Rabat  an  yrone  for  a  carpentar  —  rabol  z,  m. 
Rabetlyng  of  bordes —  rabetlure  s,  f 
Rabukyng  —  reuilemenl  s,  m.;  hontaige  s,  m. 


Radyssbe  an  herbe  —  raue  s,  f 

Radyll  of  a  carte — costee  s,  f. 

Rache  hounde. 

Racke  above  tlie  manger  —  ratillier  s,  m. 

Rafter  of  a  bouse  —  cheaeron  s,  m. 

Raggeof  clothe — haillon  s,  m.; panneau,  dra- 
peau X,  m. 

Ragge  tbat  appereth  under  a  garaient  —  lam- 
beau X ,  m. 

Raye  clothe  —  raye  s,  m. 

Raye  fysshe  —  raye  s,  (. 

Raye  an  order  —  reng ,  ranc  z,  m. 

Raye  of  men  in  a  felde  —  arroy  s,  m. 

Rayle  of  a  boothc  —  treille  s,  (. 
. Rayle  fora  wonians  necke — crevechief  en  quat- 
tre  doubles  z,  ni. 

Rayne  foule  wether  —  plvye  s,  f. 

Rayle  for  a  carte  —  coste  s,  f 

Raylles  barres  —  lisses,  f. 

Raynes  of  ihe  backe  —  reyns  de  dos,  m. 

Rayler  a  jestar  —  raillevr,  gavdissevr  s,  m. 

Raygne  the  lyme  of  a  kynges  duraunce  —  rè- 
gne s,  m. 

Rayment — habillement  s,  m. ;  habit  z,m. 

Rayne  of  a  bridell  —  resne  s,  ï. 

Raysing  up  of  a  thyng  —  leuee  s,  f. 

Raysin  a  frute  —  roisyn  s,  m. 

Racke  for  beestes  —  ratillier  s ,m. 

Rakean  instrument  —  rasieau  x,  m. 

Rake  for  the  Kenell  —  rasteau  iS,  ni. 

Racket  to  playe  at  tenues  with  —  racquet  z,  m. 

Rackyng  of  a  mau  to  confesse  the  treuthe    — 
torture  s,  f. 

Rackyng  of  a  borse  in  liis   pacc  —  racquas- 
sure  s,  f. 

Ramme  a  he  beest  —  bellin  s,  ni. 

Ramme  an  instrument  —  engin  s,  m. 

Ranimer  for  husbandrie. 

Ramsey  an  herbe. 

Ranckenesse  habundance  — fertilité  z,  f. 

Rancour  malyce  —  rancune  s ,  f.;  ramposne  s,  f. 

Rande  of  befe  —  gisie  de  beuj  s,  f. 

Râpe  an  herbe  —  mauette  s,  (. 

Rappe  a  stroke  —  covp  z,  m. 

Rase  as  the  rase  of  Bretaync  —  rai ,  m. 

Rascall  refuse  beest  —  refus,  m. 


# 


DE  LA  LANGUE 

Rafter  or  sparre  of  a  house  —  cheneron  s,  m. 

Rasour  a  fysshe. 

Rasour  to  shave  with  —  rasover  s,  m. 

Rase  a  scrapyng  ■ —  rasure  s,  C 

Ratte  a  beest  —  rat  z,  m. 

Rates  bane  —  sevriimé  s,  m.  ;  riagai  x,  m. 

Raven  thefte  —  rapine  s,  f. 

Ravyn  a  byrde  —  corbeau  x,  m. 

Ravyner  a  bribour —  raptevr  s,  m. 

Ravyng  or  madnesse  —  desuerie  s,  f. 

Ravys  of  a  carie. 

Ravyssyng —  rauissaige  s,  m.;  rap  s,  m. 

Raunsome  for  a  prisoner  —  ransom  s,  f. 

Rawe  clothe  iiat  fulled  —  tirelajiie  s,  f. 

Rawnesse  —  criievr  s,  f.\crudesse  s,  f. 


FRANCOYSE. 


261 


R   BEFORE.E. 


bec 


Rebecke   an  instrument  of  musyke  - 

z,  m. 
Reaime  —  roialme  s,  m. 
Reason  wytte  —  raison,  discrétion  s,  f. 
Rebell  —  mutin  s,  m.;  rébellion  s,  f. 
Rebellyon  — rébellion  s,  f. ;  rebellerie  s,  f. 
Rebuke  —  uitupere  s,  va. 
Rebounde  of  a  bail  —  bond  z,  m.;  bont  s,  m. 
Reboundyng  —  rebond  s,  m. 
Rebukyng — reprehension  s,  {. ;  reprovclie  s,  m. 
Receyt — recept  z,m.;  recepte  s,[. 
Receyvyng  —  réception  s,  f. 
Receyte  of  dyvers  thynges  in  a  medycine  — 

drogges  s,  f.  ;  recepte  s,  t. 
Recluse  a  relygious  man  —  reclus,  m. 
Recluse  a  relygious  woman  —  recluse  s,  f. 
Receyver  —  recepuevr  s,  m. 
Recorde  —  tesmoignage ,  recort  s,  ni. 
Rekenyng  of  an  acconipte  —  calculation. 
Recorder  a  pype  — flevte  a  ix  nevf  trovs,  f. 
Recordyng  of  byrdes  — patois,  m. 
Recovery  —  amendement  s,  m. 
Recityng  of  a  malter  —  recitation  s ,  f. 
Reckeiesnesse  —  noncliailance  s,  f. 
Recommendation  —  rccommendation  s,  ('. 
Recompence  —  recompence  s,  f. 
Recréa tyon  —  récréation  s,  f. 
Recoveryng  —  recovuerance  s,f. 
Rede  to  playeorpype  with  —  anche  s,  f. 


Rede  of  the  fenne  —  rovseau  x,  rn. 

Reed  berryng  —  harenc  sovrè  z,  m. 

Rede  of  a  weyght  tbe  instrument — anche  s,  I. 

Rede   to  lyght  candelles  with  —  canne  s,  f.  ; 

roseau  x,  m. 
Rede  to  wynde  yarne  on  or  suchc  iyke  —  tuyau 

X ,  m. 
Reed  breest  a  byrde  —  rovgegorge  s,  (. 
Reed  nettyll  —  orlicgriache  s,  f. 
Reed  gounde  sickenesse  of  chyldren. 
Reednesse  —  rovgevr  s,  f. 
Redemar  —  rcdemptevr  s,  iri. 
Redy  money  —  argent  comptant  s,  m. 
Rele  for  yarne  —  dcuidover  s,  m. 
Redynease  of  wytte  —  ingéniosité  z,  (. 
Redynesse  in   doyng  of  a  thyng  —  practi<fue 

s,i. 
Reflectyng  —  rejleclion  s,  f.  ;  reuerberation  s,  f. 
Refraynyng  —  rejraygnaige  s,  m. 
Refraynt  of  a  balade  —  refraynt  s,  m. 
Redynesse — presteté  z,{. 
Refuse  —  refus,  m. 
Refuse  woH  —  layne  refusée  s,  f. 
Régent  a  man  of  dignyle —  régent  s,  m. 
Régentes  wyfc  —  régente  s,  (. 
Regyon   or  countre  —  climat   z,   m.;  région 

s,  f. 
Regyster  —  registre  s,  m. 
Regyster  of  a  boke  —  signet  z,  m. 
Rehersall  —  recitation  s,  f. 
Reherser —  recilevr  s,  m. 
Reyne  foule  wether  —  plvye  s,  f. 
Reyne  of  a  bridell  —  rayne  s,  f. 
Reynbowe  —  arc  du  ciel  z,m. 
Reigner  in  a  kyngdome  —  regnatevr  s,  m. 
Reysin  frute  —  roysin  s,  m. 
Rejoysing — congratulation  s,  {.■,jouissance  s,  i. 
Rekenyng  —  compte  s,  m. 
Reke  of  corne  —  tas  de  ble  s,  m. 
Relefe  —  relief  z,  m. 
Release  forgyvenesse  —  pardon  s,  m. 
Releasyng — reluxation  s,f. 
Rellysshe  a  sauour  —  govst  s,  m. 
Relygion  —  religion  s,  f. 
Relygious  man  —  religieux,  m. 
Relygious  woman  —  religievsc  s,  i. 


I 


262 


LESCLARCISSEMENT 


Relyke — relique  s,  (. 

Reame  of  paper  —  ranime  de  papier  s,  t. 

Remedy  —  remède  s,  m. 

Remembraunce  —  sovuenance  i,  f.  ;  commémo- 
ration s,  f. ;  mention  s,  f.  •,recordalion  Sj 
f.  ;  remembraunce  s,  (. 

Rendles  for  a  chese  —  présure  s,  f. 

Remnant  of  any  thyng  —  demovrant  s,  m.;  re- 
manant  s,  m. 

Remyssion  —  remission  s,{.;  grâce  s,  {. 

Removyng  —  remotion  s,{. 

Rendyng. 

Reiige  —  rovte  s,  f.;  ranc  s,  m. 

Renger  for  a  baker. 

Renlesse  to  make  chese  with  — présure  s,  t. 

Renome  the  name  of  a  man  —  renom  s,  m. 

Rent  yerely  dette  —  rente  s,  f. 

Rent  that  a  lorde  taketh  of  his  tenaunt  —  cen- 
ciere  s,  {. 

Rentes  —  reuenves,  f. 

Reparacyon  —  reparution  s,  f. 

Repaste  a  meale —  repas,  m. 

Repar  of  corne  —  sievr  de  ble  s,  m. 

Repell  callyng  agayne  —  repel  z,  m. 

Repentaunce  or  contricyon  —  contrition,  re- 
mors, repentence  s,  f. 

Repentyng  —  regret  z,  m.;  repentence  s ,  {. 

Repayre  a  caryer  of  seefysshe  —  chassemaree 
s,  m. 

Reporte  tellyng  of  a  taie  — report  s,  m. 

Representacyon — représentation  s,  f. 

Reprefe  —  reprovche  s,  m. 

Reprovyng  — mordacité  z,i. 

Rerage  or  dette  —  débet  z,  m. 

Reputacyon  —  réputation  s,  f. 

Request  —  rei/ueste  s,  f. 

Requyrer  or  desyrer  —  reqairevr  s,  m. 

Rere  banket  —  ratios ,  m. 

Rere  supper  —  bancquet  z  ,  m. 

Rerewarde  of  men  —  arrière  garde  s,  f 

Resydence  an  abyding  —  résidence  s,  f. 

Resydue  —  reVuiue  s,  f. 

Resty  —  recours,  rescousse  s,  f. 

Resyning  of  a  thyng  —  résignation  s,  f. 

Resortyng  to  —  actraict,  recours,  m. 

Repayre  —  resort  s,  m. 


Resolvynge  or  discussyuge  —  résolution  s,  f. 

Resonablenessc  —  resonnableté  Zf  f. 

Respyte  —  respit  z,  m. 

Respyte  for  a  tyme —  recreance  s,  f. 

Restilucyon  —  réparation  s,  f. 

Rest  a  pause  —  pause  s,  f. 

Rest  of  the  body  or  mynde  —  repos,  m.  ;  arrest 

z,  m.;  reste  s,  f. 
Restthatleaveth  of  athynge  —  demeurant  s,  m. 
Rest  or  resydue  —  demourant  s,  m. 
Reason  —  raison  s,L\  discrétion  s,  {. 
Restyng place  —  pause,  stacion  s,  f. 
Restyng  of  a  sergiaunt  —  arrest  z,  m. 
Restoring  of  a  thyng  to  his  place  —  remise  s,  [. 
Revar  a  robber  —  pillart  s,  m. 
Revellar  —  carellevr  s,  m. 
Revelacyon  —  reuelation  s,  f. 
Révérence  —  reuerence  s,  f. 
Retynue  a  company  of  folkes  —  tinel  z,  m. 
Retayning  —  retenue  s,  f. 
Rethorique  a  scycnce — relhorique  s,  f. 
Returoyng  —  retour  s,  m. 
Réveil  —  esbatement  s,  m. 
Revyng  —  repacité  z,  f. 
Rewarde  of  meate  • — ■  entremetz,  m. 
Rewarder  —  retributevr  s,  m. 
Rewardyng  —  rétribution  s,  f. 
Rewle  an  instrument  —  rigle  s,  f 
Rewarde  —  guerdon  s,  m. 
Revengyng  —  uindication  s,  f. 
Revfle  demeanour  —  rigle  s,  f. 
Rewe  an  herbe  —  rêve  s,  f. 
Rewme  of  the  heed  —  ryme  s,  f. 

R    BEFOBE    I. 

Riall  coyne  —  raal,  noble  a  la  rose  x,  m. 

Riall  of  wyne — fome,  brovee,Jlevr  z,  f. 

Rialte — pompe  î,  f. 

Rialnesse  —  royalté  z  ,  (. 

Ribaude  a  man  —  ribault  z,  m. 

Ribalde  a  \voman  —  ribaulde  s,  (. 

Ribaldrie  —  ribauldrie  s,  f. 

Ribbe  a  bone  —  covste  s,  f. 

Ribbe  for  flaxe. 

Rybbe  skynne.  ' 

Rybbe  worte  an  herbe. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE. 


263 


Ryce  corne  —  tys,  m. 

Richesse  —  richesse  s,  f.  ;  opulence  s,  f.;  subs- 
tance s,  f.  ;  biens,  m.;  ckeuance  s,  f.  ; 
finance  s,  f. 

Ridge  of  a  lande  —  sente  s,  f. 

Riddie  a  harde  questyon  —  demande  s,  f.;  sor- 
nette s,   f. 

Ridyng  speare  — 'jaueline  s,  f. 

Rye  corne —  seigle  s,  m. 

Rveng  cyvc. 

Ryfte  crany  — fente  s,  f.  ;  carniau  x,  m. 

Ryfle  in  a  dore  — f  endosse  s,  L;f endure  s,  (. 

Ryggc  of  lande  —  sente  s,  f. 

Rigge  bone  —  eschine  s,  f. 

Riggyng  of  a  house  —  chavlme  s,  m. 

Right  that  an  host  must  do  to  his  gest  —  droit 
dhospitalilé, 

Riglh  wysnesse  —  droyture  s,  (.;  équité  z,  f. 

Rigbt  hande  —  dextre. 

Right  suster  —  seur  germayne  s,  (. 

Rightnesse  —  rectitude  s,  f. 

Rigour  —  righevr  s,  f. 

Rymme  of  a  whele  or  stabbe  —  peav  x,  m. 

Rightuousnesse  — justice  s,  f. 

Ryme  mètre  —  risme  s,  f. 

Ryme  the  reume  of  the  heed  —  rime  s,  f. 

Ryng  to  weare  —  annel,  anneau  x,  m. 

Ryng  worme. 

Ryng  fyngar. 

Ryndeof  atree  —  escorche  s,  f. 

Ryot — insolence  s,{.;  rhiotte  s,  f. 

Ryot  prodigall  expens  —  bovbans,  m.;  prodi- 
galité z,  {. 

Ryotter  a  prodigall  feiowe  —  bobancier  s,  m.; 
prodigue  s,  m. 

Russhetbat  growetb  — jonc  z,  m. 

Risyng  agayne  —  resource  s,  f. ;  relieuement 
s,  m. 

Ryverabroke  —  ruisseau  x,m.;  undette  s,  f. 

Ryver  a  water  —  riaiere  s,  [. 

Ryversyde  —  riue  s,  f. 

R   BEFORE   O. 

Rho  bucke  a  beest. 

Robber  on  the  see  —  pirate  s,  ta. 

Robber  a  tbefe  —  brigant  s,  m. 


Robery  —  roberie  s,  f. 

Robbyng  or  reavyng —  déprédation  s,  i.;  des- 
troasse  s,f. 

Robe  a  garment  —  robe  s,  f. 

Robyn  reedbrest  —  ung  râteau  x,  m.;  rouge- 
gorge  s,  f. 

Robrisshe  of  a  boke  —  rabriche  s,  f. 

Robrisshe  of  stones  —  plastras,  m.;  fourniture 
s,{. 

Roche  a  fysshe  —  guerdon  s,  m. 

Rochet  a  lytell  gurnarde  —  rouget  z,  m. 

Rochet  a  surplys  —  rochet  z,  m. 

Roche  of  stone  —  roche  s,  f. 

Rode  a  crosse  —  crucifix,  m. 

Rodde  of  lande  —  toyse  s,  f. 

Rodde  a  long  stycke  —  gavle  s,  l'. 

Rodde  to  béate  with  —  uerge,  hovssine  s,  f. 

Rode  a  compauy  of  borsmen  —  chevauchée 
s.L 

Rofe  of  an  house  without  —  pignon  s,  m. 

Rofeof  an  house  within  — feste  s,  m. 

Rofe  of  the  niouthe  —  palet  z,in. 

Rofe  tree. 

Rofe  of  baken  or  befe. 

Rogation  weke —  la  sepmaine  des  rouaisons,  f. 

Roke  a  byrde  —  chovcquas,  m. 

Rocket  an  herbe  —  rocquette  s,  f. 

Roke  of  the  chesse — foc  z,  m. 

Rockc  to  spynne  with  —  quenoille  s,  f. 

Rocke  in  the  see  —  roche  s,  f. 

Rolle  a  writyng  —  rolle  s,  m. 

Rolle  of  paper  —  rovlet,  rovleau  z,  m. 

RoUar  or  rammer  of  busbandrie. 

Rollar  to  rôle  with  —  rolle  s,  f. 

Romauns  —  romant  s,  m. 

Roume  space  —  liev  x,  m.;  espace  s,  f. 

Romayne  a  man  —  Romain  s,  m. 

Romayne  a  woman  — Romayne  s,  f. 

Rompe  of  a  beest  — poiltron,  crovpe  s,(. 

Ronnyng  of  chese  —  maisgre,  m. 

Ronnyng  orcourse  of  anythynge —  decours,  m. 

Rodde  of  lande  —  toise  s,  f. 

Roen  colour  of  an  horse  —  roven  s,  m. 

Ropar  a  ropemaker  —  cordier  s,  m. 

Rope  —  cordeau  x,  m.;  corde  s,  f. 

Ropes  in  the  small  guttes. 


264 

Rore  trouble  —  troahle  s,  m. 

Roryng  or  scrykyng  —  cscry  s,  m. 

Rosecampyon  a  fleure. 

Rosewatcr  —  cave  rose  s,f. 

Rose  colour. 

Roseyardc  where  roses  growe  —  rosier  s,  m. 

Rose  floure  —  rose  s,  f. 

Roseniary  —  rommarin  s,  m. 

Rosyn  —  roisiiie  s,  (. 

Roste  mcate —  rost  s,  m. 

Rotte  among  beestes  —  movrine  s,  f. 

Rotlynnesse  of  any  thynge  —  pourriture  s,  f. 

Rote  of  a  tree  —  racine  s,  C 

Rotes  or  sedes  —  drogue  s,  {. 

Rother  of  a  shyppe  —  govuernail  z,  m. 

Roundelet  a  vessell  —  rondelle  s,  f. 

Rower  for  a  bote  —  auiron  s,  m. 

Rowe  in  order  —  reng  z,  va. 

Rowell  of  a  spurre  —  molette  dun  csperon  s,  f.  ; 

roelle  s,  f. 
Rowe  in  a  fyssberbelly  —  oevue  s,  m. 
Roost  for  capons  or  bennes  — jeissover  s,  m. 
RougbncEse  —  impétuosité  z,  f. ;  rndevr  s,  f.; 

rudesse  s,  {. 
Roughe  foted  dove  —  coulomb  z,  m. 
Roughc  fyssbe. 
Rounde  daunce. 

Roundc  a  songe — rondeau  x,  m.;  uinlay  z,va. 
Roundell  —  rondeau  x,  m. 
Roundelet  a  vesseil  for  wyne  —  septier  s,  m. 
Rounde  button  —  noiau  x,  m. 
Rounde  tothe. 

Rounde  buckeler —  rodelle  s,  f. 
Roundnesse  —  rondeur,  rondesse ,  rotandité  z,î. 
Route  a  company  —  rovtle  s,  f. 
Routyng  in  slepe  —  romjlevre  s,  f. 

R    BEFOHE    U. 

Rubande  of  sylke  —  rubant  s,  m. 
Rubbar  for  a  gowne  —  decrottoires ,  f. 
Ruby  a  precious  stone  —  ruby  s,  m. 
Rubbyng  toguyder  —  confrication  s,  f. 
Rudencsse  —  roidevr  s,  (. 
Rulfe  a  fyssbe. 
Ruggydnesse —  pellure  s,  f. 
Ruyne  decaycng  —  ruine  s,  f. 


LESCLARCISSEiMENT 


Ruler  governer  —  govuerneir  s,  m.;  rectevr  s, 

m.;  riglcl  z,  m. 
Ruler  for  a  carpentar  —  niueau  x,xa. 
Ruie  order  —  régime  s,  m. 
Rulc  —  reigle  s,  f. 
Rulc  of  cannon  lawe  —  canon  s,  m. 
Rumney  wyne  —  rommenye  s,  f. 
Runnyng  of  a  wbele  —  peau. 
Runiour  noyse  —  rumevr  s,  f. 
Russhe  tbat  is  strawen  — jonc  r,  m. 
Russet  —  gris,  m. 
Rust  of  yron  or  any  otber  metall  —  enrovillevre 

s,{. 

S    BEFORE    A. 

Sale  of  a  thyng  —  achapt  : ,  m. 

Sables  a  furre  —  sables,  m. 

Sacrament — sacrement  s ,  m. 

Sacrylege — sacrilège  s,  f. 

Sacryng  bell  —  clochette  s,  f. 

Sacryngof  the  masse  —  sacrement  s,  m. 

Sacrifyce  —  sacrifice  s,  m. 

Sacke  to  put  corne  in  — sac  z,  m. 

Sacclotbe  —  sacqucment  s,  va, 

Saddle  Irce  of  a  saddle  —  arjon  s,  at. 

Saddie  for  a  borse —  selle  s,  f. 

Saddleclotbe  —  hovsse  s,  (. 

Sadler  a  maker  of  saddels  —  sellier  s,  m. 

Sadde  coloure. 

Sadnesse  —  seuerilé  z,  f .  ;  rassiselé  z,  f. 

Sadnesse  hevynesse  —  tristesse  s,  t. 

Safyre  a  precious  stone  —  saphire  s,  m. 

Safron  spyce  —  safran  s,  m. 

Sage  an  berbe  —  saulge  s,  f. 

Saye  clothe  —  serge  s,  f. 

Sayeng — dit,  diltie  z,  m. 

Sayle  of  a  sbyppe  —  ttoille,  pappepKis,  m.; 

baulpri  z,  m. 
Sayleyarde  —  uerge  de  tref  s,  (. 
Saylyng  —  nauigaige  s,  m. 
Saynt  a  man  —  sainct  i,  m. 
Santuary  frcdome  — franchise  s ,  f. 
Sayntes  lyfe  —  légende  s,{. 
Sake,  as  for  goddes  sake  —  amovr  s,  f. 
Sacre  a  hauke  —  sacre  s,  m. 
Salade  of  herbes  —  salade  s,  f. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE. 


265 


Salandyne  an  herbe  —  celidoyne  s,  f. 

Salet  of  harnesse  —  salade  s,  f. 

Sale  of  marchandyse  — uente  s,  f. 

Saline  of  sauiter  —  pscaulme  s,  m. 

Saltepeter  —  salpestre  s,  m. 

Salle  —  sel  z,  m. 

Saltsellar  for  salle  —  sellier  's,  m. 

Sallry  an  instrumenl. 

Sallfysshe  —  morcve  s,  f. 

Sallyng. 

Salter  —  grenetier,  marchant  de  sel  s,  m. 

Sallewaler  —  saulmevre  s,  f.  or  btyme. 

Saltnesse  —  saline  s,{. 

Sauter  a  boke  ■ —  psaltier  s,  m. 

Salowe  Iree  —  sapin  s,  m. 

Salve  for  sores  —  oignement  s,  m. 

Saiulatyon  a  gretyng  —  salulalion  s,  f. 

Saulmon  a  fysshe  —  saulmon  s,  m. 

Sande  to  skoure  vessell  wilh  —  sablon  s,  va. 

Sande  gravell  —  sablon,  sable  s,  m. 

Sandepylle  —  sablonierc  s,  f. 

Sangler. 

Sanguynary. 

Sanguyn  a  complexion  —  sanguin  s,  m. 

Sanguynesse  —  sangainevr  s,  f. 

Sappe  of  a  tree  —  semé,  movelle  de  larbre  s,  f. 

Sarce  for  spyce  —  sas,  m. 

Sargiant  an  offycer  —  salhelitc  s,  m, 

Sarsyn  a  man  —  Sarrasin. 

Sarsenet  sylke — taffetas,  m.;  taffetas  a  cor- 
nettes. 

Sarves  tree  —  alisier  s,  m. 

Sarves  frute  —  alise  s,  f. 

Saltcn  clolhe  of  sylke  —  salin  s,  m. 

Sallen  of  bridges  —  satin  de  bragis,  m. 

Saltyn  of  cyprès  —  ostadine  s,  f. 

Saturday  —  sammedy  s,  m. 

Satysfaction  —  recompence  s,  f.  ;  satisfaction 
s,{. 

Sauce — saulce  s,  (. 

Saucer  —  saulcier  s,  m. 

Saudre  mclall. 

Sawe  an  inslrument  —  sie  z,  f.  ;  serre  s,  f. 

Sawe  a  proverbe  — prouerbe  s,  m. 

Sawedusl  —  sicvre  dais ,  f 

Savegarde  —  savaegarde  s,(. 


Saveyne  tree  —  saaine  s,  f. 

Savyn. 

Savery  an  herbe  —  sarriette  s,  f. 

Saverne. 

Saver  good  or  badde  —  olevr,  odevr  s,  f. 

Saveconducte —  savlfcondait  z,  m. 

Safenesse  —  saueté  z ,  f. 

Sauge  an  herbe  —  sauge  s,  f. 

Savyng  —  savuance  s,  f. 

Savyour  —  savluevr  s,  m. 

Salvation  —  salaation,  savlaegarde  s,  f. 

Sausedge  a  podyng  —  saucisse  s,  f. 

Sauce  alone  an  herbe. 

Saule  of  a  caslell  —  assaull  z,  m. 

Sauter  our  ladyes  psalter  —  le  cliappellet  noslrc 

dame  z,  m. 
Sauter  a  boke  —  psaltier  s,  m. 
Saulrie  an  instrument. 
Saxifrage  an  herbe  —  saxifraige  s,  f. 

S    IlEPORE    CA. 

Scabarde  of  a  sworde  — fovrreau  x,  m. 

Scabbe  —  roigne  s,  f. 

Scabbe  a  blayne  —  bouton  s,  m. 

Scabyous  an  herbe  —  scabievse  s,  {. 

ScafToide  —  escharfavlt  z ,  m. 

Scallarde  —  ligneux,  ui. 

Scale  of  a  fysshe  —  escaille  s,  f.  ;  escale  de 

poisson. 
Scales  to  waye  with  —  balances  s,  f. 
Scale  of  a  ladder  —  eschellon  s,  m, 
Scalydnesse  —  escalerie  s,  t. 
Scalle  a  scabbe  —  teigne  s,  f.  ;  teignon  s,  ni. 
Scallydnesse  —  roignevseté  z,  f. 
Scaloppe  a  fysshe. 
Scaloppe  sheli  —  gaocquille  de  saint  Jacques 

s.r. 

Scantlon  ofaclothe  —  eschantillon  s,  m. 

Scantnesse  —  escarcevr  s,  (. 

Scapellar  —  scapalaire  s,  m. 

Scarsnesse  —  parcilé  z,f. 

Scarmony  spyce. 

Scarre  of  a  wounde — covslure  s,  f .  ;  irasse  s,C 

cicatrice  s,  f. 
Scarre  to  scar  crowes  - 
Scariet  a  reed  colour  — 


—  espovenlail  z,  m. 
■  escarlalte  s,  f. 


34 


266 


Scarsncsse  or  hungre  — famine  s,  f. 

Scarsnesse  of  any  thing  —  escharceté  z,  (. 

Scate  fysshe  —  raje  s,  f. 

Scathe  domage  —  dammaujc  s,  m. 

Scavenger  thaï  clenseth  streles —  hovevr  s,  m. 

S   BEFORE   CHA. 

Schadowe  —  ambre  s,  m.;  umhraitje  s,  m. 
Shadowe  a  coverjng  —  covuert  z,  m. 
Shadowyng  —  ohamhralion  s,  f. 
Shafte  lo  sliote  with  — Jlesche  s,  T. 
Shafte  of  any  edged  tôle  —  manche  s,  m. 
Shafte  of  a  spere  or  darle  — fast  z,  m. 
Shagbusshe  a  gonne  —  hacqaehutte  s,  f. 
Schayler  that  gothe  a  wrie  with  his  fêle  — 

boyteix,  m. 
Schaccle  for  a  horse  or  man  —  enlraues ,  f. 
Schale  of  a  nulle  —  esqaaille  s,  f. 
Schalraesse  a  pype  —  chalemeaa  x,  ni. 
SchamUes  —  bovcherie  s,  f. 
Schame  basshedncsse — honte  s,  f.  ;  uituperc  s, 

m.;  hontaige  s,  va. 
Schainefaslnesse  —  uergoigne  s,  f. 
Schanke  a  legge — jambe  s,  f. 
Schanke  of  bouge  — fovTTure  de  caissettes,  {. 
Schappe  facyon — façon  s,  {.\  forme  s,  f. 
Schappc  of  a  man  or  beesl  —  lineatnre  s,{. 
Schappyng  knyfe  of  soulers  —  iranchet  z ,tn. 
Schappe  a  sorte —  taille  s,  f. 
Schare  of  a  ploughe  —  caltre  de  cherue  s,  m. 
Schare  of  a  man  of  a  prise  of  warre  tyme  — 

butin  s,  m. 
Scharyng — roignevre  s,  f. 
Scharman  — tondezr  s,  m. 
Scharmannes  poole  —  prêche  a  draps. 
Scharpnesse  —  abilleté,  aguiseté  z ,  ï. 
Scharpe  ende  ôf  ihe  moone  —  corne  s,  f. 
Scharpnesse  in  maners  —  aspresse  s,  t. 
Scharpe  speare  heed  — fer  csmolu  s,  m. 
Scharpe  swerde  —  espee  trenchant  s,  f. 
Schavynge  knyfe. 
Schavyng  of  woode. 
Schave  for  carpenlers. 


LESCLARCISSEMENT 

Sche  lepar  —  ladresse  s ,  f. 


Sche  lyparde 


S  DEFonE  CHE. 
—  leoparde  s,  f. 


Sche  lyon  —  lionne  s,  I. 

Scheffe  of  arrowes  —  trovsse  a  Jleches  s ,  f. 

Schefe  of  corne  —  gerbe  s,  f. 

Schedar  a  spyller  —  respandetr  s,  m. 

Sche  beare  a  beesl  - — ovrse  s,  f 

Sche  ratte  —  rate  s,  (. 

Sche  wolfe  —  loviie  s,  C 

Sche  devyll  —  diablesse  s,  f. 

Schedde  of  an  hyll  —  tertre  s,  m. 

Schelde  to  défende  with  —  escuisson  s,  m. 

Scheldrake  a  byrde. 

Schelyng  of  money  —  sovldz ,  m. 

Schell  of  a  snayle  —  cocquiUe  s,  f. 

Schell  of  fysshe  or  frutc  —  escaille  s,  f.  ;  coc- 
quiUe s,  (. 

Schellrone  of  a  batayle. 

Schepherdes  stafle  —  hovletle  s,  f. 

Sehepbeerde  —  bergier  s,  m. 

Scliepherdcs  house —  bourde  portable  s,  f.  ■ 

Schepherdes  wyfe  —  bargeronnette  s,  f. 

Schepe  a  he  beesl  —  movton  s,  m. 

Schepe  an  ewc  —  brebis,  (. 

Schepe  cote  —  bergerie  s,  [. 

Schepherdes  croke  —  hovlette  s,  f. 

Schepherdes  bagge — pannetiere  s,  f. 

Schepes  louce  —  pov  de  movton  s,  m. 

Schepes  fêle  —  pied  de  movton  s,  m. 

Schepes  peilet  or  dong  —  fient  a  brebis,  m. 

Schepskynne  lowed —  basannc  s,  f. 

Schepstarre  —  lingiere  s,  f 

Schernians  shercs  — forceps,  t. 

Schere  flockes. 

Shered  of  broken  geare  —  haillion  s,  m. ;  pan- 
niau  X,  va. 

Sheres  for  laylyers  or  cappcrs  —  ciceaux,  m. 

Sheres  for  shepsters  — forces,  f. 

Sheres  lo  clyp  ones  nayles — forcettes,  f. 

Shere  Ihursday — jevuedj  absolu  s,  m. 

Shelh  of  a  sworde  or  hangar — fourreau  x,  m.  ■ 

Sheth  of  a  meale  knyfe —  gayne  s,  f. 

Shelh  niaker  —  gaignier  s,  m. 

Shele  for  a  bedde  —  drap,  linceul  .v,  m. 

Sheteofpaper — foyllet  de  papier  z,  m. 

Shele  of  a  shyppe —  escoute  s,  f. 

Shetyll  of  a  wevar  —  naaette  s,  f. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE. 


267 


Shever  of  bredde — chanleau  x,  m. 

Sliewe  of  a  thyng  to  sale  —  lustre  s,  m. 

Shewyng  —  monstrance  s,  f.  ;  ostentation  s,  f.  ; 
remonstrance  s,  f.;  demonstrance  s,  f.;  dé- 
monstration s,  f. 

S  BEFORe  CHI. 

Schyde  of  wode  —  huche  s,  [.•■,  movle  de  bi- 
ches, f. 

Schyfte  chevesaunce  —  cheuesance  s,  f. 

Schyftyng  —  changement  s,  m. 

Schynne  of  the  legge  —  greue  s,  (. 

Shyngles  liyllyng  of  an  house. 

Shynyng  —  rehicencc  s ,  t.;  resplendevr  s,  f. ; 
luissance  s,  f. 

Sbynyng  of  sylke  or  clothe  —  lustre  s,  m. 

Shyppe  to  sayle  in  —  nef  z,  m.;  nauiere  s ,  {. 

Schyppe  of  warre —  naude  guerre  x,  m. 

Schyppe  bote  —  bateau  x,  m. 

Scbypowuer  —  patron  dune  nauiere  s,  m. 

Scbyppemaistcr —  mais  Ire  de  nauiere  s,  m. 

Sbypman  a  maryncr —  marinier  s,  m. 

Shypmans  carde  —  carte  s,  f. 

Shypwright  —  charpentier  de  nauieres,  m. 

Sbyre  a  couutie  —  conté  z ,  f. 

Shyrenesse  tbynnesse  —  delievre  s,  f. 

Sbirt  for  a  man —  chemise  s,  f. 

Sbytteicockc — uolant  s,  m. 

SbytlcH  for  a  wevar  —  nauette  s,  f. 

Sbyttelnesse  —  uariableté  z,  {. 

Shyver  of  bredde  —  chanleau  x,  m.;  lonpin 
de  payn  s,  m. 

S   BEFOBE   CHO. 

Schoo  —  sovlier  s,  m. 

Sho  with  a  longe  becke — soulier  a  povlaine  s,  m. 

Sbooraaker  —  cordovanier  s,  m. 

Shoomakers  crafte  —  cordovanerie  s,  (. 

Schocke  of  corne  —  tas  de  ble  s,  m. 

Schowyng  of  an  horse  — ferrure  s,  f. 

Scbowyng  borne  —  clmusscpie  s,  m. 

Scboppe  to  worke  in  —  bouticle  s,  f. 

Scboppe  kepar. 

Scbore  a  waterssyde  —  ryue  s,  f. 

Scborte  gowne  —  robe  courte  s,  f. 

Scborte  bose  —  chausse  courte  s,  f. 


Schotte  tbat  is  gathered  for  a  dyner  —  escot 

z,  m. 
Scbortnesse — '  courterr  i,  f.  ;  briesveté  z,  f. 
Scl)otte  of  an  archer  —  ung  traict  z,  m. 
Scbovelarde  a  foule  —  palomme  s,  f 
Scholyng  —  sagittation  s,  f. 
Schotyng  weresling  —  esbanoy  s,  m. 
Scbovyll  an  instrument  —  pelle  s,  f. 
Scboure  of  rayne  —  undee  z,  (. 
Schortnyng  of  a  tbing  —  abreuiation  s,  f. 
Scbout  or  crye  —  cry  s,  m.  ;  acclamation  s,  f. 
Scboutyng  or  crycng  —  crierie  s,  f. 
Scholder  of  nioton  —  espavlle  de  movlon. 
Scholder — espavlle  s,{. 
Scholder  point —  la  pointe  de  lespavlle  s,  f. 

S    BEFOBE   CHR. 

Scbraftyde  —  quaresme  pregnant  s,  ni. 

Schraftuisday  —  mardy  gras,  m. 

Schrede  of  clothe —  coppeau  x,  m.;  rongnievre 

de  drap  s,  f. 
Scbrefe  an  ofiicer — preuost  z,  m. 
Scbrewe  an  yvell  man  —  manfaaù,  m. 
Schrewe  an  yvell  woman  —  mauluaise  s,  I. 
Schrifte  confessyon  —  confesse  s,  f. 
Schrikyng  or  roring  out — escry  s,  m. 
Scbrimpe  a  fysshe  —  creuette  s,{. 
Schrine  a  sayntes  tombe —  chasse  s,  f. 
iScbrobbe  a  busshe  —  arbrisseau  x,  m. 
Scbrove  thursday  — jcvuedy  absolu  s,  m. 
Schroudes  of  a  shyppe —  haubans,  m. 
Schrultell  for  a  wevar. 
Schyrmysshe — meslee  s,  [. 

S    BEFORE    CL. 

Sclaundre  —  esclaiulre  s,C;  blasphème  s,  m.; 

scandale  s,  m. 
Sclaunderer  —  blasphematevr  s,   m.;  mavldi- 

sant  s,  m. 
Sclaunderyng  —  detraction  s,  f. 
Sclate  stone  —  ardoyse  s,  {. 
Sclyce  to  tourne  meate  —  tournoire  s,  C 
Sclycer  —  tournoyre  s,  {. 

S    BEFORE   CO. 

Scochen  a  badge  —  escuisson  s,  m. 
34. 


208 


LESCLARCISSEMENT 


,  f. 


Scoffer  or  jestar  —  gaudissevr  s,  m. 
Scoffyngcs  or  tryfles  — fredaynes,  f. 
Scolde —  Hojsetx,  noisij  z,  m.;  noysiae  s, 
Scoldyng  or  wondring  —  ckarriuaris,  m. 
Scole  to  lerne  chyldre  in  —  escole  s,  f. 
ScoHer  —  escalier  s,  m. 
Scome  frothc  —  escame  s,  (. 
Scomyog  of  a  pot  —  escume  du  pot  z,  {. 
Scommar  that  hath  holes  —  escumctte  s,  f. 
Scons  to  sette  a  candell  in  —  lanterne  a  mayn 

s,{. 
Sconsinaker  —  lanternier  s,  m. 
Scope  to  lade  water  with. 
Score  on  a  tayle  —  taylles,  f. 
Score  in  nombre  —  uingtayiie  s,  f. 
Scorne  a  mocke  —  mocquerie  s,  f.  ;  dérision  s,  (. 
Scorner  or  raocker —  mocqaeir  s,  m. 
Scornyng  or  raockyng  —  illusion  s,  f. 
Scorpion  a  serpent  — escorpion  s,  m. 
Scorssyng  or  escbangyng  —  eschanye 
Scotlande  —  Escosse  s,  f. 
Scottyssheman  —  Escojssoys  s,  m. 
Scottell  a  fyssbe  —  seiche  s ,  [. 
Scottell  bone —  os  de  seiche,  m. 
Scoulyon  of  tbe  kcchyn  —  souillon  s,  va 
Scourge  to  béate  with — Jouet  z,  m. 
Scourgyug  —  affliction  s,(. 
Scoute  watcbe  ^  escout  ; ,  m.  ;  escoute 


f. 


f. 


S    BEFORE    CB. 


Screne  made  of  wickers  —  eslranc  s,  m. 
Scrybe  in  a  spyrituall  court  —  scribe  s,  m. 
Scrybe  in  a  temporall  court  —  grejjier  s,  m. 
Scrytcbe  houle  a  byrde. 
Scryppe  for  a  pylgryme  —  molette  s,  f, 
Scrypture  on  a  grave  —  lame  s ,  f.  ;  epitaphe 

s,  m. 
Scrypture  or  a  boke —  escript  z,  m.;  escrip- 

lure  s,  f. 
Scryvener — escripuayn  s,  m. 
ScroHe  —  rolle  s,  m.  ;  escripteau  x,  m. 
Scrowe  —  rovlet  z,  in.;  rolle  s,  m. 

S  BEFORB  eu. 

ScuH  barnesse  for  tbe  heed  —  set/retle  s,  {.; 
seyret  z,  m. 


Seuil  of  a  mannes  bed  —  taie  de  la  teste  s,  I. 

Seuil  to  rowe  witli  —  auiron  s,  m. 

ScuUar  —  batellier  s,  m.  ■ 

Scumme  of  a  potte  —  escmne  s,  f. 

Scummer  —  escumelle  s,  f. 

Scurfe  on  oncs  becd  or  body  —  crasse  de  la 

teste  s,  f.  ;  or  du  corps, 
Scuttell  fyssbe  —  saiche  s,  f. 
Scuttell  bone  —  os  de  saiche  s,  m. 
Scuttell. 
Scutte. 

S    BEFORE    E. 

Season  tyme  —  saison  s,  f. 

Scale  to  seale  with  —  signet  z,  m. 

Seale  of  leed  or  any  other  inetall —  seau   x,  m. 

See  water  —  mer  s,  f. 

Secte  a  company  of  one  opynion  —  secte  s,  f. 

Semewe  —  moette  s,  f. 

Seesyde  —  marine  s,{. 

Secbell  a  bagge  —  sachet  :,m. 

Secole  —  charbon  de  terre  s,  m. 

Seecobbe  a  byrde  —  mavue  de  mer  s,  t. 

Secrète  a  prevy  place  —  reqaoj  s,  m. 

Secrète  or  bydde  tliyng  —  arcane  s,{. 

Secretnesse — secretie  s,i. 

Secretarye  —  secretayre  s,  va. 

Secrète  place  —  réduit  : ,  m. ;  conclaue  s,  m. 

Sectour  —  exccuterr  s,  m. 

Seculer  a  worldely  nian  —  séculier  s,  m. 

Seculer  a  worldly  woman  —  séculière  s,  f. 

Sedc  of  herbes  —  grayne  s,  f. 

Sede  of  any  tbyng  —  semence  s,  L 

Sede  tyme. 

Sedgc  of  tbe  fenne. 

Selfewyldnesse  —  restarderie  s,{. 

Sege  a  prcvy  —  ortraict  z,  m. 

Sege  before  a  casteii  —  siège  s,  m. 

Segge. 

Seyle  of  a  shyppe  —  aoille  s,  f. 

Seyle  yarde  —  uerge  de  uoille  s,(. 

Seyng  toguyder  of  one  and  other  —  entreaere 

s.(. 
Seynt  Peters  worte —  herbe  a  sainct  Pierre  s,{, 
Seynt  of  a  gyrdeli  —  tissu  x,  m. 
Seyntuary  an  herbe. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE. 


269 


Seynt  Jobannes  worte  —  herbe  de  sainct  Jehan 

s,ù 
Seynt  Homers  worstedde  —  demj  oslade  s ,  f. 
Seyntuarie — franchise  s,  f. 
Sekcnesse  —  maladie  s,  f.  ;  langevr  s ,  {.;  en- 

jirmité  z,  ï. 
Sekyng  or  sercbyng  —  inuestiçjolion  s,  f. 
Selandyne  an  herbe — celidoine  s,  f. 
Seale  a  fysshe  —  chaulderon  de  mer  s,  m. 
Seaie  of  ieed  —  seau  x,  m. 
Seale  a  print  —  seau  a-,  m. 
Seale  horse  barnesse. 
Selle  for  an  bermyte  —  hermilaige  s,  f. 
Scllar  tbat  is  vauted  with  stone  —  caue  s,  (. 
Sellar  unvauted  —  sellier  s,  m. 
Sellerar  of  a  relygious  place —  bovtelier  s,  m. 
Sellar  of  a  bedde  —  ciel  x,  m. 
Selfeheale  an  herbe. 
Selfewyldenessc —  obstiimlion  s,  f. 
Sellyng  of  any  thyng  ' — uendaige  s,  (. 
Seame  measure  —  demy  sestier  s,  m. 
Searae  of  corne  —  demj  sestier  de  hle  s,  m. 
Seame  ofsowyng  —  covsture  s,  f. 
Seame  of  the  heed  —  covsture  de  la  teste  s,  f. 
Semé  for  to  frye  witb  — seyn  de  povrceau  s,  m. 
Semelynesse  —  seanteté  z,  f. 
Semewe  a  byrde  —  moette  de  mer  s,  f. 
See  breame  a  fysshe. 
Senate  —  sénat  z,m. 
.Senatour —  senatevr  s,  m. 
.Sence  tbat  smelietb  —  encens  s,  m. 
Sencer —  encensoir  s,  m. 
Sendall  —  sendal  x,  m. 
Sendyng  of  a  man  —  enaoje  s,  m. 
Seene  of  clerkes  —  congrégation  s,  f. 
Senyght — semaine  s,{.  hvyt  jovrs ,  m. 
Senewe  of  a  beest  —  nerf  z,  m. 
Sensualnesse  —  sensualité  z ,  {. 
Seynt  Andries  lace — cordon  s,  m. 
Sentence  —  sentence  s,  (. 
Sentenciousnesse. 
Sensualyte  —  sensualité  z,(. 
Septembre  a  monelb  — septembre  s,  m. 
Sepler  for  a  kyng —  scptre  s,  m. 
Sertche  enquyre  —  enquestc  s,  f. 
Sertcher  —  scrchevr  s,  m. 


Serciet  for  a  brides  heed  —  cèdre  s,  m. 

Serenesse  drinesse  —  sechevr  s,  f. 

Sergiauntes  mase  —  masse  s,  f. 

Sergiaunt  —  sergent  .s,  m. 

Sergiant  of  the  coyfe — sergent  a  la  coyffe  s,  m. 

Sergiant  of  armes  —  macier  darmes,  m. 

Sercle  —  cercle  s,  m.;  rondeau  x,  m. 

Seryne  a  byrde  —  serin  s,  m. 

Sermonde  —  sermon  s,  m. 

Serymony  an  observance — cérémonie  s,  f. 

Seriraony  at  a  mannes  buryall  —  pompe  fune- 

ralle  s,  f. 
Serpent  a  worme  —  serpent  s,  m. 
Seriousnesse  —  serievseté  z,  {. 
Servage  —  seruage  s,  m. 
Servaunt  —  seruitevr  s,  m.;  mancipe  s,  m. 
Servyse  frute  —  alise  s,  f  ;  aliellc  s,  f. 
Scrvyse  tree  —  alisier  s,  m. 
Servyce  that  a  inferyour  onght  lo  do  to  his  su- 

peryour  —  obseque  s,  m. 
Servyce —  seraice  s,  m. 
Servjablenesse  —  seruiablelè  z,  f. 
Servyce  of  meate  —  entremetz,  ni. 
Scssyng  tbat  a  prince  setteth  in  a  countrey  — 

imposition  s,  (. 
Season  —  saison  s,f. 
Scssyons  an  assise  —  assise  s,  f. 
Sesterne  —  cisterne  s,  f. 
Seate  a  place  — place  s,  f. ;  siège  s,  m. 
Seate  in  a  taverne  —  assiette  s,  f. 
Sette  a  tree  that  is  newe  set —  ente  s,  f. 
Settyng  at  nought  —  uilipendence  s,  f. 
Setwall  an  herbe  —  sotoval  x,  m. 
Sever  to  meate. 

Sewe  of  lamprey» — potage  de  lamproyes  s,  m. 
Seurtie  —  sevrté  z,  f. 
Se wstar  —  covsluriere  s ,  f. 
Sextry  —  sexterie  s,(. 
Sexten  —  bedeau  x,  m. 

S    UEFORE    I. 

Sicomer  frute. 

Sicomour  tree. 

Syde  of  any  thyng — rioaige  s,  m. 

Syde  of  a  fortresse  —  despans ,  m . 

Syde  of  a  beest  —  covsle  s,  (. 


270 


LESCLARCISSEMENÏ 


Sydenesse  —  lonyevr  s,(. 

Syde  of  a  boke  thatis  written  —  jMfjee  :,  f. 

Syde  of  a  bedde  —  sponde  s ,  f. 

Syde  ofa  bote  —  borl  s,  m. 

Sydre  drinke  —  cydre  s,  m. 

Scyence  connyng  —  science  s,  f. 

Science  crafte  —  art  s,  f. 

Sydre  tree  —  pommier  s,  m. 

Syfe  to  cyfte  corne  in  —  crible  s,  m. 

Signe  that  ascendclh   in   hevyn  —  assendent 

s,  m- 
Signe  of  an  inné  —  enseigne  .«,  f. 
Signifyeng  —  signijiance  s,( 
Signe  a  loken  —  signe  s,  m.;  prodige  s,  ta. 
Signet  —  signet  z,m. 
Sighe  a   hastye   drawyng  of  the    brethe  — 

sovspir  s,  m. 
Sight  —  ueve,  uision  s,  f. 
Sight  knowledge  —  perspicasiié  z,  f. 
Sight  of  ihe  eye  —  le  noyre  de  loyd  s,  m. 
Sikernesse  —  seurté  z,  f. 
Sickell  for  corne — Jaacylle  s,  f. 
Sickenesse  —  maladie  z,(. 
Sickernesse  surenesse  —  assevrance  s,  (. 
Sicke  body  —  malade  s,  m.;pacient  s,  m. 
Sight  that  disceyveth  ones  jugement  —  i7/h- 

sion  s,  {. 
Sillabie  —  syllabe  s,{. 
Syiier  of  herbes. 
Silence  —  silence  s,  m. 
Sylke  —  soye  s,{. 
Sylke  lace  —  cordon  de  soye  s,  m. 
Sylke  cbamlet  —  camelot  de  soye  s,  m. 
Silogysme  an  argument —  syllogisme  s,  in. 
Sylver  metall  —  argent  s,  m. 
Sylver  vessell  —  uessaille  dargenl  s,  i. 
Symbail  an  instrument  —  cimhalles,  f. 
Syment  for  carpenters  or  for  uiasons  —  sy- 

ment  s,  m. 
Symilytude  a  lykciybode  —  similitude  s,  I'. 
Symnell  bredde  —  siniiniau  x,  m. 
Symoniakc  —  simoniacq  :,  m. 
Simony  —  simonie  s,f. 
Symple  body  —  itiet  z,  m. 
Symplenesse  —  simplesse  s ,  f. 
Synagogge  a  jewes  temple  —  sinayogue  s,  f. 


Synaraon  spyce  —  canelle  s,  f. 

Synders  of  the  fyrc  —  brayze  s,  f. 

Synglc  gowne  —  robe  sengle  s,  f. 

Syngie  kyrleii  —  corset  simple  z ,  m. 

Syngle  man  —  bachelier  s,  m. 

Syngle  woman  a  barlot  —  pulayii  s,  f. 

Syngar — chantre  s,  m. 

Synguler  pure  ihyng  —  chose  drslite  s,  (. 

Syngulernesse — singvlarité  z ,  (.     ■ 

Synguler  thyiig — chiefdcvare  z,  m. 

Synne  offence  —  pechiè  z,  va. 

Synne  of  advoutrie  —  adultère  s,  m. 

Syngrene  or  houseleke — jombarde  s,  f. 

Synfulnesse —  malaatie  s,  f. 

Synewe  —  nerf  z,  m. 

Synke  to  voyde  vvater  —  eavyer  s ,  m. 

Synkefoyie  an  herbe. 

Synopre  colour. 

Synthone  an  herbe. 

Synter  of  masonry. 

Synum  a  vessell  — faisclle  s,  f. 

Syppet  a  lytell  soppe  —  latin  Sj  ni. 

Sypres  chesl  —  cojfre  de  cyprès,  m. 

Syon  a  yong  sette. 

Syr  —  sire  s,  m. 

Sircumsycion  —  circumsicion  s,  f. 

Syruppe  —  sirop  z,  m. 

Syse  of  a  mannes  body  —  corpulence  s,{. 

Syse  where  justyce  is  used  —  assise  s,  f. 

Syse  waxc  candell  —  bovgec  z,  [. 

Syse  of  bredde  and  aie  —  maletot  z,  m. 

Syse  for  colours  —  colle  de  cvir  s,  f. 

Syse  of  any  thyng  —  moyson  s,  f. 

Sycers  for  barbers  —  ciseletz,  m. 

Syster  —  sevr  s,  (. 

Systcr  by  tUe  falher  and  mothers  syde  —  sevr 

germaine  s,  f. 
Syster  brothers  wyfe. 
Syster  in  lawe  —  belle  sevr  s,  f. 
Système  —  busine. 
Sythe  to   mowe   corne   with  — faulce  s,  f.; 

faulx,  m. 
Syttyng  becommyng  —  adacnant  s,  ni.;  as- 

seant  s,  m. 
Sytuacion  ofa  towne  —  assiete  s,  f, 
Syun  ofa  tree — sion  s,  ui. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE. 


271 


s    BEFORE    K. 

Skarlet  coloiir  —  escadatte  s,  f. 

Skeyne  of  yarne  —  esciteueau  x,  m. 

Skeync  a  knyfe. 

Skeliet  with  a  handell  — paillon  s,  m. 

Skye  or  welkyn  — firmament  s,  m. 

Skynn  of  a  m  an  or  beest  —  peau  x,  f. 

Skynnc  of  furre  —  peaa  x,  f. 

Skynner  —  pellier  s,  m. 

Skyppar  —  saullevr  s,  m. 

Skyrmysshe  or  byckerynge —  escarmache  s,  f. 

Skyrte  of  a   garment  —  hoH  s,  m.;  geron, 

giron  s,  m. 
Skyrwyt  an  herbe. 

Skolyon  of  a  kechyn  —  souillon  de  cuisine  s,  m. 
Skrapyng  l"''e  —  ralissover  s,  m. 
Skrene  made  of  wycars  to  put  bytwene  the 

fyre  —  escrain  s ,  m . ;  estrane  :,m. 
Skrikyng  —  escrye  z,  m. 
Skrytche  beule. 

S    BEFORE   L. 

Slackenesse  —  lâcheté  z,  f. 

Slay  a  wevers  tôle. 

Slate  stone  —  ardoyse  s,(. 

Slaveryng  clolhe  for  chyldren  —  bauelte  s,  f. 

Slaugbtcr   —  mevrdre    s,  m.;   occision    s,  f. ; 

tuerie  s,  (. 
Slede  to  drawe  a  thyng  upon. 
Sleyght  or  wyle  —  rus,  m.;  cautelle  s,  (.;  en- 

(jaifjnc  s,  f. 
Sieyght  crafte — soubtillité  z,  (.;  piuctiijue  s,  f. ; 

gauche  s,(. 
Slyckpstone  —  lisse  a  papier  s,{.\  lice  s ,  f. 
Slepe —  repos,  m.;  sommel  z,  m. 
SIepyng  or  slombring  —  somnolence  s,  f. 
Sleete  of  snowe. 
SIeve  of  a   gowne  or  any  other  garment  — 

manche  s,{. 
Slewe  or  syve  to  syfle  with  —  crible  s ,  m. 
Slyce  to  tume  with  —  tournovere  s,  f. 
Siye  felowe  —  musart  s,  m. 
Slyme  of  fysshe  —  lymon  s,  m. 
Slynesse — finesse  s,  f. 
Siyng  of  an  borse  —  ruade  s,  f. 
Slyng  to  throwe  .slone.s  with  — funde  s,  f. 


Siynge  made  in  a  shepherdes  staffe  —  fonde 

hollette  s,  C 
Slyngar. 

Slyppe  of  an  herbe  —  branche  s,  (. 
Siyppar  for  a  nian  — panlovfle  s,  f. 
Slyppar  for  a  woman  — pattjn  s,  m. 
Slylte  of  a  womans  gowne — fenle  s,  f.  ;  dune 

robe  a  femme. 
Si  00  worme. 

Sloggarde  —  feltart  s,  m. 
Slommer —  somme  s,  m.;  somneil  s,  m. 
Sloo  frule  —  prunelle  s,  f. 
Sioo  tree — pninier  s,  m. 
Sloppe  a  night  gowne  —  robe  de  nuit  s,  f. 
Sloppes  hosyn  —  brayes  a  marinier,  f. 
Sloltc  ofadore  —  locquel  z,  m. 
Siovyn  a  knave  a  rybauJe  —  ribauldeau  x,  m, 
Sloven  or  luske —  bovcanier  s,  m. 
Sloughea  myrc  —  bovrbier  s,  m.;fange  s,  t.; 

enfondrevre  s,  f. 
Slouggysslinesse — paresse  s,  f. ;  tardifueté  z,  I. 
Sloutite  —  paresse  s,  f. 
Slutte  — souilliart  s,  m.;  uUotiere  s,  f. 

S    BEFORE   M. 

Smacke  taste  —  goust  z,m. 

Small  lytcll  flame  —  flametle  s,  f. 

Small  baner — pennon  s,  m. 

Smali  nulle  —  noissette  s,  f. 

Sraali  boule  to  play  with  —  bille  s,  f. 

Smali  bole  in  a  mannes  body  —  pore  s,  m. 

Small  gulles. 

Smallage  an  herbe  —  ache  s,  f. 

Smalnesse  or  lyteinesse  —  petitesse  s,  f. 

Smeli  savour —  sentevr  s,  f.  ;  Jlayr  s,  m. 

Smellyng  with  the  Dose — fleorement  s,  m. 

Smelte  a  fysshe  — esplang  s,  m. 

Smert  akyng  —  cuisure  s,  f. 

Smythe  for  horse  —  mareschal  x,  m. 

Sroethy  — forge  s,  {. 

Smytbes  cbymney  — fournaise  s ,  (. 

Smocke  for  a  woman  —  chemise  a  femme  s,  I. 

Snioke  of  fyre  —  jumre  z ,  (. 

Smokyng  — fumiere  s,  f. 

Smokysshnessc  — fumcvseté  :,  t. 

Smoylynesse  fylthynesse  —  honnievr  s,  f. 


272 

Smutche  onones  face —  barboyllement  x,  m. 

S    BEFORE    N. 

Snayle  or  snayie  shell  —  lymacon  s,  m. 

Snayle  wilhout  a  shell. 

Snake  a  serpent  —  oruier  s,  m.;  aspic  z,  m. 

Snare  —  airappe  s,  f. 

Sneke  pose  —  rime  j,  f. 

Sneke  latche  —  locqaet  :,  m.;  cticqiielte  s.  (. 

Snevyll  whan  it  hangeth  at  ones  iiose  —  rou- 
pie z,  f.  ;    boe  s,  f. 

Snevyll  —  morue  s,  f. 

Snyppe  a  byrde  —  ciijoiyne  s,  f. 

Snofle  of  a  candell — mesche  s,  f.\limignon  s, 
m.;  lumignon  s,  m. 

Snotte  of  the  nose  —  rovpye  z,{. 

Snottynesse  —  moruevseté  r ,  f. 

Snowe  —  neige  s ,  )'. 

Snoute  a  mouthe  —  museua  x ,  m. 

Snoute  of  a  beest  —  groing  s,  m. 

S    BEFORE   0. 

Sobbyng —  sanglovtement  s,  m. 

Sobbe  that  cometh  in  wepynge — sanglovt  z,  m. 

Soo  a  vessel  —  cvue  s,  f. 

Sobernesse  in  condyeions  —  graaitè  :,  f. 

Sobernesse  leniperauncc  —  sobresse  s,  f. ;  so- 

breté  z,{. 
Socke  for  ones  fote  —  chausson  s,  m. 
Socke  of  a  plough  —  soc  de  la  cherue  z,  m. 
Socour  — secours,  va.;  ayde  s ,  (.;  ayde,  con- 

Juge  s,  m.;  rejuge  s,  m. 
Socours  —  secovrs,  m.;  adjatoire  s,  m. 
Socouryng  —  secours^  m.  ;  ayde  s,  f. 
Softnesse  —  molesse  s,  f. ;  dovlceté  z,  f. 
Soyle  of  grounde  —  terrover  s,  m. 
Sojourner  —  sejoamevr  s,  m. 
Sokelyng  an  herbe. 

Sokelyng  a  vong  befe  —  beste  a  laid  s,  f. 
Socket  of  a  candelstycke  or  suche  lyke. 
Sokelyng  a  yong  calfe  —  besle  a  laid  s,  f. 
Solasse  comforte — solas,  m.;  recomfort  s,  m.; 

solace  s,  f. 
Sole  a  fysshe  —  solle  s,  f. 
Sole  of  a  fote  — plante  du  pied  s,  f. 
Sole  of  a  shoo  —  semelle  s,  f. 


LESCLARCISSEMENT 


Solemnesse  —  solempnitè  z ,  f. 

Sollar  a  chambre  —  solier  s,  m. 

Soiler  a  lofle  —  garnier  s,  m. 

Sole  a  bowe  about  a  beesles  necke. 

Soiemnyte  —  solempnitè  z,  f. 

Solemnytc  at  a  buryall  — funérailles,  f. 

Solycityng  steryng  —  sollicitalion  s,  f. 

Somme  of  money —  assise  s,  f.;  somme  s,  f. 

Somme  or  company  of  any  thyng —  tas,  m. 

Somncrof  a  spyrituall  courte — chicanevr  s,w. 

Sompter  horse  —  sommier  s,  m. 

Sommer  —  esté  z,  m. 

Somers  or  rathcs  of  a  wayne  or  carte. 

Sommer  castell  of  a  shyppe. 

Somersault  a   lepe    of  a   tombler   —    soltr- 

sault  X,  m. 
Sonday  —  dimanche  s,  m. 
Sonne  that  sliyneth  —  solayl  z,  m. 
Sonne  burnyng  —  haslc  s,  m. 
Sonne  in  lawe  — gendre  s,  m. 
Sonne  a  naturall  chylde  — fdz,  m. 
Sonde  graveli  —  sablon  s,  m. 
Sonne  beame  —  ray  de  soleil  s,  m. 
Sonne  ryse  —  solail  leuant  s,  m. 
Sonne  sette —  le  soleil  nmce  s,  m. 
Sonne  goyng  downe  —  le  soleil  couchant  s,  m. 
Sondring  of  a  thyng  —  remotion  s,  f. 
Sondrinesse  —  diuerseté  z,  (. 
Song  of  a  byrde  —  chant  de  boys  s,  m. 
Song  or  balade  —  chant  s,  m.;  motet  z,  m.; 

cantique  s,  f.  ;  chancon  s,  f. 
Sope  to  wassbe  with  —  sauon  s,  m. 
Soppe  of  bredde  —  sovppe  s,  f. 
Soppes  instede  of  potage  —  sovpe  s,  f. 
Soper  a  meale  of  meate  —  souper  s,  va. 
Sophysler —  sophiste  s,  m. 
Sopheme  a  doutfull  questyon — sophisme  s,  m. 
Sophystrie  —  sophisterie  s,  L 
Sorbe  a  kynde  of  frute  —  sorbe  s,  (. 
Sore  a  wounde  — playe  z,  f. 
Sorcery  —  sorcerie  s,  f.  ;  escharme  s,  f. 
Sorell  an  herbe  —  oseille  s,  f. 
Sorell  a  yonge  bucke. 
Sorrell  colour  of  an  horse  —  sorrc(  z,  va. 
Soryppe  —  sirop  z,  m. 
Sorowe  —  daeil  z,va.;  regret  z,  m. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE. 


273 


Sorowing  or  wayling —  deploration  s,  f. 
Soroufulnesse  of  hert —  angoisse  s,   f.  ;  dov- 

levr  s,  f. 
Sorte  a  state  —  sorte  s,  f. 
Sosse  or  a  rewarde  for   houndes,  whan  tliey 

hâve  takoD  tlieir  game  —  hvuee  z,  f. 
Soie  of  a  chymney  —  svye  i,  f. 
Solydnesse  —  snyerle  z ,  î. 
Sothesayer  —  diuinevr  s,  m. 
Sothenesse  —  ueritè  z,  f. 
Souce  —  Irippes,  f. 
Souchener — Suisse  s,{. 
Sodayne  commyng  —  svraenve  s,  f. 
Sodayne  crackyng — stridevr  s,  f. 
Sodayne  risyng  —  sovrsaalt  x,  m. 
Sodaynnesse  —  sovdaineté  z ,  f. 
Soudan  a  prince  — sovdan  s,  m. 
Soudyour  —  soaldoier  s,  m. 
Souder  metall  —  poltin  s,  m. 
Soudrer  of  raetalles  —  sovdevr  s,  m. 

Sowe  a  becsl  —  in- je  z,  f. 

Sowe  geidre  —  chastretx  de  trvyes,  m. 

SouQrauDce  —  sovffrance ,  pacience  s,  f. 

Sower  dough  —  leuayn  s,  m. 

Sower  myike. 

Sowernesse  —  aygrevr  s,  (.;  amertume  s,  (. 

Sowe  of  leed  —  savmon  de  plomb  s,  m. 

Sower —  covsevr  s,  m. 

Sowyng  of  corne  —  agriculture  s,  f. 

Seule  of  a  capon  or  gose  —  ame  s,  f. 

Souldier  of  a  strange  lande  —  auxiliaire  s,  m. 

Souldicrs  wages  —  soulde  s,  f. 

Soûle  of  a  man  —  ame  s,  (. 

Soulmas  daye  —  le  jour  des  mors. 

Sounde  noyse  —  son  s,  m. 

Sounde  or  rebonde  of  a  voyce  —  ecchô. 

Sounde  of  a  fysshe  —  cannon  s,  m. 

Sounde  of  an   instrument  or   bell   —  reson- 
nance  s,  f.  ;  son  s,  m. 

Soundyng  —  sonnerie  s,  f. 

Sowerdocke  an  herbe. 

Soufrecan  —  sujfragan,  pénitencier  s,  ni. 

Sounyng  • —  pasmoison  s,  m. 

Souter  —  sauetier  s,  m. 

Southe  wynde  —  le  uenl  davmon. 
Southernwode  an  herbe  —  ambrojrse  s,  f. 


Soutberneworthe. 
Sowethystell  an  herbe. 
Soveraynte  of  a  kyng — regalité  z,f. 
Soveraynte  that  a  lorde  or  a  superiour  bath  — 
sovuerainté  z,i. 

S    BEFORE    P. 

Space  leaser  —  respit  z,  m. 
Space  of  ones  body  ■ —  corpsage  s,  t. 
Space  place  or  tyme  —  espace  s,   f .  ;  ampli- 
tude s,  f.  ;  montance  s,  {. 
Space  of  yeres  —  années,  f. 
Space  bytwene  the  cyes  —  entroeil  s,  m. 
Space  bytwene  the  browes  —  entresovrcil  z,m. 
Space  of  an  houre  —  hevree  s,  f. 
Space  bytwene  two  tliynges  —  uoidare  s,  f.  ; 

espace  s,  f.  ;  lentredevx,  m. 
Space  where  a  payre  of  stayres  be  sette — mon- 
tée s,  {. 
Space  bytwene  two  thynges  —  interualle  s,  m. 
Space  of  any  thyng —  spaciosité  z,  f. 
Space  within  the  innar  warde  of  a  castell  — 

bassecourt  s,  f. 
Space  bytwene  the  tethe  —  entredent  s,  m. 
Space  bytwene  the  sholders  —  croysee  des  es- 

pavles  s ,{.■■,  entrcspavle  s,  m. 
Spade  to  dygge  with  —  bêche  s,  {.\  Jossoir  de 

labourrevr. 
Spanyarde  —  Espaignol  s,  m. 
Spayne  a  countre  —  Espaigne  s,  f. 
Spanne  of  a  bande  —  espavme  s,  f. 
Spangle  —  paille  s,  f.  ;  paillietie  s,  f. 
Spangles  or  store  ofspangles — paillietterie  s,  f. 
Spanyell  a  dogge  —  espaignol  s,  m. 
Spaynisshe  bagge  —  bauldrier  s,  m. 
Spaynisshe  lether —  maroquin  s,  va. 
Sparre  of  a  rofe  —  chcucron  s,  m. 
Sparre  of  a  gowne  — fente  de  la  robe  s,  f. 
Sparhauke  —  espreaicr  s,  m. 
Sparcle  of  fyre  —  estincelle  s,  (. 
Sparclyng  abrode  —  dispertion  s,  f. 
Sparowe  a  byrde  —  moyniau  x,  m.;   passe- 

ron  s,  m. 
Sparthe  an  instrument. 
Spatyll  an  instrument. 
Spatyll  flame  —  crachat  z,m, 

35 


274 


LESCLARCISSEMENT 


Spaven  a  sore  —  sarot  z ,m. 

Spawne  of  a  fysshe. 

Speche  —  langaige  s,  m. 

Specyalnesse — spécialité  z ,  f. ;  especiallelé  z,{. 

Spéculation  beholding  —  spéculation  s,  f. 

Spede  lucke  —  encontre  s,  m. 

Speculatyon  —  théorique  s,  f. 

Spede  dyligence  or  ha^te  —   diligence  s,  f.  ; 

haste  s,  f. 
Spedyng  or  hastyng  —  expédition  s,{. 
Spedynesse  —  hasiifuetè  z,  i. 
Specke  marke  —  marcque  s,  f. 
Speccle  in  ones  face  —  lenlylh  s,  f. 
Spekyng  toguyder  —  location  s,  f. ;  parlement 

s,  m. 
Spectacle  a  thyng  to  beliolde  —  spectacle  s,  m. 
Spectacles  to  se  witl»  —  lunettes,  f. 
Spectacle  maker  —  lunetlier  s,  m. 
Spelder  of  woode  —  csclat  z,  m. 
Spence  cost  —  despence  s,  f. 
Spens  a  buttrye  —  despencier  s,  va. 
Speere  in  a  hall  —  l>uffel  z,  m. 
Speare  to  ryde  with  —  lance  s,  f. 
Speare  stafle  — Jasl  de  lance  s,  m. 
Spere  worte  an  berbe. 
Speare  poynt  an  herbe. 
Speareheed  ■ —  coronet,  rocquet  z,  m. 
Spyce — espices,  m. 
Spycecake  —  gasteau  x,  m. 
Spyce  a  kynde  —  espèce  s,  f. 
Spyce  of  the  axes. 
Spyder  a  venomous  worme  —  araigne  s,  f.  ; 

araignie  s,  f. 
Spye  —  espye  z,  m. 
Spygotte  —  broche  a  uin  ou  a  lalle  s,  (.;  chante- 

pcllevse  s,  f, 
Spykenarde  spyce —  spiquenarde  s,  (. 
Spyking  a  nayle  —  gros  clov  s,  m. 
Spynnage  an  herbe  —  espinars,  m. 
Spynnar  a  workewoman  — fileresse  s,  f. 
Spynner  or  spyder —  herignc  s,  f. 
Spynnerswebbe  —  araignée  z,  f.;  fd  daraigne 

z,  m. 
Spyndell  with  threde  — fasee  z,  f. 
Spyndell  without  threde  — fuseau  x,  m. 
Spyre  of  corne  —  harhe  du  ble  s,  f. 


Spyrite  — espirit  z,  m.  ;  esprit  z,  m. 

Spyritualte  —  spiritualleté  z,f. 

Spyte  of  his  tcthe  —  nuwlgrc  quil  en  ayl. 

Spyttell  that  comcth  out  of  the  mouthe  —  cra- 
chat z,  m.;  saline  s,î. 

Spytte  for  meate  —  hrocke  a  rostyr  s,  f. 

Spytte  full  of  rost  —  hastee  s,  f. 

Spyte  —  dcspit  s,  m. 

Spytefulnesse  —  despitevseté  z,  f. 

Spyttle  liouse  —  laderye  z,(. 

Splenc  or  melte  —  ratte  s,  f. 

The  splenc  in  a  man  ,  in  a  beest  the  nicUe. 

Splent  harnesse  for  the  arme  —  garde  de  bras 
s,  m. 

Spient  for  an  house  —  laite. 

Spoyie  or  praye  —  desporille  s,  f. 

Spoylethat  isgotten  in  warfare  —  despoilte  s,  f. 

Spoke  of  a  whele  —  moyevl  .x,  m. 

Spoke  shave  or  a  plane. 

Spolc  a  wevers  instrument. 

Spone  to  eale  meate  with  —  cvillier  s,  m. 

Sponge  —  espovnge  s,  f. 

Sporge  an  herbe  —  espovrge  s,  f 

Sporte  myrlhe  —  sovlas,  m.;jev  x,  m.;  esbal  z, 
m.;  deduict  z,  m.;  eshatement  s,  m.; 
carolle  s,  f. 

Spotte —  taiclte  s,  f.;  macule  s,  f. 

Spottyng  with  colour — taincture  s,  (. 

Spouse  a  wyfe  —  espovsee  z,  f. 

Spouse  the  man  —  mary,  espovx,  m. 

Spoute  of  water  —  govttier  s,  m. 

Sprette  for  watermen  — picq  z,  m. 

Spring  of  a  well  —  sovrce  s,  f. 

Spreng  a  yonge  tree  — jevne  sion  s,  m. 

Spricle  for  holy  water  —  ucspillion  s,  m.;  as- 
pergeoir  s,  m. 

Spring  of  the  yere  —  printemps,  m.;  prin  s,  m. 

Springyng  by  agayne  —  resovrce  s,  f. 

Sprincle. 

Sprite  a  goost  —  espirit  z,  m. 

Sprotte  a  fysshe  —  esplenc  z,  m. 

Spruse  lether  —  besane  s,  f. 

Spudde. 

Spuyng  —  gomissement  s,  m,;  uovsement  s,  m. 

Spurre  for  a  horse  —  esperon  s,  m. 

Spurryar  —  esperonnier  s,  m. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE. 


275 


s    BEFORE   Q. 

Square —  carre  s,î. 

Squyer  —  escuier  s,  m. 

Squyer  for  a  carpentar —  esqnierre  s,  f. 

Squyer  a  rule  —  riglet  r,  m. 

Squyrrell  a  beest  —  escnrevl  x,  m.;  escuireau 

X,  m. 
Squyrte  a  laxe  — Joire  s,  m.;  uaua  s,  m. 
Squyrtan  instrument — esguissovere  s,  f. 

S   BEFOKE   T. 

Stabbe  vvitb  a  daggar  —  covp  destoc  2,  m. 

Stable  —  estable  s,  f. 

Stablysshnesse  —  estableté  z,  f. 

Stabiysshment  —  establissement  s,  m. 

Stacyoner  —  libraire  s,  m. 

Stacke  of  corne  —  tas  de  ble  s,  m. 

Stacke  of  peese  — pesiere  s,  f. 

Staffe  —  baston  s,  m. 

StaiTc  to  bcare  two  peyies  on,  as  they  do  in 

Fraunce  —  une  covrge  s,  f. 
Slafleslyng  madeofaclyfteslycke  —  ruant  s,  m. 
Stage  playe  —  maure  s,  m. 
Stage  a  scaffolde  —  estage  s,  m.;  beffroy  s,  m. 
Stageryng —  uasdlaûon  s,  f. 
Stageryng  or  leanyng  of  an  bouse  —  bransle 

s.{. 
Stayre  or  grece  —  degré  z,  m. 
Stake  of  a  bedge  or  sucbe  lyke  —  piev  de  haye 

s,  m. 
Stake  in  the  water  —  pilotis,  m. 
Stake  tbat  bearetb  up  a  vyne  —  sep  de  uygne 

z,  m. 
Stalle  before  a  shoppe  —  estai  z,va. 
Staile  of  a  quere  —  chaize  s,  f. 
Stallant  a  horse  —  haras,  m. 
Stale  pyssc  —  escloy  s,  m. 
Slale  of  horsmen  in  a  felde  —  guectevrs,  ni. 
Stale  for  foules  takynge. 
Stalke  of  a  gyllyflour  —  sion  s,  m. 
Stalke  of  a  sbafte  —fvst  z,  m. 
Stalke  of  any  frule  —  lyuei'e  s,  f. 
Stalume  horse —  haras,  m. 
Stalke  of  a  beane  —  espiev  x,  m. 
Stamell  fyne  worstede  — estamine  s,  f. 
Stamyne  —  estamine  s,  f. 


Stanmarcbe  an  herbe. 

Standert  a  baner  —  estandart  s,  m.;  avrijla- 

me  s,  (. 
Stanchon  of  a  wyndowe  —  croysee  s,  f. 
Standart  a  baner  —  estandart  s,  m.;  aurijlaine 

s,  C,  a  standart  whiche  with  the  french- 

men  was  had  in  suche  estymacyon  as  with 

us  is  saynt  Cuthberles  baner,  wbicbe  they 

lost  in  Flaunders. 
Standart  bcrer  — portenseigne  s,  m. 
Standart  of  mayle  —  gorgerin  s,  m. 
Slandyng  in  doul  of  a  thyng  —  uacillalion  s,  f.; 

doutance  s,  f. 
Standyng  pece  —  couppe  s,  f. 
Standyng  pece  with  a  cover  —  couppe  s,  f. 
Standyng  place  —  station  s,  f. 
Slandyng  water  —  lac  z,  m. 
Staple  of  a  doore —  estaple  s,  f. 
Slarche  for  lavtne  ^  folle  Jlevr  3,  f. 
Staare  a  byrde  —  estourneav  x,  m. 
Starre  —  esloille  s,  {.;  sydere  s,  m. 
Starkenesse  —  raideur  s,  {. 
Starlyng  money — blanc  eslerlin  z,  m. 
State  condycion — estât  z ,  m. 
State  a  great  man  —  estât  z,  m. 
Stately  countenaunce  —  port  z,vn. 
Slatelynesse  —  arrogance  s,   f.  ;  bourgoisie  s, 

f.;  majesté  z,{. 
Statue  an  ymage  —  statue  s,  f. 
Stature  heyght  —  tumlteur  s,  f. 
Statute  ordonance  — eslatate  s,  f. 
Statute  an  ordynaunce  —  statut  z ,  m. 
Staunche  grayne,  an  herbe. 
Staunchon  a  proppe  —  estancon  s,  f. 
Steale  or  handell  of  a  staOTe  —  manche  s,  m.  ; 

hantel  s,  f.  Norman  t. 
Stedfasthcholdyng —  attention  s,  f 
Stedfastnesse — fermeté,  constance  s,  f. 
Stede  a  horse  —  dextrier,  detrier  s,  m.;  rous- 

sin  s,  m. 
Stethy  for  a  smythe  —  enclume  s,  f. 
Stedynesse  —  estableté,  permanableté  z,  f. 
Steke  of  flesshe  —  charbonnee  z,(. 
Slele  melall  —  acier  s,  m. 
Steale  of  a  shafte  — fast  z,  m. 
Stenche  or  stynke  —  puanteur  s,  i. 

35. 


276 


LESCLA1\CISSEMENT 


Stencfae  of  a  prevy  —  punaisie  s,  f. 

Stent  —  portion  s,  [.;  part  s,(. 

Stepbrother — beavfrcre,m. 

Step  doughter — fillastre  s,  f. 

Step  father  —  parastre,  m. 

Step  molher  —  maraslre  s,  t. 

Step  sustre  —  belle  seur  s,  f. 

Step  son  —  heavfilz,  m. 

Steppe  a  settyng  or  gcyng  fortbe  —  pus,  m. 

Steppe  a  print  of  ones  foie  —  trac  z,  m. 

Steppe  ofaman — pas,  va. 

Steppe  of  an  horse  —  trac  z,xa. 

Steppe  or  stafle  of  a  lader  —  eschellon  s,  ta. 

Steppe  to  steppe  upon  —  planche  s,  (. 

Stepnessc  of  a  hyll  —  cliaité  z,  {. 

Steple  of  a  churche  —  clochier  s,  va. 

Stère  or  roder  in  a  sbyp  —  gouernail  x,  m. 

Sterre  —  estoille  s,  f. 

Sterre  slyme  —  lymas. 

Steryag  or  mevyng  —  commotion  s,  (. 

Stertyng  hole  —  ung  tapynet  z,  m.;  lieu  de  re- 
fuge s,  m. 

Sterne  of  a  shyppe  —  gouemail  x,m. 

Sterisman  —  goauernevr  s,  va,;  pilot  z,  ni. 

Stert  of  frute  —  queue  defrvit  s,  f. 

Stert  of  a  plow  —  queue  de  la  chareue  s,  f. 

Stewe  a  pounde  —  viuier  s ,  m. 

Stewe  a  balli  —  vnes  esteaues ,  f. 

Stewe  a  hotehousc  —  vnes  esteuues. 

Stewarde — :  maistre  Jhostel  s,  m. 

Stewes  a  place  for  common  women  —  bordeau 
X,  m. 

Sticliworte  an  herbe  —  herbe  a  bous  s,  f. 

Sticke  or  wande — baston  s,  m.;  ganlle  s,  (. 

Styckelyng  a  maner  of  fysshe. 

Styllytory  to  styll  herbes  in  —  chappelle,  cka- 
pele  s,  i. 

Style  to  go  over  —  eschallier  s,  m. 

Style  a  processe  —  siile  s,  ni. 

Styllyng  or  apeysing  - —  apeisement  s,  m. 

Styllyng  or  droppyng  of  lycour — distillation  s,  f. 

Styllnessc  —  quieté  z,  f. 

Stylt  to  go  on  —  escache  s,  f. 

Styng  of  a  bee  —  esguillon  s,  m. 

Styng  of  a  serpent  or  any  otlier  vernomous 
bee»t  —  esguillon  s,  m. 


Stynke  —  punaisie  z,f. ;  puanteur  s,  f. 

Styrryng  —  agitation  s,  f.  ;  esmoy  s,  f. 

Styrryng  of  ones  niynde  — concitation,  incita- 
tion, commotion,  instigation  s,  f. 

Styrryng  to  angre  —  irritation  s,  f. 

Styrop  leddcr  — estriuier  s,  m. 

Slyrroppe  —  estricr  s,  m. 

Styroppe  lelbers  —  estriuieres,  f. 

Styrt  a  iepe  —  course  s,  f. 

Stythe  for  a  smytbe  —  enclume  s,  f. 

Stywarde  —  maistre  dhostel  s,  m. 

Stoble  of  corne  —  chaume  s,  m. 

Stodye  place  to  study  in  —  estude  s,  f. 

Stodyll  a  toole  for  a  wever  —  lame  de  tisserant. 

Stocke  kynred — lignée,  f. ;  lignage  s,  m.;  estoc 
z,  m. 

Stokedove  —  columb,  ramier  s,  m. 

Stocke  fysshc,  tbey  bave  none. 

Stocke  gyllofer —  armorie  basturde  s,  1. 

Stocke  ofwode  —  tronchet  z,  m. 

Stockes  for  bribars  —  ceps,  m. 

Stole  to  sytte  on  —  selle  s,  m. 

Stoole  for  a  preest  —  estoUe  s,  {. 

Stomacher  for  ones  brest  —  estoinachier  s,  m. 

Stoniake  —  estomac  z,  m.;  poictrinc  s,  t. 

Stomake  in  a  man  or  beest  —  estomac  z,  m. 

Stondart  to  mesure bye — maistresse  mesure  s,  i'. 

Stonde  a  vesseli ,  tbey  bave  none. 

Stone  —  pierre  s,  f. 

Slondyng  water  —  marre  s,  f.  ;  eaue  dormant 
s.(. 

Stone  croppe  an  herbe. 

Stone  ofaman  —  couillon  s,  m. 
—  or  of  a  beest  —  couille  s ,  f. 

Stone  a  sickenesse  —  grauelle,  pierre  s,  f. 

Stonde  horse  — naturel  z,  m. 

Stonnyshyng  abasbing  —  estonnissement  s,  m. 

Stoppe  ofa  lute. 

Stoppe  of  orgayns  or  clarycordes. 

Stoppell  ofa  botell  —  estonpayl  x,  m.;  eslon- 
peau  X,  m. 

Stoppyng  lettyng  —  empeschcment  s,  m. 

Stoppyng  ofa  tbyng —  obumbratioti  s,  f. 

Store  or  provisyon  —  pourueyance  s,  f. ;  pour- 
uiance  s ,  (.  ;  prouision  s,f. 

Store  ofborses  —  monture  Sj{. 


DE  LA  LANGUE 

Store  ofpaslure — pasluraige  s,  va. 
Storyatale  —  histoyre  s,(.;  commentaire  s,  m. 
Storke  a  byrde  —  sygoygne  s,  f. 
Storme  of  wcdder — oraige  s,  m.;  tempesie  s,  {'. 

tourbillon  s,  m. 
Stotte  —  botteaa  x,  m. 
Stoulpe  before  a  doore  —  souche  s,  f. 
Stournesse  —  estourdisseure  s,  f. 
Straglers  after  an  army  —  bidaulx,  m.  ;  truan- 

daille  s,  {. 
Strayte  dcalyng  —  rigeur,  f. 
Stray  wandring  —  au  large. 
Streight  bitwene  it  landes  —  destroit  :,  m. 
Streightnesse  —  rectitude  s,  f. 
Streight  way  wilhout  stop  —  route  s,  f. 
Straunger  of  farre  countre  — Jorayn  s,  m. 
Straubery  a  frute  — frajse  s,  f. ;  freze  s,  t. 
Straubery  an  berbe  — frajsier  s,  m. 
Strawe — foirre  s,  m.;  paille  s,  {. 
Strawe  or  lytter —  destoubz  estraine  s,  f. 
Straughnesse  madnesse  —  amenée  s,  f. 
Straunger  —  estrangier  s,  m. 
Straungnesse  —  estrangerie   z,    f .  ;  eslrangeté 

z.  f. 
Stranguyllyon  a  sicknesse  —  chavtldepisse  s,  i. 
Streightnesse  rigbtnesse  —  droicleur  s,  f. 
Straytncsse  narownesse  —  esiroysseur  !,(. 
Strayner  to  strayne  witb  —  eslamine  s,  f. 
Strenie  of  the  water — fildeleaae  z,  m. 
Stremc  of  any  water  —  gourt  s,  m. 
Stremar  a  baner  —  estandart  2,  m. 
Strenghthyng  —  ratification  s,  {.;  fortification 

s.î. 
Strengthynge  of  men  of  armes  in  a  towne  — 

garnison  s,  t. 
Strength  — force  s,   f  ;   efficace  s,  {.;  uertu 

s.  f. 
Strenkyll  to  cast  holy  water  —  uimpilon. 
Stresse  a  brunt  —  effort  s,  m. 
Stretchyng  oui  of  a  thyng  —  estendue  s,  f. 
Strete  in  a  towne  —  rue  s,  f. 
Stretes  without  the  cyte  — faulx  bourg  z ,  m. 
"Stryfe  debate —  débat  ;,  m.;  dissention  s,  f. ; 

estrif  s,  m.;  cstriuee  s,  f. 
Stryfe  noyse  —  uariance  s,  L-y  contention  s,  1. 
Stryfe  bytwene  two  —  brigue  s,  f. 


FRANCOYSE.  277 

Stryfe  —  rigeur  s,  {.;  sédition  x,i'. 

Stryfe  who  shall  do  best  —  estriue  a  leslriuee 

s.f. 
Stryke  to  gyve  mesure  by  —  roulet  a  mesuret 

z,  m. 
Stryke  of  corne  —  une  mesure  de  blee  s,f. 
Stryke  in  a  scutchyn  —  lambeau  x,  m. 
Stryke  of  flaxc  —  poupée  de  filace  s,(. 
Stryke  witb  a  penne  —  rayere  s,  f. 
Strykyng  agayne  —  repercussion  s,  f. 
Strykyng  togyder  —  collision  s,  f. 
Strynge  for  an  instrument  —  corde  s,  f. 
Stryngar  — faiseur  de  cordes  a  lare  s,  m. 
Stryppe ,  stroke  or  swappe  —  coup  z,m, 
Stryvyng  brablyng — rigouraige  s,  m. 
Stroke  in  the  necke  — accollee  s,  f. 
Stroke  or  Lnocke  —  heurt  s,  m. 
Stroke  witb  a  whip  —  coup  de  fouet  z,  m. 
StroDg  bolde  —  bastile  s,{.\  bastillon  s,  m. 
Strongnesse  — force  s ,  {. 
Strugglyng  —  rigoalaige  s,  m. 
Strumpet  an  harlot  —  putajn  s,  f. 
Stubble  of  corne  —  estouble  de  blee  s,  f. 
Stubblenesse  or  sturdynesse  —  lourdesse  s ,  f. 
Stubbernesse  —  contumace  s,  t. 
Student  —  esludiant  s,  m. 
Study  occupacion   of  mynde  —  esttide  s,  f.  ; 

contemplation  s,  f. 
Studyousncssc  —  studiosilé  z,  f. 
Stufie  caryage  —  aporl,  seruage  s,  f. 
Stuffe  for  a  bedde  —  acoustrement  de  lit  s,  m. 
SlulTe  mater  to  make  a  thyng  of —  estoffe  s,  f. 
Stuffe  tbat  is  in  a  fardeil  — fardage  s,  f. 
Stuffe  of  bousbolde  —  meuble  s,  m,  ;  usten- 

cille  s,  {.;  mesnaige  s,  m.  , 

Stuffyng  of  a  purse  —  boarcee  s,  f. 
Stuffyng  of  a  saddeil  —  bourrée  s,  f. 
Stumpe  a  sborte  stake  —  estoc  z,  m. 
Stumpe  of  a  bande  —  moignon  de  bras,  m. 
Sturgyon  a  fyssbe  —  eslurgion  s,  m. 
Stattar  —  besgu  s,  m.;  besgue  s,  f. 
Stewe  to  kepe  fishe  in  —  uiuier  s ,  m. 

S    BEFOHE    U. 

Swadylbande  —  bande  s,{.;  fasse  s,  t. 
Swagyng  —  réfrigération   s,  t. 


278 


LESCLARCISSEMENT 


Swalowe  a  byrde — yronde  s,  {.;  aronde  s,  f. ; 

arondcHe  s,  f. 
Swanne  a  byrdc  —  signe  s,  va. 
Swarme  of  bées  —  troppeau  de  mouches  a  miel 

X,  m. 
Swartnesse —  cslalleure  s,  f. 
Subburbes  the  bouses  without  a  cylie  or  towne 

— fauLv' bourg  z,  m. 
Subdean  of  a  church  —  souhzdoyen  s,  m. 
Subdeacbon  — subdiacre  s,  m. 
Subduyng  —  subjugation  s,  {. 
Subjecte  or  holder  of  bouse  or  lande  —  uassal 

X,  ni. 
Subjectyon  —  subjection  s,  f. 
Subsedy  to  the  kyng —  subside  s,  m. 
Substaunce  rychesse  —  substance  s,  f.;  richesse 

s,  f.  ;  aaoir  s,  m  ;  cheuance  s,  f. 
Substaunce — prouision,  finance  s,  f. 
Substancialnesse  ofany  thyng —  solidité  z,  f. 
Subtylnessc  —  sublillité  z ,  f. 
Successyon  of  tyme  —  traict  de  temps  z,  m. 
Successour  —  successeur  s,  m. 
Swellyng  or  bolnyng  —  enflure  s,  f. 
Swepar  of  cbymnep  —  ramoneur  de  cheminée 

s,  m. 
Swerde  a  wepyn  —  espee  s,  f. 
Swerdeberer  —  porteur  despee  s,  m. 
Sweletunyng  —  modulation  s,  f. 
Swette  ihal  conieth  of  a  man  —  sueur  s,  f. 
Swete  smell  that  flowers  or  spyce  dothe  gyve 

— flair  s,  m.;  senteur  s,  f. 
Swetyng  an  apple  —  pomme  doulce. 
Swetnesse  —  doulcetè  i,f. ;  douceur  s,{. 
Sufferaunce  —  suffrance  s,  {. 
Suffryng  of  payne  —  agrauement  s,  m. 
Suffysaunce  —  suflisance  s,  f. 
Suffrage  or  bcipe  —  suffrage  s,  m. 
Suffrage  ihe  prayers  that  be  in  bokcs  —  snf- 

frages. 
Suffryngliam — pénitencier  s,  m. 
Sugar  swele  spyce  —  sucre  s,  va. 
Sugar  candy  —  sucre  de  candye  s,  va. 
Sugar  plate  or  comfettes  —  dragée  s,  f.  ;  con- 
fite s,  f. 
Su^e  a  byrde. 
Swyce  or  swycers  pype  —  jleuste  àalemant  s,f. 


Swyfte  worine  —  lesarde  s,  f. 

Swyftnesse  —  uelocité  z,  f. 

Swynes  grease — sayn  de  pourceau  s,  m.;  gresse 

de  porc  s,  f. 
Swyne  —  uerrot  s,  m.  ;  porc  z,  m. 
Swynsty  or  swyne  cote — porcherie  or  porchierie 

s,  f.  ;  tugurion  s,  m. 
Swyneherde  —  porchicr  s ,  va. 
Swyne  pockes  — farcin  s,  va. 
Swymyng  in  the  bed  —  bestournement  s,  m. 
Summar  season  —  este  s,  m. 
Suraylcr  a  fauchon  —  samiterre  s,  f. 
Sumtar  man  —  mulelicr  s,  va. 
Sumpter  horse  —  mulet  s,  va. 
Sumptuousnesse — samtaosité  z,  f. 
Sunday  —  dimenche  s,  m. 
Swonyog  a  disease  —  espaumure  s,  f. 
Sworde  for  a  flaxe  wyfe  —  guinche  s,  f. 
SupcrCcialyte  —  superficialité  z,  f. 
Superfluyte —  superfluilé  z,  f. 
Superyour — supérieur  s,  va. 
Suppyng  for  a  sicke  man  —  humaige  s,  f.  ; 

humée  s,  {. 
Suppiycacion  —  requeste,  f. 
Supportyng  —  assistcnce  s,  f. ;  support  s,  m. 
Supposyng —  conjecture  s ,  t. 
Surety  defence  —  sanuc  garde  s,  f. 
Surety  one  for  anolher  —  respondant  s,  m. 
Surfette  of  meate  —  excès,  va. 
Surgo  of  the  see  —  uague  s,  f. 
Surgery  —  sargerie  :,  f. 
Surgian  —  cirurgien  s,  m. 
Suryng  in  maryage — fianceailles ,  f. 
Surname  — surnom  s,  va. 
Surplyce  for  a  preest  —  surplis,  va. 
Suspycion  —  suspecion  s,  f. 
Sustaynyng  —  sustentation  s,[. 
Susteynaunce —  alimentation  s,  f. 
Sute  of  vestmentes  —  suite  s,{. 
Sute  at  the  lawe  or  court  —  sieute  s,  f. 

T    BEFORE    A. 

Taars  a  kynd  of  corn  —  dragée  s,  f. 
Tabard  a  garmenl  —  manteau  x,  va. 
Tabarnacle — tabernacle  s,  va. 
Table  for  an  auter  —  table  dautel  s,  f. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE. 


279 


Table  for  an  ymage  paynted  —  tableau  x ,  m. 
Table  to  sette  meate  on  —  laUe.  s ,  f. 
Tabour  an  instrument  —  taboarin  s,  m.;  ta- 

bour  s,  va. 
Tache  for  o  gowne  —  alachc  s,[. 
Tackelyng  of  a  shyp  —  esquippaige  s,  m. 
Tafata  a  maner  of  sylkc  —  taffetas,  m. 

Tayle  of  a  beest  or  garraent  —  queue  s ,  f. 

Tayle  of  wodde  —  taille  de  boys,  f. 

Tayle  or  arse  —  qaeae  or  cul  s,  f. 

Tayllyour  —  coustarier  s,  m. 

Taynte  —  condamne  s,f. 

Taker  of  any  thyng —  prinse  s,  f 

Takyng  away  by  violence  —  rapi  : ,  m.  ;  abs- 
traction s,  f. 

Takyng  about  the  necke —  accollee  s,  f. 

Takyng  away  —  ablatif  s,  m. 

Takyng  away  of  a  mannes  goodes  —  destrousse 
s,{. 

Talant  of  a  byrde   the  hynderclawe  —  talon 
s,  m.;  argot  z,  m. 

Talent  or  lust —  talent  s,  m. 

Talent  —  sauear  s,  f. ;  gousl  z,  m. 

Talent  a  somme  of  money  —  talent  s,  m. 

Taletellar  —  emhouchear  s,  m.  ;  diseur  de  fables 
s,  m. 

Taie  a  storie  —  compte  s ,  (. 

Talowe  —  sajf  z,  m. 

Tamar  of  a  horse  —  courtier  de  chevaalx ,  m. 

Tame  boore —  iierrot  z,  m. 

Tame  gote  —  cheure  s,f. 

Tamenessc — priaetir  s,  f. 

Tampyon  for  a  gon  —  tampon  s  ,  ni. 

Tanner  of  ledder  —  tanneur  s,  m. 

Tankard  a  vessell —  brocq,pot,  broc  z ,  m. 

Tansey  an  berbc  -^  tanasie  s,  f. 

Tappe  or  spygote  to  drawe  drinke  at  —  chan- 
tepleure,  f.  Normant. 

Tapar  of  waxe —  cierge  s,  m. 

Tappet  a  clothe  —  tappis,  m. 

Tappyssery  worke  —  tapisserie  s,  (. 

Tapster  —  boatelier  s,  m.;  bouliliere  s,  f. 

Taare  a  corne  lyke  a  pease  —  lupins ,  m. 

Tarefytche  a  corne  —  '"p^"  •'«  m- 

Targe  —  targe  s,f. 

Target  —  targue  s ,  f. 


Taryaunce  abyding  — deinoarance  s,  /. 
Taryaunce  termyne —  attente,  attention  s,  (. ; 

arrcst  z,  m. 
Taryer  a  dogge — chien  terrier  s,  m. 
Tarse  of  a  man  or  beest  —  ait  z ,  m. 
Tarte  meate  —  (arte  s,  f. 
Tarsell  an  hauke  —  terslet  z,  m. 
Tassell  thathangethat  athyng  of  sylkeor  golde 

—  houppe  dorée  z,(. 
Tassyll  burre  —  chardon  s,  m. 
Taske  in  workyng  stynt —  tache  s,  ï. 
Taske  that  a  prince  gadereth  —  laulx,  m. 
Tast  or  verdure  of  wyne  —  uerdurc  s,  f. 
Tast  —  goust  z,m. 

Tastyng  with  the  mouthe  —  govster,  ni. 
Taslour  a  lytell  cuppe  to  tast  wyne  —  lusse  a 

gouster  le  uin  s,  f. 
Tavernar  a  wyne  sellar  —  tauernicr  s,  ni. 
Tavell  an  instrument  for  a  sylke   woman   to 

worke  with. 
Tall  wodde  pacte  wodde  to  make  bylleltes  of — 

taillée  s,  f. 
Tawny  colour  —  tanny  s,  m. 
Tawny  medley  —  tanny  mesley  s,  m. 
Taxe  or  dysme  —  disme  s,  f. 

T    DEFORE   E. 

Teching  lerning  —  enseignement  s,  ni. 

Tediousnesse  —  ennui  s,m.\  attediation  .«,  f. 

Tegge  or  pricket —  saillant  s,  m. 

Teele  a  byrde — plignon  s,  m. 

Tele  a  byrde  —  plinget  z,m. 

Teysyll  —  chardon  s ,  m. 

Teme  of  a  sermonde  —  aniiesme  s,  f. 

Teme  of  a  plough  or  oxen  —  atellee  s,  f. 

Temperaunce  —  atrempance  s,  t.;  attemperance 

s,f. 
Temperyng  —  temperure  s,  f. 
Tempest  —  tempeste  s,  (.;  turbillon  s,  m. 
Temple  a  cburche  —  temple  s,  m. 
Temple  of  the  heed  —  temple  s,  m. 
Templet  a  tliynge  made  of  latyn  —  templele  s,(. 
Temptacion  —  temptation  s,  f. 
Temptyng —  temptatoire  s,  m. 
Tenaunt  —  hoste  s,  m. 
Tenche  a  fysshe  —  tenche  s,  f. 


280 


LESCLARCISSEMENT 


Tendernesse  —  mollesse  s,  f.;  tendresse  s,  {. 

Tendron  of  a  wayne  —  ceps,  m. 

Teneble  wednisday  —  mecredy  de   la  scmayne 

peneuse,  mccredy  saint  s,  m. 
Tenement — tenement  s,  m. 
Tenementes  —  reuenaes,  f. 
Tenyse  bail  — pelote  s,  f. 
Tennysplay  —  jeu  de  la  paiilme  x,  m. 
Teneur  a  parte  in  pricke  songe  —  teneur  s,  f. 
Tente  of  a  soore  —  lente  s,C 
Tent  to  lye  in  the  felde  —  pauillon. 
Tenterhoke  —  houct  z,  m. 
Teutar  for  ciotlie  —  tend,  tende  s,  f. 
Tercell  an  bauke  —  tiercellet  z,  va. 
Tercyen  fevers  — jteares  terciennes,  f. 
Terfysshe. 

Teere  of  wepyng  —  larme  s,  f. 
Terryer  a  dogge  —  chien  terrier  s,  m. 
Testament —  testament  s,  m. 
Testynesse  or  angre  — couroax,  m.;  ire  s,  f. 
Teslar  for  a  bedde  —  dossier  s,  m. 
Tête,  pappe  or  dugge,  a  womans  brest  —  ma- 
melle s,  f. 
Tetbe  —  dens ,  f. 

Tewke  to  make  purses  of  —  trelis,  m. 
Tewisday  —  mardj  s,  m. 
Texte  of  scrypture  —  texte  s;  m. 

T    BEFORE    H. 

Thacke  of  a  bouse  —  chaume  s,  m. 
Thacker  —  couureur  de  chaume  s,  m. 
Tbackyng  —  couareure  s,f. 
Thanke  —  remercys,  f.  ;  gre,  as  je  uoiis  en  scay 

bon  gre:  I  can  you  good  tbanke. 
Thankyng  —  merciement  s,  m.;  congratulation 

s,[. 
Thede  a  brewars  instrument. 
Thefe  —  laron  s,  m.;  feuillart  s,  va.\  faiïlart 

s,  m. 
Thefe  a  vyllayne  —  grieux,  m. 
Tbefte  —  larcin  s,  m.  ;  rauyn  s,  m. 
The vveke afore  Ester — la  sepmayne  peneuse  s,  (. 
Thicknesse  of  any  thyng  —  epesseur  s,  f. 
Tbicke — cuisse  s,  [. 
Thicket  or  a  forest  —  boscaige  s,  m. 
Thyllhorse  —  limonnier  s,  m. 


Thyll  of  a  carte —  (e  lymon  s,  m. 
Thymbie  to  sowe  with  —  deyl  z,  m. 
Thyn  cioude  in  the  ayre  —  nuée ,  nieble  s,  f. 
Thyng  —  chose  s,  f. 
Thyng  agaynst  nature  —  desnaturel  s,  f 
Thyng  beyond  the  mounlaygne  —  transmon- 

taigne  s,  m. 
Thyng  by  itseife  —  particularité  s,  f. 
Thyng  layd  up  in  store  —  repostaille  s,  f. 
Thing  nere  one  to  another  —  circamuoisin. 
Tbing  shewed  to  mannes  eyc  — abject  z,  m. 
Thyng  that  gyveth  lyght  —  luminaire  s,  f. 
Thyng  tliat  bereth  sterres  —  stellijere  s,  f. 
Thyng  that  beareth  up  another  —  substenlacle 

s.(. 
Thing  that  foloweth  another  —  séquelle  s,  f. 
Thyng  to  casl  mctali  with  —  lingot  z,  m. 
Thyn  skynne  —  tenue  peau  s,  f. 
Thynnesse  —  tenueurc  s,  f. 
Thyrde  parte  of  any  thyng  —  tiers,  m. 
ThoHe  a  cartpynne  —  cheuille  de  charette  s,  f. 
Thombe  —  poulce  s,  va. 
Thondring —  tonnement  s ,  m. 
Thong  of  ieddar  —  courroye  de  cuir,  (.  ;  lasniere 

s,{. 
Thorne  —  espine  s,(. 
Tbornbacke  fysshe  —  raye,  [. 

Thornbusshc  —  espine  noire,  f. 

Thorowfare  —  bourgade  s,{.;  bourc  z,  m. 

Thorpe — hameau  x,  va. 

Thought  hevynesse — pensijuessc  s,  (.;  soucis, 
m.;soiHg  s ,  m. ;  chagrin  s,  va, 

Thought  the  laboryng  of  the  mynde  —  cogita- 
tion s,  î.; pensée  z,  f. ;  appencement  s,  m.; 
cuidance  s,  f.  ;  cuiderie  s,  f. 

Thraldome  —  subjection  s,  f. 

Threde  — fil  or  filet  z,  m. 

Thredeofa  garment — filure  s,  f. 

Threde  barenesse  —  deurear  s,  f. 

Tbresher  of  corn  —  batteur  en  granche  s ,  m. 

Thresholde  — seuil  de  luys  x,  m. 

Tbrestyll  a  byrde  —  mauais,  m. 

Thretnyng — menasses,  f. 

Thriftc  gayne  —  proufit  z,  m. 

Throng  of  people —  estour  s,  ai.\foulle  s,  f. 

Throle  —  gorge  s,  (.;  geulle  s,  f. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE. 


281 


Throlegolc  or  tlirotebole  —  neu  de  la  gorge  x, 

m.;  gosier  s,  m. 
Tlirov/fare -^  bourgade  s,  f.;  bourc  z,  m. 
Throwe  a  womans  disease  —  undee  z ,  f. 
Tlirowstar — dcaideresse  de  soye  s,{. 
Throwyng  asycle  disordring  —  debaux,  m. 
Throwyng  or  castyng  — gect  z,m. 
Thrum  of  clothe  or  threade  —  payne  s,  m. 
Tlirusshe  a  byrde  —  gryue  s,  f. 
Thrust  —  soif  z,  (. 
Thrustell  cocke' — mauluis,  m. 
Thwartyng  stryfe  —  rigoalaige  s,  f. 
Thundre  —  tonnoyre  s,  m. 
Thundring  —  allitonant  s,  m. 
Thursday — jeudy  s,  m. 

T   BEFORE   I. 

Tyde  of  the  waler  —  marée  z,  f. 

Tyde  of  tlie  see — jlel  z,  m.;Jlote  s,  f. 

Tydetyme  —  temps,  m. 

Tidynges  —  nomielles,  (. 

Tyre  for  a  woman  —  atour  s,  m. 

Tyer  drinke  —  amer  bruuaige  s,  m. 

Tygre  a  beest  —  lygi"^  s,  m. 

Ticke  for  a  fetherbed  —  coite  de  lit  s,  (.;  coatil 

z ,  m.;  coustre  s,  m. 
Tyiar —  coaureur  de  maisons  s,  m.  ;  couurier  de 

maisons  s,  m. 
Tyle  for  bouses  —  tiealle  s,  f. 
Tyleniaker — faiseur  de  tieules  s ,  m. 
Tyllet  to  wrap  clothe  in  —  toyllette  s,  f. 
TylleuH  a  kynde  of  frute  —  tilleul  ;,  m. 
Tyll  in  a  chest —  chettron  s,  m. 
Tyllyng  of  lande  —  labouraige  s,  m.  ;  labour 

s,  m.;  agriculture  s,  f. ;  calliaer  la  terre 

s.(. 
Tylman  —  laboureur  de  terre  s,  m. 
Tyll  ofan  almery  —  lyette  s,  f. 
Tylte  for  justyng  —  lisses,  f. 
Tymbre  for  a  chylde  —  bedon  s,  m. 
'         Tymbre  of  furee. 
Tymbre  worme. 

Tymbre  wode  to  bylde  —  masrayne  s,  f. 
Tyme  an  herbe  —  thyme  s,  f. 
Tyme  of  a  sermonde —  thesme  s,  m. 
Tyme  prelixed  by  nature — période  s,  m. 


Tyme  season  —  temps,  m.  ;  pièce  s,  f.;  siècle  s,  m. 
Tympan  a  dysease  in  the  bely —  enjleure  s,  f. 
Tyncar  —  chaulderonnier  s,  m. 
Tynkynge,  the  sowndyng  of  metalls,  whan  they 

be  strycken  togydcr  —  tintyn  s,  m. 
Tynne  metall  —  estayn  s,  m, 
Tynsyn  satten — satyn  broché  s,  m. 
Typpe  of  a  cuppe  —  queuetie  s,  f 
Typpc  of  any  thyng  —  gueuetle  s,  f. 
Typpet  for  a  preest  —  cornette  s,  (. 
Tyraunt  —  (iront  s,  m. 
Tyran ny — tyrannye  z,f. 
Tyrdell  sbepes  dong — fient  de  brebis  s,  m. 
Tyrfe  of  a  cappe  or  suclie  lyte  —  rebras,  m. 
Tyrettes  for  a  grayhoundes  coUer  —  boucclet- 

tes,  f. 
Tyrtyll  dove  —  torterelU  s,  f. 
Tysan  a  drinke  —  tisanne  s ,  f. 
Tythe  that  a  person  hath  —  dxsme  s,  f. 
Tytle  by  kynredc  —  parage  s,  m. 
Tytle  in  writyng — tyltre  s,  m. 
Tytlc  right  to  a  thyng  —  tiltre  s,  m. 
Tytle  to  any  thyng  —  querelle  s,  {. 
Ty tmouse  a  byrde  —  musanyere  s,  (.;  mésange 

s,  f. 

T    BEFORE    O, 

Tode  —  crapault  s,  m. 

Todde  of  woll. 

Tode  of  chcse. 

Tode  stole  —  eschampignon  s,  m. 

Too  of  ones  fote  —  orteil  z,  m. 

Toy  a  tryfell  —  trujfe  s,  (.•,friuolle  s,  f. 

Toyll  for  a  prince  to  hunt  with  —  toille  s,  f. 

Tokyn  a  gyfle  sente  to  ones  frende  —  ensigne 

s,  m.;  signacle  s,  m, 
Token  of  a  tbyng   to  come  — presaige  s,  in.; 

signe  s,  m. 
Toile  custome  —  hanse  s,  f. ;  tonliu  s,  m. 
Tôle  an  instrument  —  i^tyl,  ostyl  z,  m. 
Toile  house  —  mayson  de  decrepte  s,  f. 
Tombe  a  grave  —  tombeau  s,  m.;  tombe  .1,  f. 
Tonne  a  vessell  —  tonneau  x,  m. 
Tonge  of  a  bee  —  esguillon  s,  m. 
Tong  of  a  buckell  —  hardillon  s,  m. 
Tong  of  a  balaunce  —  languette  s,  f. 

36 


282 

Tongctyed  —  901  «  le  filet,  m. 

Tonge  to  speke  with  —  langue  s,  f. 

Tonges  an  instrument  —  tenailles,  f. 

Tonny  fyshe. 

Tonnell  to  fyll  wyne  with  —  antonnoyr  s,  m. 

Tonnell  ofa  chymney  —  tayau  x,  m. 

Toppe  for  a  chylde  to  play  with  —  sabot  z,  m.; 

ioapin  s,  m. 
Toppe  for  to  cast  or  a  castyng  toppe  —  toii/ue 

z,  f.  ;  moyne  s,  m, 
Toppe  of  the  heed  —  sommet  de  la  teste,  m. 
Toppe  of  a  shyppe  —  mast  s,  m.  \  hune  s,  f. 
Toppe  of  a  tree,  house,  or  any  suche  lyke 

thyng  —  coupeau  x,  m. 
Toppe  of  a  hyll  —  creste  dune  montaigne  s,  f. 
Toppe  of  the  shuldre  —  le  coupeau  de  lespaule 
X,  m. 

Toppe  of  a  towre  —  sommaige  s,  m. 

Toppyng  heeres — lortellces,  f. 

Torche  to  lyght —  torche  s,  f 

Torde  ofa  dogge  —  «tronc  de  chien  s,  m. 

Torde  of  a  man  —  merde  s,  f. 

Torment  a  storme  on  the  see  —  tourmente  s,{.\ 
tempeste  s,  f. 

Tornar  a  craflesmau  —  tourneur  s,  m. 

Torne  a  prancke  —  tour  s,  m. 

Tome  pyke ,  suche  as  lyeth  over  away  —  roal- 
Hz,  m. 

Tornyng  upsodowne  —  subuercion  s,  f. 

Toost  of  breed  —  tostee  z,  f. 

Totehyll  —  montaignelte  s,  f. 

Tothc  —  dent  s,  (. 

Tylter  totter  a  play  for  chyldre — balenchoeres,  f. 

Towell  to  wype  on  —  toiutyi/e  s,  f. 

Touche  a  crafty  dede  —  tour  s,  m. 

Touche  stone  to  prove  golde  with  —  tire  s,  m.; 
une  touche  s,  f. 

Touchyng  with  hande  —  maniement  s,  m. 

Towe  —  eslouppes,  f. 

Towne  —  aille  s,  f. 

Towne  house  —  prétoire  s,  m. 

Towre  —  tour  s,  f. 

Tourney  justes  —  touniay  s,  m.;  estour  s,  m. 

Tournement  an  instrument  for  warre —  tour- 
nement  s,  m. 

Tourques  aprecious  stone —  tourquois  s ,  va. 


LESCLARCISSEMENT 


T    BEFORE    R; 

Trace  a  slreyght  way  —  trace  s,  f 

Trace  horse  harnesse  —  trays,  m. 

Trace  of  any  beest  —  trac  z,m. 

Trayne  a  trappe  —  atrappe  s,  f. 

Trayue  ofa  garment  —  queue  s,  f. 

Traytour — traître  s,  m.;  mutyn  s,  m. 

Tramell  to  catche  fysshe  or  byrdes  —  trameaa 

s,  m. 
Tramplyoge  with  fête —  marchage  s,  m.;  mar- 

sage  s,  m. 
Tranquyllyte  —  tranquillité  z,{. 
Trappe  to  catche  myse  —  souricière  s,  f. 
Trappe  to  take  rattes  —  ratière  s,  t. 
Trappour  for  a  horse  —  housse  s,  {.    ■ 
Traveyle  labour  —  trauayl  x,  m. 
Traunce  a  sickenesse  —  Irance  s,  f. 
Treatyse  —  treatie  z,  m. 
Treatyse  bytwene  two  princes  —  Iraicte,   m.; 

trete,  m. 
Treble  of  a  song  —  le  dessus,  ni. 
Treble  stryng  of  an  instrument  —  chanterelle 

s.  f. 
Trechery  —  trccherie  s,  f. 
Tredyngofa  man  —  marche  s,  (. 
Tree  —  arire  s,  f. 
Trelis  for  a  wyndowe  —  trelis,  m. 
Trenche  for  men  of  warre  —  trenchee  z,  [. 
Trencher  to  cute  mete  on  —  trenchouer  s,  m. 
Trencher  of  bred  —  trenchouer  de  pain  s,  m. 
Trendyll  —  tournouer  s,  f. 
Trenket  an  instrument  for  a  cordwayner — bat- 
ton  a  torner,  m. 
Trentall  of  masses  —  trenteyne  s,  f. 
Tresse  of  heer — tresse  s',  f. 
Tresens  that  is  drawen  over  an  estâtes  chambre 

—  ciel  z,  m. 
Treyson  —  trahison  s,  f. 
Tresourar —  tresourier  s,  m. 
Tresourers  clcrke  —  clerc  de  finance  z,  m. 
Tresour  —  (rfsor  ;>■,  m.  ;  cheuance  s,  f.  ;  finance 

s,  f.  ;  auoir  s,  m . ;  espergnc  s,  f . 
Trespasse  offcnce  —  offence  s,  (.  ;  crime  s,  m.; 

delicte  s,  m.;  maléfice  s,  m.;  coulpe  s,  f. 
Trespasse    agaynst   the  lawe  —  preuaricateur 

s,  m. 


Trespasyng  offendyng 
uarication  s,  f. 

Trestyil  for  a  table —  tresteau  x ,  m. 

Treaty  of  a  mater  —  traicde  z ,  m. 

Treale  —  trette  z,m. 

Trevet  witli  thre  fête  —  trcpie  z,m. 

Trevys  to  shoe  a  wylde  horse  in  —  Iraimyl  a 
chenal,  m. 

Treweloves  knotte  —  nea  damours  x,  m. 

Treacle  —  triade  s,  m. 

Tryangle  tliresquare  —  triangle  s,  m. 

Trybulacion  grefe  —  adaersite  z,{. 

Trybute —  Irihut,  péage  z,  m.;  exaction  $,  f. 

Trybutorie  —  tribulajre  s,  m. 

Tryfell  —  truffe  s,  C;  farfelue  s,  t.;  fatras,  m. 

Tryfeil  a  knacke  — friaolle  s,  f. 

Tryfell  a  thyng  of  no  value  —  lobe  s,  f.;  truf- 
fe s.  f. 

Tryfelyng  — flauelle  s,  f. 

Tryflynges  scoffynges  — fredaines,  f. 

Tryfoly  an  herbe  —  trejle  s,  m. 

Trynkel  a  cordwayners  toole  —  bâton  a  tourner 
soulies  s,  m. 

Trype  —  tripe  s,  f.  ;  andouille  s,  f. 

Tryppe  in  wrastlyng  —  crochet  z,  m.;jambet 

z,  m. 
Tryppe  in  wrastellyng  —  gamboye  s,  f. 
Trypot  a  mete  made  with  thre  sondry  meates 

in  it  —  tripot  z,  m. 
Tryumphe  glorie  —  Iriumphe  s,  m. 
Trône  — trône  s,  m.;  trosne  s,  m. 
Trouth  plyghtyng  — fianceailles ^  f. 
Trotter  a  horse  —  trottier  s,  m. 
Trotters  shepes  fête  —  pies  de  moton,  m. 
Trouhlyng  vexyng  —  conturbation  s,  f. 
Troublyng  of  ones  mynde  —  distraction  s,  f. 
Trowell  for  a  mason  —  truelle  s,  f. 
Trowe  mother  —  mère  patalifue  s,  f. 
Trough  for  swyne  —  auge  a  pourceau ,  f. 
Trough  for  smythes  —  auge  a  marichal,  C 
Trough  a  vessell  —  auge  s,  (. 
Troute  a  fysshe  —  truite  s,  f. 
Truage ,  trybute  —  treuaige  s,  f. 
Troubler  —  turbateur  s,  m. 
Trewes  —  treuue  s,  f. 
Trurape  to  shote  pellettes  in  —  sarbatane  s,  f. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE 

-  transgresion  s,  f.  ;  prc- 


283 


Trumpe  an  instrument —  cleron  s,  tn. 

Trumpet  —  trumpette  s,  f.  ;  busine  s,  f. 

Trumpytar — trompeteur  s,  m. 

Trunchonof  a  spere  —  esclat  de  lance  z,  m.; 
tronson  s ,  m. 

Trunchon  a  worme. 

Trunke  for  fysshe  —  boutique  a  poisson  s,  f.;  na- 
celle s,  {. 

Trusse  a  fardell — fardeau  .i;  m. 

Trussyng  bedde  —  lit  de  champ  z,  m. 

Trussyng  of  any  thyng  —  troussare  s,  f. 

Trussyng  of  stuffe  in  a  fardell  — fardage  s,  m. 

Trust — fance  s,  {.;  confiance  s,  f. ;  confidence 
s,  î.;  espérance  s,  f. 

Truslyng  belevyng — crédulité  z,  f. 

Truslynesse  — fealte  z,  f 

Truthe — uerite  z,  f  ;  loialie  z,  f. 

T  BEFORE    U. 

Tubbe  —  cuue  or  cuuette  s,  f. 

Tuckyng  kyrdell  —  saincture  a  ecourser  s,  f. 

Tweiftyde  —  la  lyphayne  s,  f. 

Tufte  of  grasse — ■  mouceau  de  herbe  s,  f. 

Tufle  of  béer  —  mouceau  de  clieueulx,  m. 

Twyble  an   instrument  for  carpentars  —  ber- 

nago  s,  (. 
Twygge  a  lytell  wande  —  uerge  s,  f. 
Twylyght  —  brune  s,  f. 
Twynethrede  — fil  reteurs  z ,  m. 
Twynclyng  of  an   eye  —  cilement  s,  ni.;  clin 

doeil  s,  ni. 
Twyn  — jumeau  x,m. 
Twyniyng — gémeau  ar,n». 
Twynnes  two  chyldren  borne   at  one  tyme  — 

jumeaulx,  m. 
Twysday  —  mardy  s,  m. 
Turabe  a  grave  —  tumbe  s,  f. 
Tnmblar  —  joueur  de  souplesse  s,  m. 
Tumrell  cart  —  tumbreaa  x,  m. 
Tunder  boxe  —  boytte  de  fusil  s,  f. 
Tunder  to  lyght  a  malche  —  fusil  z,  va. 
Tunne  —  tonneau  x,  m. 
Tunnel!  to  fyll  wyne  —  antonnoyr  s ,  m. 
Tunnellofa  chymney  — ■  tuyau  x ,  ra. 
Tungo  of  a  balaunce  —  languette  de  balance ,  (. 
Tunge  of  a  huckyll  —  ardillon,  m. 

36. 


284 


LESCLARCISSEMENT 


TuDge  to  speke  witli  —  tangue  s,  f. 

Tuppe  a  ramme  —  belin  s ,  m. 

Tiirbutte  fysshe  —  turbot  z,  m. 

Turdyli  sliepes  doiige  — Jientdc  brebis  s,  m. 

Turret  a  lytell  towre  —  tourelle  s,  f. 

Turfe  of  tbe  fcnne  —  tourbe  de  terre  s,  f. 

Turfe  flagge  sworde  —  tourbe  s,  f. 

Turfe  of  a  cappe  —  rebras,  m. 

Turkes  bowe  —  arc  turquoys  s,  m. 

Turkessworde  — espee  s,  f.  ;  esclamme  s,  f. 

Turment  —  tormenl  s,  m. 

Turmentyllan  herbe —  loumientine  s,  f. 

Turmenlour  of  folkes  —  satellite  s,  m. 

Turnar  a  maker  of  bolles  and  dysshes  —  tor- 

neur,  boiselier  s,  m. 
Turnars  crafte  —  la  science  dung  tourneur  s,  m. 
Turpentyne  —  tormentine  s,  f. 
Turtyll  a  dove  —  tur(r«  s,  m.;  tarterelle  s,  t. 
Tussyllage  an  herbe. 

Tuske  of  heer  —  monceau  de  cheueulx  x,  m. 
Tutar  —  tuteur  s,  m. 


U    BEFORE    A. 


abond 


s,  m. 


Vacabonde  —  paatonier  s,  m. 

Vacacion  —  uacation  s,  {. 

Vayne  gtorie  —  uoine  gloire  s,  f. 

Vale  or  valey  —  ualee  s,  f. 

Valeryan  an  herbe. 

Valewe  —  uaJeur  s,  f. 

Value  prise  —  ualue  s,  f. 

Value  of  golde  or  sylver  —  haras,  m. 

Valyantnesse  — proesse,  f.  ;  ualiance  s,  f. 

Vampey  of  a  hose  —  auani  pied  z  ,m. 

Vanyte  —  uanite  z,  f. 

Vauntage  —  preu  s,  m.;  auanlaige  s,  m. 

Vauntour  or  craker  —  uanteur  s,  m. 

Vapour  —  uapear  s,  f.  ;  moisteur  s,  f. 

Varyaunce  —  uariance  s,  f.  ;  dissention  s,   f.  ; 

controuersie  s,  t.;  discorde  s,  f. 
Varyeng  chaungyng  —  maance  s,  f. 
Vauntage  —  auantage  s,  m.;  émolument  s,  m. 
Vauntpe  of  a  hose  —  uantpie  z,  m. 
Vaunt  boost  —  aantance  s,  f.  ;  bombance  s,  f. 


Veche  a  taare  • 


U    BEFORE   E. 
-  uesse  s,  {. 


Veyle  for  tbe  churcb  in  lent  —  custode  s,  f. 

Veyne  —  uaync  s ,  f. 

Veele  flesshe —  aeau  x,  m. 

Velym  parchcment —  uelyn  s,  m. 

Velvet  —  uelours,  m. 

Velvetmaker  —  ueloustier  s,  m. 

Vengeaunce  —  aengeance  s,  f. ;  uindication  s,  f. 

Venym  —  uelin  s,  m. 

Venymousnesse  —  uelimeitr  s,  f. 

Venyson  —  uenayson  s,  f. 

Venturer  on  tbe  lande  —  adaenturier  s,  m. 

Venturer  on  thesee  — pirattc  s,  m. 

Vcrdyte  —  uerile  s,  f. 

Verse  mctyr  —  uers,  m. 

Verger  that  bereth  a  rodde  in  the  churche  — 

sergent  de  lesglise,  ni. 
Vergeous  sauce  —  uerjus,  m. 
Vermylon  reed  colour  —  uermillon  s,  m. 
Vermyn  —  aermine  s,  f. 
Vernysshe  —  uernys,  m. 
Verse  —  aers,  m. 
Vertue — uertu  s,{. 

Venue  strengtli  —  ejficace  s,  f.;  force  s,  f. 
Vertuousnesse  —  uertu  s,  [. 
Vervy n  an  herbe  —  aerueyne  s,  {. 
Vessell  plate  or  pewter  —  uaisselle  s,  f. 
Vessel  to  putte  any  tbyng  in  — ■  aaisseau  x,  va. 
Vestnient  —  uestemenl  s,  m. 
Vestmentraaker  —  chasublier  s,  m. 
Vestry  —  reuestoir  s,  m. 
Vexacion  grefe  or  displeasure  —  tribulation  s, 

f. ;  uexation  s,  (.;  dcslourbier  s,  m. 
Vexar  a  grevar  —  turbateur  s,  m. 
Vexyng  or  troublyng —  conturbation  s,  f. 

U    BEFORE    I. 

Vyage  ajonrney  —  uiaige  s,  m.;  uoiage  s,  m. 

Vyall  a  glasse  — Jiolle  s,  f. 

Vycare  a  preest  or  person  —  uicaire  s,  m. 

Vyce  synne  —  uice  s,  m.;  pechie  s,  m. 

Vyce  of  a  cuppe  —  uis,  f. 

Vyce  a  tournyng  stayre  —  uis,  L 

Vyce  to  putte  in  a  vessell  of  wyne  to  drawe  the 

wyne  out  at  —  chantepleare  s,  t. 
Vyciousnesse  yvell  iyveng  —  Ubidinosite  :,{.; 

luxure  s,  {. 


DE  LA  LANGUE  FRANCOYSE. 


285 


Vycrage  a  preestes  house  — preshjtoire  s,  m. 
Vyctorie  the  upperhande  of  an  enemy  —  uic- 

ioyre  s,  f. 
Vygorousnesse  —  uiyeur  s,  {. 
Vyle  a  nougbly  person  —  loricart  s,  m. 
Vyllage  a  lytell  towne  —  uiUage  s,  m. 
Vyllayne  or  luske  —  esclaue  s,  m. 
Vyllayne  a  cowarde  —  bidaiilt  z,  m. 
Vyllany  —  uillentvye  z,  f.  ;  uillement  s,  ni. 
Vylenesse  nothyng  clenly  — fetardise  s,  f. 
Vylenesse  corrupcyon  —  corruption  s,  f. 
Vynegyr  sauce  —  uinaigre  s,  m. 
Vyne  iefe  — fijUe  de  uigne  s,  f. 
Vyne  tree  —  uigne  s,  f. 
Vyntenar  a  marcbaunt  of  wyne  —  marchant  de 

uin  s,  m.  ;  uineilier  s,  m. 
Vyole  a  giasse  — fiolle  s,  f.  ;  uiole  s,  f. 
Vyolence  —  uiolence  s,  f.  ;  randon  s,  m. 
Vyolet  colour  —  uiolet  z,  m.;  aioleite  s,  f. 
Vyolet  flour  —  uiolette  de  mars  s,  f. 
Vyrginite  —  uirginile  s,  f. 
Vyrgyn  —  uierge  s,  f. 
Vyrgyn  waxe  —  cire  uierge  s,[. 
Vyroll  —  uiroUe  s,  f. 
Vysage  —  uisage  s,  m. 
Vysar  for  a  mummar  — faalx  uisaige  s,  m. 
Vysar  of  harnes  —  uisiere  dung  armel  s,  f. 
Vysion  tïiat  appereth  in  ones  slepe  —  adui- 

sion  s,  [. 
Vysilyng  —  uisilance  s,  f.;  uisitation  s,  f. 
Vytaiie —  uîtaille  s,  f.  ;  uiares,  f. 
Vytayler  —  uitailler  s,  m. 
Vytaylles  mcte  and  drinke  —  (ouïe  manière  de 

uitailles  >,(. 
Vytayler  —  aiuandier  s,  m. 
Vyves  a  diseasc  tliat  an  horse  hatli — auiues,  f. 

U    BEFORE   M. 
Umbreli  of  an  heed  pece  —  uisiere  s,  f. 

U    DEFOKE    N. 

Dncertenly  —  incerteinte  z,  f. 
Unchastnesse  —  im/mdicilé  z,  f. 
Uncle  by  tbe  father  syde  —  oncle  s,  m. 
Unclennesse  —  imparité  z,  f.  ;  ordure  s,  f. 
Uncourtesnessc  —  ingratitude  s,  f. 


Underlyng  —  serf  s,  m. 
Undergarment  for  a  woman  —  seurcot  z,'m. 
Under  mêle  —  rcssigner  s,  m. 
Undermyndyng  —  subornation  s,f. 
Undersberife  —  uiconte  s,  m. 
Understandyng  —  entendement  s,  m.  ;  raison  s, 

f.  ;  intellectare  s,  f.  ;  sentemeni  s,  m. 
Undertresourer — financier  Sjm. 
Undoyng  distroyeng  —  extermination  s,  f.  ;  def- 

faicte  s,  f. 
Dngentylnesse  —  inhumanité  z,  f. 
Ungraciousnesse — maleurete  z,(. 
U nhappynesse —  infelicite  z,f. 
Unycorne  a  beest  —  licorne  s,  f. 
Dnyversyte  —  uniuersite  z,  f. 
Unkeli  —  oncle  s,  va. 
Unkyndnesse — ingratitude  s,(. 
Unrightwysnesse  —  injure  s,  f.  ;  injustice  s,  I. 
Unsbittyng  —  deffermure  s,  f. 
Unstedfastoesse  —  mobilité   z,  f.;   inconstance 

s.L 
Unsurenesse  —  deseurete  z,i. 
Unworthynesse  —  indignité  z,  f. 

U    BEFORE    O. 

Voyce  —  uoixfî. 

Voydaunce  —  uidance  s,  f. ;  deslogement  s,  m. 

Volym    for  tbe  largenesse  of  a  boke  —  uo- 

lume  s,  m. 
Voluptuousnesse  —  uolapte  z,(. 
Vomyte  spewyng  —  vomissem